generated: 2024-04-24 17:58:18

Preliminary Conference Program

The 2024 conference theme is Big Questions in Work-Family, which will be part of a two-year agenda. These are the cutting-edge global questions that are not yet fully answered or recognized, including:

CHANGES IN WORK – What are the meanings of work at different life stages, for different groups, and in different kinds of jobs? How is work organized? What is the future of work and for whom?

CHANGES IN FAMILY LIFE – How are families and family experiences changing around the globe and what changes might we expect? For example, fertility rates are declining in high-income countries and there are reports of an epidemic of loneliness. What other changes are evident and what are the implications?

CHANGES IN WORK-LIFE INTERFACE: What theories, concepts, and measures best explain new and emerging intersections between work and family?

THE LIFE COURSE – How do changes in work and family impact children and their capacities to enter adult roles, for adults to successfully navigate transitions, and for older populations to age well?

SOLUTIONS AND PROMISING PRACTICES – What are the most promising solutions in policy and practice in the global north and south? What are the challenges and best opportunities for advancing equity and social justice?

The conference’s objective is to chart an agenda for the future of work-family research, policy and practice. In addition to sharing new research and seeking answers to big questions, this is a working conference, fostering active participation and connectivity among diverse groups. We anticipate more than 500 work-family stakeholders in attendance and a dynamic program centered on meaningful exchange. There will be numerous events to connect a global community of scholars with thought leaders in media, philanthropy, practice, policy, and social change.

With excitement about the years ahead,

Ellen Galinsky, WFRN President

Hugh Bainbridge

Rupashree Baral

Alexandra Beauregard

Erin Cech

Xi Wen Chan

Vanessa Conzon

Allison Daminger

Jennifer Faone

Peter Fugiel

Marc Grau Grau

Yang Hu

Karen Kramer

Katherina Kuschel

Jean-Charles Languilare

Prudence Mabaso

Ariane Ollier-Malaterre

Abigail Opoku Mensah

Kitha Mokomane

Berkay Ozcan

Gabrielle Pepin

Pascale Peters

Rachel Pettigrew

Alejandra Ros Pilarz

Jeremy Reynolds

Casey Scheibling

Claudia Sellmaier

Nora Spinks

Bianca Stumbitz

Marisa Young

Grand Reception Information

Conference delegates are welcomed to join together from 7pm-9pm on Thursday June 20 at the historic Windsor Ballrooms, located at 1170 rue Peel. The reception will provide open bar, hors d’ouevres and opportunity celebrate our vibrant community.

For directions to the Windsor Hotel using Goolge Maps, click here

Call for Papers

Following the WFRN 2024 Biennial Conference, presenters are encouraged to submit papers for consideration to a special issue of the journal Community, Work & Family, which will be edited by Ellen Galinsky, Tammy Allen and Krista Lynn Minnotte. The theme of the special issue will be Big Questions in Work-Family and submissions should be crafted to fit that thematic purpose. Below is the timeframe for the special issue:

  • Deadline for submission of manuscripts: October 15, 2024
  • First review process completed: January 31, 2025
  • Revised manuscripts must be resubmitted by: April 1, 2025
  • Second review process completed: July 1, 2025
  • Revised manuscripts must be resubmitted by: October 1, 2025
  • Publication of special issue: January 1, 2026 issue 1

Submission procedures will be posted after the 2024 conference.

Early Career Work and Family Fellowship Program

The Work and Family Researchers Network is committed to mentoring the next generation of work and family scholars. Our Early Career Fellowship Program provides support for recent doctoral recipients to advance their research, teaching, and long-term career prospects. By offering networked resources and consultation, we help promising new scholars move into tenure-track, tenured appointments and secure senior-level positions, as well as engage them with the work and family community of scholars. The WFRN provided a call for applications, which ended October 15, 2023, and anticipates a similar call in advance of the next biennial conference.

The WFRN Welcomes 2024 Early Career Fellowship Recipients!

The WFRN’s Early Career Fellowship Program is co-directed by Nicole Denier and Yang Hu, who organized this year’s preconference and will guide the 2024 cohort moving forward. To date, 140 early career scholars have participated in this program, which is designed to deliver a variety of supports for advancement to secure senior-level positions, as well as assist attendance at the WFRN Conference. The call for applications for the 2024 fellowships yielded close to 70 applications. With thanks to the selection committee Renada Goldberg, Nicole Denier, and Yang Hu, we are delighted to announce this year’s fellowship recipients.

  • Mariam Abouelenin, Ph.D., Lancaster University, UK
  • Kwaku Abrefa Busia, Ph.D., Lingnan University, Hong Kong, China
  • Miriam Barcus, Ph.D., The State University of New York at Cortland, USA
  • Sarah Bourdeau, Ph.D., University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada
  • Haley Cobb, Ph.D., Louisiana State University, USA
  • Vanessa Conzon, Ph.D., Boston College, USA
  • LaToya Council, Ph.D., Lehigh University, USA
  • Allison Daminger, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, USA
  • Moses Dang, Ph.D., Teesside University, UK
  • Victoria Daniel, Ph.D., York University, Canada
  • Camille Desjardins, Ph.D., Renmin University, China
  • Juliana de Castro Galvao, Ph.D., University of Oxford, UK
  • Christina Hymer, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, USA
  • Cynthia Halliday, Ph.D., The University of Texas at El Paso, USA
  • Sidra Kamran, Ph.D., Lewis & Clark College, USA
  • Nicole Kapelle, Ph.D., Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
  • Thomas Lyttelton, Ph.D., Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
  • Eunjeong Paek, Ph.D., University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
  • Vedavati Patwardhan, Ph.D., University of California, San Diego, USA
  • Federica Querin, Ph.D., University of Bologna, Italy
  • Harchand Ram, Ph.D., International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India
  • Megan N. Reed, Ph.D., Emory University, USA
  • Joseph Regina, Ph.D., Rutgers University, USA
  • Laila Schmitt, Ph.D., LMU Munich, Germany
  • Meredith Slopen, Ph.D., CUNY Graduate Center, USA
  • Haoming Song, Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University, USA
  • Daniela R. Urbina Julio, Ph.D., University of Southern California, USA
  • Lili Vargha, Ph.D., Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
  • Mengyi Xu, Ph.D., Birmingham University, UK

Recipients represent a wide range of disciplines, including the fields of economics, human resources, management, human development, organizational science, public health, public policy, psychology, social work, demography, and sociology. This year’s Early Career Fellows (ECFs) are also internationally diverse—they either live on, or study the experiences of people living on, all six habitable continents. Fellowship recipients share a common interest in identifying connections and consequences of work and family arrangements, as well as working together to advance mutual career interests and goals.

The ECFs’ research programs address a wide variety of topics that include, gender and intersectional inequality, work-family conflict, spillover, crossover and boundary management, work-family dynamics over the life course, employee health, stress, and well-being, state and organizational-level family-related policies (parental leave, sick leave, child subsidies), cognitive labor and the mental load, remote work and teleworking, workplace EDI, care and domestic work, poverty, among other topics. As a group, this year’s ECFs share a passion for examining the experiences of traditionally under-studied groups in work-family research, including people with disabilities, sexual and gender minorities, women of color, and families and workers in the Global South, as well as addressing pertinent challenges and opportunities, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and digitalization, for work and family lives.

We welcome these scholars to the program and their participation in the Work and Family Researchers Network!

Contact Information

Nicole Denier, Ph.D. ( and Yang Hu, Ph.D. Yang Hu ( are Co-directors of the Early Career Work and Family Fellowship Program.

WFRN Global South Travel Awards

To maximize geographic diversity within the Global South, the WFRN Global South Travel Awards are intended to help scholars from economically-disadvantaged locales secure financial support to attend the WFRN’s biennial conference. Awards include a regular membership, conference registration, and reimbursement of $500 for travel expenses incurred (which can include hotels, food, flights, ground transportation, and visa fees).

We are pleased to announce the 2024 Award Recipients:

  • Tapas Dey, International Institute for Population Sciences, India
  • Mariam Gbajumo-Sheriff, Ph.D., Department of Employment Relations & Human Resource Management, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • Srinivas Goli, Ph.D., International Institute for Population Sciences, India
  • Babul Hossain, International Institute for Population Sciences, India
  • Tania Hutt, Ph.D. Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile
  • Harchand Ram, Ph.D., International Institute for Population Sciences, India

Thank you to Bianca Stumbitz, WFRN International Committee Chair, for leading the selection of decisions in 2024.

Information Forthcoming

The WFRN expresses gratitude to our partners and sponsors, who provided generous support to make the 2024 conference possible.



Adam Galinsky and Jennifer Olayon


Friends and Organization Partners

Kathleen Gerson

Program at a Glance

Wednesday June 19, 2024
9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
1:00 PM - 5:00 PM
2:30 PM - 3:30 PM
4:00 PM - 5:00 PM
5:00 PM - 7:00 PM
Thursday June 20, 2024
8:00 AM - 8:45 AM
9:00 AM - 10:30 AM
10:45 AM - 11:45 AM
12:00 PM - 1:15 PM
1:30 PM - 3:00 PM
3:00 PM - 3:45 PM
4:00 PM - 4:45 PM
4:45 PM - 5:30 PM
7:00 PM - 9:00 PM
Friday June 21, 2024
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM
10:00 AM - 10:30 AM
10:30 AM - 12:00 PM
12:00 PM - 1:15 PM
1:30 PM - 2:30 PM
2:30 PM - 3:00 PM
3:15 PM - 4:00 PM
4:00 PM - 5:30 PM
5:45 PM - 6:30 PM
7:00 PM - 9:00 PM
Saturday June 22, 2024
8:30 AM - 10:00 AM
10:15 AM - 10:45 AM
10:15 AM - 11:45 AM
10:45 AM - 11:15 AM
11:15 AM - 11:45 AM
11:45 AM - 1:00 PM
1:15 PM - 2:00 PM
2:15 PM - 2:45 PM
2:15 PM - 3:45 PM
2:45 PM - 3:15 PM
3:15 PM - 3:45 PM
4:00 PM - 4:30 PM
4:00 PM - 5:30 PM
4:30 PM - 5:00 PM
5:45 PM - 6:45 PM

WFRN Program

1. Early Career Fellowship Preconference (PARTICIPATION BY INVITATION ONLY)
Wednesday | 9:00 am-5:00 pm | MB9-A
2. Predoctoral Preconference (PARTICIPATION BY INVITATION ONLY)
Wednesday | 1:00 pm-5:00 pm | MB9-B
3. Big Ideas Talks [Plenary]
Wednesday | 2:30 pm-3:30 pm | H 110

Organizer: Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute
4. Big Ideas Talks [Plenary]
Wednesday | 4:00 pm-5:00 pm | H 110

Organizer: Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute
5. Preconference Reception (BY INVITATION ONLY)
Wednesday | 5:00 pm-7:00 pm | MB9
6. Big Ideas Talks [Plenary]
Thursday | 8:00 am-8:45 am | H 110

Organizer: Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute
7. A Life Course Perspective on Entry to Parenthood 1 [Paper Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 2.210
  • Stratified Reproduction in the Life Course: Reproductive Trajectories of Young Adults in Germany.. .....Hannah Zagel, WZB - Social Science Research Center Berli; and Martin Gaedecke, University of Oxford
    Registration Complete

  • This paper investigates what are dominant patterns of young adults’ reproductive trajectories in terms of partnership status, partnered sexual activity, and contraceptive use, and how they are socially stratified by gender and education. Reproductive behaviour beyond childbearing is rarely considered in mainstream stratification, social demography and life course scholarship, but the field is mostly left to public health and sexuality research. This is a crucial shortcoming, because stratification in early reproductive trajectories will affect patterns of family life courses, which are tightly linked with employment and income careers and structured along gender and class dimensions. Understanding how reproductive trajectories are experienced differentially across social groups helps to uncover the extent to which people are locked in to particular life courses from early adulthood. We use multi channel sequence analysis and regression models on longitudinal data from the German Family and Relationships Panel survey (pairfam) on partnership status, partnered sex and contraception over ten years of the lives of young adults’ (18-28 years) who were born netween 1991-93 (N=851). We find six typical clusters of reproductive trajectores. Pathways of partnered sexual activity and contraception appear to differ between education groups already at this life stage, when many move on to initiate family formation – a substantive share of men and women mostly with low education remains single with little experience of partnered sex at age 30.
  • The Impact of Work-Family Conflict and Child Development: Evidence from South Korea. .....Jaeseung Kim, Sungkyungkwan University; and Myungchul Park, Sungkyunkwan University
    Registration Complete

  • With the rise of working mothers and growing concerns over the low fertility rate in South Korea, the balance of work and family responsibilities of working mothers and its potential impacts on their child development has become a critical issue in Korea. However, limited research has explored how work-family conflict influences the development of school-aged children and the role of maternal depression and household income in this context. Guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the study examines the influence of working mothers’ work-family conflict on internalizing and externalizing behaviors of school-aged children and the mediating role of parental depression. In addition, drawn from Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfoll, 2001), the study examines whether the effect of mothers’ work-life conflict on child behavior problems is moderated by household income. Using two waves of the representative sample of the Panel Study on Korean Children (N=650), the study employed lagged-dependent variable models and Process Macro Model 4 to answer the proposed research questions. Overall, the study found that mothers’ work-family conflict was positively associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors and that maternal depression fully mediated these associations. This finding suggests that mothers’ work-family conflict leads to their elevated depressive symptoms, which in turn increases child behavior problems. Moreover, the positive association between mothers’ work-family conflict and child behavior problems was stronger among mothers from low-income households, confirming the moderating effect of household income. Based on the findings, we discuss work-family policy and interventions to curtail work-family conflict among working mothers in Korea.
  • Aspiration Versus Reality: Family Transitions and Emerging Adulthood. .....Belinda Hewitt, University of Melbourne
    Registration Complete

  • Overwhelmingly the extant research on aspirations of emerging adults focusses on education, work, and economic outcomes. We use unique longitudinal panel data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) study to examine whether the importance young people (age 15 – 29) attached to meeting family formation milestones was associated with family outcomes at age 35. In Wave 4 of HILDA participants aged 15 – 29 (n = 3,052) were asked to rate the importance they placed on a range of milestones relating to work and family by the age of 35. We examined the associations between the importance of having children, being married, and living with a partner and participants relationship status and whether they had a child at age 35 (some of the younger participants aged 15 – 17 were not 35). Adjusting for demographic, family, and socioeconomic characteristics, results indicated that a higher importance placed on being married was positively associated with the likelihood of being married and negatively associated with cohabiting or being single at age 35. A higher importance placed on living with a partner was negatively associated with being single, but not significantly associated with being married. A higher importance on having children was significantly associated with having a child. We conclude that, despite the discourses that young people face greater barriers to adulting than in previous generations, many still achieve their goals. We plan to further develop the paper by further examining how this may differ by gender and socioeconomic factors.
  • Sociological Analysis of Family Size and Education; A Quantitative Mode of Inquiry. .....Waqar Ahmad, Bacha Khan University Charsadda
    Registration Complete

  • The present study was carried out in District Swabi under quantitative mode of inquiry to explore the relation between education and family size reduction. A sample size of 450 respondents with education level of master was randomly selected through rigorous data analysis and survey. We investigated that how higher education effects individual decision about family size. The study further explored that how dynamics of family planning shading light on the impact of education and fertility choices. However, findings from this empirical work contributed to the broader understanding of socio-economic factor shaping family size.
8. Women at Work [Paper Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 2.265
  • Decreasing Female Labor Force Participation in China: Empirical Evidence from Public Opinions and Corporate Performance. .....Yi Zhao, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
    Registration Complete

  • This paper examines the relationship between female labor force participation, public opinion, and corporate ESG performance in China. Despite China's rapid economic growth, female labor force participation has experienced a slight decline in recent decades. The influence of education on employment is explored as a potential contributing factor. Existing literature predominantly emphasizes the positive impact of education on female labor force participation, particularly in disadvantaged areas. However, this study presents empirical evidence from China, using regression analysis, which reveals a negative association between national school enrollment rates and female labor force participation rates. Conversely, at the individual level, individuals with higher educational degrees exhibit more positive attitudes towards female labor force participation. Additionally, the paper investigates the alignment between advocating for female labor force participation and a company's ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) performance. Through panel data analysis of 80 listed companies over the past three years (2018-2020), it is found that increased female representation on corporate boards is associated with poorer ESG performance. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the complex dynamics between education, female labor force participation, and corporate sustainability in the Chinese context.
  • The Propensity Towards Women’s Entrepreneurship: A Qualitative Study With Unemployment Women in Italy. .....Medina Letizia, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Mila; Maria Letizia Bosoni, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Mila; and Sara Mazzucchelli, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Mila
    Not Registered

  • International research documents that entrepreneurship is a gendered phenomenon, with yet a small women presence. Female entrepreneurship is still limited in the Italian context and is strongly affected by the gender gap. Several studies have highlighted that not only men are more likely than women to start their own business but also that when women do so they encounter more obstacles. Theorizations about motivations that drive entrepreneurship distinguish between necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship. Starting from these premises, the present study is aimed at identifying the key variables that influence women’s entrepreneurship choice, investigating the propensity towards entrepreneurship among women as well as hindering and facilitating factors. The study is part of a larger project, conducted in Italy in 2023. 4 Focus groups with 36 Italian non-working women of different age and family burdens (with/without children) have been conducted to understand if they are planning or can consider starting a venture. The focus sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed with the Nvivo and T-lab software. The results highlighted a low propensity of women to engage in entrepreneurial activity, which is hindered by numerous factors: the low support of the Italian state, the economic risk (the fear of losing money), the difficulty in reconciling work and family and the impact of a gender stereotype. In summary, necessity-entrepreneurship is little present, in favour of opportunity-driven motivations, because unemployed women could consider starting their own businesses to feel more fulfilled in their job.
  • Women in the Gig Work Economy: A Review and Implications for the Work-Family Literature. .....Camille Desjardins, Renmin University of China
    Registration Complete

  • The gig work economy has followed a sharp rise over the past years and this trend is set to continue. Gig work is usually characterized by project-based pay, temporary labor and a certain level of flexibility in the execution of work (Watson et al., 2021). While much research on the topic of gig work has been conducted among men (e.g., in the ride-hailing and delivery industries), there is evidence that women are increasingly turning to this new form of work (MBO Partners, 2022). However, our knowledge of women's experiences in gig work is limited and the literature on the topic has developed haphazardly, resulting in a lack of clarity regarding what is known and what requires further exploration. In this paper, I take stock of the literature on women’s work and career experiences in the gig work economy by conducting a systematic review of 87 articles on the topic. This interdisciplinary research reviews the multi-level antecedents (from environmental -macro, meso and micro levels- to personal factors) that can shape women’s gig work experiences and the resulting outcomes for the women concerned (from financial to work-family and health outcomes). Bridging the interdisciplinary divides, the papers in this review are organized into an integrative framework of women’s gig work experience, which reviews past research to provide insights into the topic and outlines a way forward to shed light on a phenomenon for which many aspects remain to be explored. In the presentation, the implications for the work-family literature will be discussed.
  • The height and security of domestic workers’ wages: The role of household-, worker- and relationship-level characteristics. .....David de Kort, Utrecht University; Tanja van der Lippe, Utrecht University; and Anne-Rigt Poortman, Utrecht University
    Registration Complete

  • Due to weakly enforced regulations on statutory minimum wages and income protections for domestic workers, households play a decisive role in setting domestic workers’ wages. The absence of clear and enforceable wage-standards is frequently forwarded as an explanation for why domestic workers’ wages tend to be lower and less secure than those of workers in other occupational fields. In this paper, we aim to explain wage differences within the sector for domestic work as the lack of wage-standards may also give rise to considerable variation in the wages paid by different households. Specifically, we hypothesize on the extent to which the height and security of wages are dependent on characteristics of households (such as economic resources and time pressures), domestic workers (such as ethnicity and age) and qualities of the relationship between the two (such as years of service and frequency of contact). Our analyses draw on primary data from 2023 on households from the Dutch LISS panel that hire a domestic worker (N=422). We operationalize the height of payment as the price paid for one hour of cleaning. The security of payments is measured by asking households if they continue payments when cleaning appointments are cancelled due to illness or holidays. In addition to descriptive analyses, OLS and logistic regression techniques are used to test the hypotheses regarding the height and security of domestic workers’ wages. The paper concludes with policy implications.
9. Work-Life Boundaries in the Context of Remote and Hybrid Work [Paper Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 2.270
  • Reactive and Proactive Regulation of Work-Nonwork Boundaries. .....Shelia Hyde, Texas Womans University; Ariane Froidevaux, University of Texas Arlington; Sabrina Speights, Wheaton College; and Wendy Casper, University of Texas Arlington
    Registration Complete

  • In a three-part qualitative study, we examined boundary management behaviors in the context of work from home, or remote work – when there is little separation between work and home domains – to identify the behaviors that enable effective functioning within and across domains. We collected data from two samples of remote workers during the summer of 2020. Survey (N=141) participants answered questions about positive outcomes associated with sudden remote work during COVID-19. Interview data (N=27) revealed participants’ focus on boundary management. Many participants described engaging in both segmentation and integration of the work-nonwork boundary, suggestive of cycling boundary management behavior in which people engage in both integration and segmentation iteratively. Results suggested that people engage in active integration, passive integration, and passive segmentation. A third sample (N=15) was collected in 2022 and 2023 to explore the purposeful and non-purposeful ways in which people engage in certain types of boundary management. In our initial data analysis, we are identifying styles of cycling, or switching between integration and segmentation – particularly those that involve reactive and proactive self-regulation. Identification of alternating boundary management types will contribute to the exploration of potential benefits and risks of switching between integration and segmentation of work and nonwork roles based on the situation. This understanding of agentic boundary management could spark research leading to intervention activities aimed at educating employees regarding healthy boundary management in the pursuit of work-life balance and general well-being.
  • How Work Flexibility Can Enhance Strain and Conflict Through Telepressure. .....Brandon Smit, Bentley University; Nabi Ebrahimi, University of Massachusetts, Lowell; Tamara Montag-Smit, University of Massachusetts, Lowell; Scott Boyar, University of Alabama Birmingham; and Carl Maertz, University of Louisville
    Registration Complete

  • Despite the unprecedented growth in employee flexibility in the wake of the pandemic, relatively little is known about the potential drawbacks of the ability to determine where and when to engage in work. Drawing from conservation of resources theory and the self-regulation literature, we test a model that demonstrates how flexibility can actually increase strain, rather than mitigate it. In a three-wave panel of 266 employees from diverse occupations, we find that flexibility can increase telepressure – defined as a sense of preoccupation with work-related messages – but only among individuals with a high future focus. Furthermore, a greater sense of telepressure was linked to both exhaustion and work-family conflict. Indirect effects revealed that for individuals with a high future focus, flexibility increased strain and conflict via greater telepressure. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the idea that flexibility can create unintended and undesirable externalities.
  • Navigating Through Work and Personal Life: A Daily Diary Exploration of Working From Home and Its Impact On Goal Completion. .....Samantha Metselaar, Erasmus University Rotterdam; Jonas De Kerf, KU Leuven; and Laura den Dulk, Erasmus University Rotterdam
    Registration Complete

  • In this paper, we examine the impact of working from home on goal completion in both the work and personal domain, in a post COVID-19 era. Through a daily diary study, we aim to understand the expected differences between working from home and working at the office. We propose two pathways based on existing literature. The first pathway posits that working from home may reduce interruptions from coworkers, enhancing work-related goal completion. However, it may hinder personal goal completion by keeping individuals deeply focused on work (Kelliher & Anderson, 2010). On the other hand, the second pathway assumes that working from home facilitates the ease to transition between work and personal life, improving personal goal completion (Delanoeije et al., 2019). However, excessive switching between domains may impede work-related goal completion (Kossek, 2016). By distinguishing between goal completion at work and goal completion in the personal domain, this article adds to the existing literature and generates practical insights regarding the implications of working from home. Additionally, this study explores whether enhanced goal completion in different life domains ultimately leads to greater work-life balance satisfaction on a daily basis. A diary study is used to gain more insight into the multifaceted effects of working from home on goal completion and work-life balance, shedding light on the mechanisms that underlie these dynamics, as well as its implications for individuals and organizations. Data will be collected at a public sector organization in The Netherlands.
  • Exploring the Interplay of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors, Work-Home Interference, and Well-Being in the Era of Hybrid Work. .....Melanie De Ruiter, Nyenrode Business Universiteit; Martine Coun, Open Universiteit (Open University of the Netherlands); and Pascale Peters, Nyenrode Business Universiteit
    Registration Complete

  • Over the past decade, an increasing body of knowledge has accumulated on the employee-level outcomes of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs). While such studies are invaluable for the current knowledge and understanding of FSSBs and its value for employees, scholars have only just begun to unravel the supervisor-level antecedents of FSSBs. Yet, considering the increased importance of work-family balance and the increased opportunity for hybrid working, it is important to understand what facilitates and hinders supervisors’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, following recent interest in the potential undermining role of engaging in certain leadership styles (e.g., servant leadership) on the supervisor’s own health and well-being, it is important to understand whether engaging in FSSBs undermines or fosters a supervisor’s own emotional wellbeing and engagement. To gain a better understanding of the nomological network of FSSBs, we used student-recruited sampling to conduct a quantitative cross-sectional, multi-source study to examine the relationships between supervisor negative work-home interference, employee perceived FSSBs, and supervisor emotional exhaustion and engagement. Moreover, in addition to examining the effect of employee perceived FSSBs on supervisor emotional exhaustion and wellbeing, we also examine the effects on employee emotional exhaustion and wellbeing. Our study aims to contribute to the academic conversation on supervisor antecedents and outcomes of FSSBs. Moreover, we aim to address a recent call for more research on dimensions of FSSBs, by examining whether different dimensions of FSSB are differentially affected by supervisor’s negative work-home interference and whether some dimensions are more important for supervisor and employee wellbeing than others.
  • Working from Home and Role Blurring: Ideal Worker Norms, Job Pressure, and Organizational Support. .....Deniz Yucel, William Paterson University of New Jersey; Philip Badawy, University of Alberta; and Scott Schieman, University of Toronto
    Registration Complete

  • The performance of work-related tasks at home is associated with more frequent role blurring—but how do “ideal worker” norms, job pressure, and organizational support modify that association? We test theoretical ideas related to role integration versus segmentation in analyses of the 2016 National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW), a national sample of American workers. We observe that frequent performance of work at home is strongly associated with more role blurring activities, and this association is stronger among those with higher levels of job pressure, and weaker among those with more organizational support for work-life balance. In addition, we find that the moderating effect of job pressure on the association between working from home and role blurring is stronger for those with elder care responsibilities but weaker for those with a preschool child and those with more children in the household. These results suggest that the link between working from home and role blurring varies by both work characteristics and organizational support, and that some of these moderations further differ by caregiving responsibilities in divergent ways.
10. Changes in Family (Formation) Choices and Reproductive Behavior [Paper Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 2.285
11. Shared Parenting and Family Relationships [Paper Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 2.430
  • The Strength & Resilience Factors Blended Couples Attribute to the Success of Their First Five Years. .....Charles Coleman, University of Calgary
    Registration Complete

  • The divorce rate of second marriages is far higher than first marriages. The presence of existing children creates a blended couple who face immense challenges with parenting, step parenting, co-parenting, money, unsettled divorce litigation, moving houses and the involvement of an ex from a separate household. A lot of the conflict centres on the different cultures each person brings to the ‘new family.’ In a first family the culture of ‘mess,’ ‘discipline,’ ‘Christmas traditions,’ etc. emerge and are set over time. The blended couple find themselves facing off around these differences with increased disquiet and conflict and many call it quits earlier than in first family marriages. How do blended couples navigate Christmas tree decorations, for example? Should a child stay home with one parent, or should they be okay home alone? While the first five years for the blended couple are often the hardest, some find a way to make the relationship work and build well-adjusted and functional families. This study seeks to understand in what ways these couples have navigated their differences, what creative solutions they found and how they built new cultures that reflect their preferred lives? This is a phenomenological study on the lived experience of a sample of Canadian blended couples who have navigated the difficult early years of their new family setup with a particular focus on what these couples believe have been the strength and resilience factors enabling their co-created success. Implications for family system therapists, pre-marital educators and clinicians will be discussed.
  • Show Me the Money: How Children’s Monetary Support is Split Between Biological Mothers and Fathers in the Contemporary U.S.. .....Kimberly McErlean, University of Texas, Austi; and Jennifer Glass, University of Texas, Austi
    Registration Complete

  • The financial resources available to children from their biological parents have become increasingly spread across households as families have become more complex and the number of children living apart from at least one biological parent has grown. This study takes a cross-household view to examine the relative economic contributions of mothers and fathers to their biological children in the context of women’s increased economic independence and changing demographic composition of the United States coupled with changes in custodial arrangements and child support enforcement. We use the 1996 and 2014 Survey of Income and Program Participation to quantify changes in how mothers and fathers divide the financial support of their biological children and how this differs across mothers’ characteristics. Overall results indicate relative stability in the percentage of economic support contributed by fathers at about 54%, but the sources of this support have changed: child support makes up nearly 20% of fathers’ economic contributions in 2014, up from 10% in 1996. However, this overall stability masks important subgroup differences: within all subgroups of mothers’ race/ethnicity and educational attainment, with the exception of Asian mothers, mothers’ contributions have increased over time, driven by her increased labor market earnings. This growth is masked by the changing composition of mothers: mothers are more educated and more racial-ethnically diverse today than in the past. Mothers’ large, and growing, financial contributions suggest the need to rethink work-family policy in the United States that still largely prioritizes fathers as the primary financial providers for their biological children.
  • Shared Custody and Parental Alienation As Key Concepts in the Struggle for Children - The Polish Case. .....Małgorzata Sikorska, University of Warsaw
    Registration Complete

  • The primary goal of this presentation is to examine the social actors participating in lobbying for Shared Custody (SC) in Poland, with a particular emphasis on the narratives they present and the narrative techniques they deploy. Applying the Narrative Policy Framework (NPF) as a theoretical framework and methodological inspiration, I will: - study WHO (which social actors are actively participating in lobbying efforts for SC, evaluating their connections, motivations, and viewpoints in the debate); - investigate WHAT is said in these actors' narrations, dissecting the core themes, arguments, and justifications put forth to support their stance on SC; - investigate HOW the narratives are constructed, aiming to uncover the narrative strategies used by social actors to influence public opinion and policy-making. Specifically, I will use NPF to lead the investigation of key parts of the narratives, such as the portrayal of Villains, Victims, and Heroes, in order to discover recurring patterns and persuasive strategies. According to my preliminary findings, the Fathers' Movements are one of the key social actors for the implementation of SC in Poland. In their lobbying, these players have been documented exploiting controversial notions such as parental alienation and parental alienation syndrome. By analyzing the narratives and narrative strategies employed by social actors advocating for SC in Poland, this research aims to contribute valuable insights to the ongoing debate over custody arrangements not only in Poland but also in other European countries, the US, and Canada. A unique aspect of my presentation will be the exploration of similarities and differences in the arguments used by social actors advocating for SC in different countries, providing a cross-cultural perspective on this issue.
  • Shared Parenting in Context. .....Laurie Maldonado, Columbia University
    Registration Complete

  • In the United States and in Europe, children in separated families are increasingly living with both parents (Cancian & Meyers 2022; Hakovirta, Meyer, Salin, Lindroos, Haapanen 2023). Families have evolved considerably over the past few decades. And yet, despite the diversity of families, many policies that affect families’ work and life have not changed and still favor the traditional two-parent family (Kearney 2023) This comprehensive review of the literature uses a comparative focus to examine trends, demographics, and socio-economic outcomes on shared parenting. It addresses the key issues, challenges, and debates on family diversity. It examines how shared parents are doing in the context of the institutions and policies that surround them including child custody, child support, tax credits, child benefit, parental leave, childcare and education. In conclusion, it provides a summative review and discusses future directions for data collection and for research on shared parenting.
  • Accelerator or Safety Net? Parents’ Role in the Marital Stability in China. .....
    Not Registered

  • The divorce rate in China has been rising since 1978 and accelerating in recent decades. However, China still has a relatively low divorce rate, even with a skewed gender division and an intensified masculine culture similar to other East Asia countries. Previous studies focused on the influence of individuals' and the community’s characters on their marital stability while neglecting the ongoing "Neo-Familism" in recent years. This study aims to model the effects of parents' characters and assistance in their adult children’s marital stability through financial aspects and housework aspects. This will be accomplished through the event history analysis using data from Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS) between 2014 and 2020. We hypothesize that two competing possibilities could affect marital stability divergently. One is the accelerator effect. Wives' parents with more resources could have more financial support, thereby experiencing higher risks of divorcing. The other is the safety net effect. Parents of either who give more financial and housework assistance could compensate for the husbands' unemployment and wives' housework stress, lending them lower risks of divorcing. We hope that our findings will contribute to moving the focus of the theory of employment, housework, and marital stability from couples to extended families, especially in countries where core families and social welfare are underdeveloped like China.
12. Thriving and Growing Despite It All: Women Entrepreneurs in Growing Economies [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 2.435

Organizers: Katherina Kuschel, Centrum Graduate Business School and pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; Nicholas Beutell, Iona University;
Presider: Katherina Kuschel, Centrum Graduate Business School and pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
  • Gender Wage Gap in Chilean Microenterprises. .....Valeria Scapini, Universidad Central de Chile; Rocío Ruiz-Martínez, Universitat Rovira i Virgili - SBRLab - Social & Business Research Laboratory Group; and Rodrigo Calderón, Universidad de Valparaíso
  • Entrepreneurship is considered as one of the main drivers of economic growth. However, informality, low contribution to employment and a gender wage gap to the detriment of women are characteristic of micro entrepreneurship in Latin America. The objective of this paper is to study the variables that affect the wage gap of microenterprises in Chile. From information on socioeconomic characteristics of the microentrepreneur population benefited by a government program between 2013 and 2016, an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model was estimated to study the relationship between socioeconomic variables and income level. The results show that, in general, women are related to lower levels of sales and sales per hour of work performed. On the other hand, being the head of household is related to higher levels of sales and sales per hour of work, as well as having a level of formalization in the business. These results should motivate the generation of higher levels of business formalization. The article requires the use of the gender perspective as a fundamental element in the research. Finally, the results may be useful for the elaboration of public policies and future research. Keywords: Microentrepreneurship, Gender Gap, Economic Growth, Formalization, Linear regression model.
  • Analyzing Instagram Images: Examining the Representation of Female Entrepreneurs on Mother’s Day. .....Katherina Kuschel, Centrum Graduate Business School and pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; and Ruth Powosino, CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business School and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
  • International Mother’s Day recognizes the work as mothers, and it is also an opportunity to increase sales. How are female entrepreneurs being represented online? We analyzed more than 2000 images related to the hashtags #(mama)emprendedora and #mompreneur, as some of the most trending hashtags during 2023 Mother’s Day. The visual content revealed complex ways in which images contribute to online self-presentation as a mother and entrepreneur. We found differences in the use of the hashtags. Latin American female entrepreneurs engage in motivational messages, greetings, and financial education, while U.S. female entrepreneurs show their well curated family pictures and their products. Family images have higher engagement from the followers. Keywords: Female entrepreneurs, mumpreneurs, self-presentation, Instagram, Mother’s Day
  • Women Entrepreneurs’ Self-Presentation in Social Networking Sites During the Scale-Up Process. .....Ruth Powosino, CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business School and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú; and Katherina Kuschel, Centrum Graduate Business School and pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
  • Previous literature has found that women entrepreneurs participate less often than their male counterparts in networking activities. However, women seem to use networks while they are expanding their businesses abroad. The scaleup is a process that conveys a disruptive change in the way of doing business, not only because the size and structure change, but also because the audience/stakeholders change. The aim of this project is to explore the changes in women’s entrepreneurial identity and how this is reflected in self-presentation in (virtual) social networks and identify the strategies for internationalization success. We will conduct a qualitative study reviewing online profiles of and interviewing 15 Latin American women founders in the process of scaling up their business. The data will be analyzed using a case study method and constant comparison approach. Expected results include: 1) The “when” of changing the entrepreneurial identity occurs before the process of internationalization, gradually after a series of fundraising events. 2) The “who”: other people are involved in advising how the entrepreneur has to be presented online. 3) “What” elements of the personal brand do change during the internationalization process of a startup? We expect that aspects of the identity are modified, and that is reflected in the personal brand that is presented in social networks, considering the social norms (e.g., feminine modesty, aesthetics, charisma) and current norms in virtual social networks (catchy statements, visuals, frequency of messages, transparency). This new knowledge will advance the self-presenting and self-promoting competencies of women in business.
  • Work-Family Boundary Management Among Women Entrepreneurs: A Moderated Mediation Model. .....Jasmine Banu, SwaaS Systems Private Limited; and Rupashree Baral, Indian Institute of Technology Madras
  • While entrepreneurship provides women the desired autonomy and flexibility, having a challenging career like entrepreneurship can impose additional workloads and mental strain, making it demanding for them to achieve a work-life balance. Building on the tenets of the work-home resource (W-HR) model and boundary theory, this study tested the impact of boundary preference toward integration on subjective well-being through actual boundary enactment and work-to-family enrichment as mediators, moderated by the problem-focused coping strategy. Results of structural equation modelling with data from 446 women entrepreneurs collected in two waves from various districts of Tamil Nadu, one of the southern states of India, reveal that the study participants do not see business and family demands as competing entities. Instead, they accept the role demands and prefer to integrate the boundaries. Women entrepreneurs utilize the resources gained through work to enrich their family roles. Moreover, to organize themselves within the roles and to offset additive role burdens, they have mastered several problem-focused coping strategies, such as active operational planning, prioritizing, self-regulatory activities, etc., to achieve subjective well-being. This study concludes that boundary management is crucial for managing the role expectations imposed on women entrepreneurs and enhancing their subjective well-being. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. Keywords: Women entrepreneurs; Work-family boundary management; Work-life integration; Problem-focused coping strategies; Subjective well-being; India
13. Mediated Realities [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 2.445

Organizer: Molly Schmidt, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
  • Candice Ruh, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
  • Molly Schmidt, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
  • Misornu Nartey, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
14. Gender: Roles, Contributions, and Responsibilities Across the Life Course 1 [Paper Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 3.210
  • Embracing the Non-Normative Roles? An Exploration of Stay-At-Home Fathers' Caregiving Journeys in Pakistan. .....Rahat Shah, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; Shah Faisal, University of Stirling; and Fazal E Subhan Safi, Liverpool Hope University
    Registration Complete

  • This study aimed to explore the caregiving experiences of stay-at-home fathers (SAHFs) in Pakistan, an area of research that has not been fully explored. The study employed a qualitative approach and used the (un)doing gender as framework. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with a sample of 30 SAHFs in Pakistan. The results indicate that despite being in a SAHF role, most men avoided participation in caregiving responsibilities, citing a lack of caregiving skills, the perception of caregiving as a women's domain, stigmatization, and challenges to their masculinity as reasons. These SAHFs also devalued paternal caregiving compared to maternal, reflecting a widespread sentiment that women, particularly their wives, are naturally more adept at caregiving. However, the data shows that caregiving experiences of SAHFs were not homogeneous and their participation in caregiving roles was greatly influenced by household structure (joint-nuclear), levels of education, and residential background (rural-urban). The findings of this study make a valuable contribution to our understanding of how the powerful cultural narratives continue to reinforce gendered practices and perceptions, making it difficult for SAHFs to fully embrace their roles as primary caregivers in highly patriarchal non-western cultural contexts.
  • Running On Empty: Gender, Time Allocation, and Daily Stress Experience Across the Life Course. .....Maria Stanfors, Lund University
    Registration Complete

  • Stress is a public health concern. One of the explanations to why women, more than men, receive stress-related diagnosis in connection to sickness absence is their responsibility for housework and caregiving. We investigate men’s and women’s time allocation and its association with everyday stress across life course stages (25-74 years), using individual time diary data (N=11,880) from the 2000/01 and 2010/11 Swedish Time Use Survey (SWETUS), including self-reported stress on the diary day. Though Sweden is known for gender equality in both the workplace and in the home, time use is still gendered. Women still perform more unpaid work, including housework and caregiving, across the life course, even if they are employed. Women are also more likely to experience daily stress across the life course, irrespective of life course stage. Results from multivariate regression analysis show that daily stress is higher for ages 25-49 than 50-74. Both determinants of stress and stress associations with time use vary between these groups. Paid work is positively related to men’s stress, while caregiving – to own children or other adults – is the primary determinant of women’s stress. Results hold across the life course and are independent of education, occupation, and income. Gender still structures individuals’ daily life and well-being.
  • Work-Family Balance and Adjustment of First-Time Urban Chinese Fathers During the Transition to Fatherhood. .....Kai Sun, Arizona State University; and Xuan Li, University of Copenhagen
    Registration Complete

  • Research on the work-family interface typically focuses on mothers. However, men’s participation in the family domain has been increasing around the globe, including in urban China. With little policy support for men’s involvement in family life, it is likely for first-time Chinese fathers to feel squeezed between their two main roles: employee and parent. As such it is necessary to look into their work and family interface around childbirth and understand how today’s Chinese fathers navigate this crucial transition period.   The current study investigates how first-time urban Chinese fathers balance work and family responsibilities, and how their work-family interface relates to their adjustment. Survey data concerning their work-family experiences were collected from 108 first-time Chinese parents (54 couples; mean age=31.5, SD=6.21) living in Shanghai at three time points (3 months before childbirth, 3 months and 9 months after childbirth), among whom 40 couples were also interviewed. Preliminary analyses suggested that fathers’ perceived support in work and family domains played a crucial role in their work-family conflict after childbirth. Moreover, fathers’ psychological well-being after childbirth is influenced by multi-level factors on the individual and family level, including their gender-related traits, marital relationships, and social support. Additionally, interview respondents articulated a tension between the new fatherhood ideals and actual practices and a lack of workplace support for fathers. The finding contributes to the work-family scholarship as it captures paternal experiences during a most challenging transition period and explores multi-level factors related to their work-family balance and adjustment.
  • Does Union Dissolution Lead to Lower Parental Time Investments in Children? A Longitudinal Study Using the PSID-CDS.. .....Trisha Chanda, University of Wisconsin, Madiso
    Registration Complete

  • The dissolution of a romantic union not only impacts parents’ economic circumstances but also how they use their time in the labor market and at home. However, few longitudinal studies have explored how mothers’ time with children evolves over the course of a union dissolution, and whether this differs by other characteristics of their time together such as activity-type and quality of time spent. I use two cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics’ 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2014, 2019, and 2021 Child Development Supplement (PSID-CDS) to examine whether the dissolution of romantic unions leads to any change in parents’ time with children. Random effects regressions of various time-use outcomes on an indicator for union dissolution confirm that separated mothers seem to preserve their time with children in the lkong term after divorce, and they balance their post-dissolution increase in employment hours through reductions in housework instead. Ongoing work is replicating these analyses for fathers. Findings are discussed in the context of policies impacting mothers’ work-life balance, and how these can be relevant in the context of family disruptions.
  • Gendered Patterns in Time-Use Over the Lifecourse — The Case of India. .....Akarshik Banerjee, George Washington University; and Trisha Chanda, University of Wisconsin, Madiso
    Registration Complete

  • Time poverty of women and gender inequality in unpaid labor are well documented across the world. We know less, however, about the evolution of these inequalities over the course of life, especially in the context of developing nations. In this paper, we study the time use of men and women in India across marital statuses and following parenthood, paying particular attention to the unique social context of the country. We use novel, high-frequency quarterly panel data on time-use from 2019 to 2021, first comparing how time-use estimates from our data fare against data collected from India's 2019 time-use survey, followed by a descriptive analysis of time-use by marital status of men and women for subgroups of interest. We subsequently perform an event history analysis to study the impact of parenthood on the time-use of men and women, separately by minority groups and urbanicity. Preliminary results show that married women spend 2.8 hours less per day in paid work and/or human capital-generating activities and 2.2 hours more in unpaid work than not married women. Findings have implications for policies targeted towards improving women's autonomy within the household.
15. Economic Empowerment in a Global Perspective [Paper Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 3.265
  • The Challenge of Gender Equality in Brazil. .....Flavia Ivana de Melo Santos, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Vérica Freitas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; and Veronica Freitas de Paula, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
    Registration Complete

  • Gender equality is a worldwide challenge, with the countries of the Global South usually ranking among the countries with the worst rates, and it is well known that increasing gender equality contributes to entrepreneurship, innovation, and consequently, economic, and social development. One of the main factors identified as inhibiting gender equality is related to motherhood and family configurations, through social constructions that assign responsibility for care in general, with children, the elderly, family members, and the sick, to women - in Brazil, women devote almost double the time of men to caring for people and household chores. This context affects the lives of Brazilian women, as well as women's participation in the labor market where, despite having more schooling, there is: less participation in the formal labor market (53% vs. 72.4% in 2022); more women working reduced or part-time hours (28% vs. 14% in 2018); an average income of 78% of that received by men in 2022; fewer women in management and leadership positions (37.8% in 2016) and as political representatives (15% of parliamentarians in 2022). The discrepancy is even greater if other criteria are considered, such as social class, color, race, place of residence (national or regional), or areas and sectors of activity. In this context, public policies and organizational actions are needed so that social precepts are rethought, and discriminatory stigmas are condemned, contributing to the promotion of equality and the protection of human rights.
  • Jobs, Jobs, Jobs: Is Economic Empowerment Good For Women?. .....Rhonda Breitkreuz, University of Alberta; and Marian Baird, University of Sydney - Business School
    Registration Complete

  • Globally, women’s economic empowerment has been touted as a game changer and the next frontier for social transformation. The UN’s former Secretary General, Ban Ki-Moon, wrote that “gender equality remains the greatest human rights challenge of our time. Economic empowerment is a uniquely potent way for women to achieve greater control over their own lives” (UN, 2017). National governments and other international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization have identified women’s economic empowerment as a key priority. While improving women’s economic security globally is certainly an important and laudable goal, the means by which this is to be achieved is debated. Although governments and major NGOs are investing in initiatives such as employment activation programs, entrepreneurship, business development, and other market-based solutions, feminist scholars point to the reality of many women’s lives including poor employment conditions, the predominance of informal work, the gender pay gap, violence against women, and the disproportionate unpaid care and household work that women perform worldwide. In this presentation, we provide a conceptual analysis of women’s economic empowerment globally, situating this concept within social, economic, policy and geographic environments, and ask: is women’s economic empowerment good for women? Identifying the major themes central to a discussion of women’s economic empowerment, we discuss the opportunities and risks for women amidst this international policy trend.
  • Gender Ideology and Health Status Among Individuals: A Global Perspective. .....Glory Narjinary, International Institute for population Sciences
    Registration Complete

  • Amid the global shift in gender ideology from traditional to modernization, it becomes increasingly essential to understand how ideological change and self-actualization influence different spheres of society. While the literature addressing these changes has been burgeoning, the health status of the individual with gender ideology has been not well-researched despite health being the most important aspect of human life. Thus, this study tends to investigate the association between gender ideology and health status. To study this we used data from the ISSP 2012 module, and we employed ordered logistic regression and marginal effects to observe the level of association. Additionally, using multiple robustness checks the propounded result is reaffirmed. We find that individual with egalitarian belief is associated with good health level, suggesting the construction of more gender-equal societies where every individual can achieve their optimal health status.
16. The Evolving Meaning of Work [Paper Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 3.270
  • Generational Change in “Ideal Worker” Norms Among Postdocs in the Life Sciences. .....Heather Hofmeister, Goethe University Frankfurt; and Anne-Kathrin Kronberg, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
    Registration Complete

  • Half a century after second-wave feminism, one main focus of inquiry still is the persistent underrepresentation of women in higher level academic science. The persistence of the “ideal worker” norm (Williams 2000) and the inability of the primary caregiver in a household to fulfill it has been offered as one explanation for the underrepresentation of women in many fields. We examine the degree to which resistance to the “ideal worker” model may play a role in strategic career decisions and future expectations for the next generation of top scientists in the life sciences. Do they reject a long-hours work culture? How do their ideals differ from their supervisors? Using qualitative in-depth interviews with 22 life sciences postdocs (13 men, 9 women) in their final year from the same highly competitive research institution, and follow-up interviews, plus 5 interviews with principal investigators from their supervisors, we found that all women and all but one man felt internal resistance to imitating the lives of their supervisors. Despite these postdocs being among the best and brightest scientists in a cutting-edge industry, and wanting an alternative path, they do not see themselves as holding negotiating power for alternative ideal futures. The principal investigators, in turn, were critical of the postdocs’ values. Our research may help predict the likelihood of change or continuation of labor market inequalities in one scientific field along gender lines. Parenthood status, gender, and region of origin played a role and will be discussed.
  • Post-Pandemic ‘Work From Home Revolution’ Discourses and the Invisibilisation of Women’s Unpaid Care Labour in Australia.. .....Amanda Peters, Monash University
    Registration Complete

  • In Australia, the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns brought changes in work practices marked by a significant rise in the number of employees engaging in remote work arrangements. In the media and other public discoursers this shift in employment patterns has been dubbed ‘the work from home revolution’. This presentation critically analyses these ‘work from home’ discourses using a gendered perspective to understand how they may sustain existing patriarchal economic and social structures. A category analysis of Australian media and industry narratives of a ‘work from home revolution’ will explore how these narratives reinvigorate hegemonic masculine discourses of work. It is well established that the devaluation of unpaid care work, which is predominantly performed by women, is a key driver of gender inequality. This occurs in part via invisibilisation, a process in which unpaid care labour is simultaneously devalued and exploited within capitalism by obscuring the fact that labour has been performed. Invisibilisation of women’s unpaid care labour occurs via patriarchal socio-cultural mechanisms which tie definitions of work exclusively to forms of labour for which someone is paid, such mechanisms exclude women’s unpaid care labour despite it being an essential part of the production system. This presentation will explore how ‘work from home revolution’ discourses invisibilise women’s unpaid care work, and thus reinforce patriarchal economic and cultural structures which drive gender inequality.
17. Embracing Interdisciplinarity In Work-Family Research: Implications Across the Research Life Cycle [Workshop]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 3.430

Organizers: Heidi Cramm, Queens University; Melissa Richardson, Queen's University; Lauren Roberts, Queens University; Lisa Vaters, Queens University;
Presiders: Heidi Cramm, Queens University; Melissa Richardson, Queen's University; Lauren Roberts, Queens University; Lisa Vaters, Queens University;
18. Leaders, Flexibility, Inclusion and Wellness [Thematic roundtable with multiple presentations]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 3.435

Organizers: Jessica DeGroot, ThirdPath Institute; Scott Behson, Fairleigh Dickinson University;
Presider: Jessica DeGroot, ThirdPath Institute

  • Beth Livingston, University of Iowa;
  • Heather Cluley Bar-Or, Villanova University;
  • Richard Petts, Ball State University;
  • Rachael Pettigrew, Mount Royal University;
  • Scott Behson, Fairleigh Dickinson University;
19. Getting A New Perspective On (Work)Life: Updating Conceptualizations of the Work-Life Interface to Incorporate Diverse Experiences and Growing Inequality [Workshop]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | MB 3.445

Organizer: Susan Lambert, University of Chicago
Presider: Susan Lambert, University of Chicago

  • Ellen Ernst Kossek, Purdue University;
  • Ameeta Jaga, University of Cape Town;
  • Sydney Colussi, University of Sydney - Business School;
  • Erin Carreon, University of Chicago;
20. Author Meets Reader: "Work in Black and White: Striving for the American Dream" [Author Meets Readers Session]
Thursday | 9:00 am-10:30 am | S2.115

Organizer: Sarah Damaske, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)

  • Enobong (Anna) Branch, Rutgers University;
  • Caroline Hanley, William & Mary;
  • Jasmine Hill, University of California, Los Angeles;
  • Yue Qian, University of British Columbia;
  • Erin Cech, University of Michigan.;
21. Presidential Plenary [Plenary]
Thursday | 10:45 am-11:45 am | H 110

Organizer: Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute

  • Marie Gendron, Le conseil de gestion de l’assurance parentale (The Management Board of Parental insurance) – The Québec Government;
  • Noémie Mercier, Noovo;
  • Pauline Marois, Former Prime Minister of Québec;
  • Julie Gingras, Finances Deputy Minister - The Québec Government;
  • Sophie Mathieu, Vanier Institute of the Family;
  • Suzanne Roy, Minister of Families - The Québec Government;
22. Lunch
Thursday | 12:00 pm-1:15 pm | MB9
23. Invited Session: Kanter Award Symposium - Amplifying the Impact of Work-Family Research [Thematic roundtable with multiple presentations]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 2.210

Organizers: Jennifer Fraone, Boston College - Center for Work & Family; Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth, Purdue University;
  • Maggie Wan, Texas State
  • Sarah Thebaud, UC Santa Barbara
  • Christine Pfeiffer, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
24. The Life Course Experience of Diverse Populations: LGBTQ+ Perspectives [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 2.265
  • Occupational Characteristics and Egalitarian Division of Housework Among Different-Sex and Same-Sex Couples. .....Jisu Park, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State); and Elena Pojman, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)
    Registration Complete

  • Same-sex couples tend to report having a more egalitarian division of housework when compared to different-sex couples. Prior studies have pointed out that the egalitarian value that sexual minorities hold is likely behind this pattern. However, we also know that sexual minority workers, especially sexual minority men, are segregated away from male-dominated occupations that are characterized by their ideal worker norms. This occupational segregation can influence the housework division among same-sex couples: same-sex couples may divide their housework more equally, at least partially, because of their limited access to occupations that require high degrees of work devotion from their workers. Therefore, in this study, I will ask whether the equal division of housework is compromised depending on the occupation of each partner. Using the American Time Use Survey (2015-2019), I will examine whether and how the following three occupational characteristics are associated with housework division among different-sex and same-sex couples: (1) male-dominated occupations, (2) STEM occupations, and (3) business occupations. Methodologically, I will estimate OLS regression models where the dependent variable is each respondent’s time spent on performing housework and the primary independent variables are aforementioned occupational characteristics and couple type (different-sex or same-sex). I will estimate the interaction terms of these two independent variables. Additionally, I will estimate gender-stratified models to examine whether such interaction terms are gendered.
  • Precariously Positioned in Unsettled Times: Work and Well-Being Among LGBTQ+ Adults in the COVID Era. .....Layne Amerikaner, University of Maryland, College Park
    Registration Complete

  • The rise in precarious employment in recent decades has left a substantial portion of the U.S. workforce in insecure, low-quality jobs, with the divide between “good” and “bad” jobs becoming even starker during the COVID-19 pandemic. Little is known about how LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual and gender minority) workers and their families are faring in this context, even though previous research suggests they may be among those most vulnerable to negative structural and interpersonal factors affecting workers’ well-being. Through original, in-depth qualitative interviews with a racially and occupationally diverse sample of 45 LGBTQ+ U.S. workers conducted between late 2022 and early 2024, the study examines how sexual and gender minority adults are experiencing and responding to an unequal work landscape in the COVID era. Interview transcripts will be analyzed using a grounded theory approach through multiple cycles of data coding in Dedoose. Although data collection is ongoing, preliminary analysis of pilot interviews (N=17 adults) suggest that for some LGBTQ+ workers, remote work may be protective against microaggressions and harassment in cisheteronormative work environments. For other LGBTQ+ adults, COVID-related strains may be compounding existing workplace minority stress, particularly among in-person workers who already faced poor job quality conditions. Acknowledgement: This work has been supported (in part) by Grant #2301-41649 from the Russell Sage Foundation. Any opinions expressed are those of the principal investigator alone and should not be construed as representing the opinions of the Foundation.
  • Transition to Parenthood and Earnings Trajectories of Male Same-Sex Couples in Sweden and the Netherlands. .....Eva Jaspers, Utrecht University; Weverthon Machado, Utrecht University; and Marie Evertsson, Stockholm University - Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI)
    Registration Complete

  • A growing scholarship on same-sex couples has expanded our understanding of the interplay of work and family across the transition to parenthood. For example, previous studies have found that, after parenthood, the within-couple earnings gap increases much less in female same-sex couples than in different-sex couples. However, there is comparatively little quantitative evidence on the determinants and consequences of the transition to parenthood for male same-sex couples. Compared to other families, male same-sex couples who wish to become parents have fewer paths to do so. Thus, it is important to understand which couples eventually have children. Furthermore, in view of the common finding that the arrival of a child has relatively little impact on the careers of fathers in different-sex couples, we ask whether and how becoming parents shapes the earnings trajectories of male same-sex parents. We investigate these questions using longitudinal population register data from Sweden and the Netherlands. First, we employ event history analysis to explore the socioeconomic and demographic attributes predicting the transition to parenthood in male same-sex couples. Second, for the couples who transition to parenthood, we track the earnings trajectories of both parents from before to several years after the arrival of the first child.
  • Queer Parenting As Resistance. .....Amelia Eppel, McGill University; and Kristen O'Sullivan, McGill University
    Registration Complete

  • For generations, Queer “chosen” family have been a life force sustaining the most marginalized through a model of community care that decenters the heterosexual two parent structure (Mamo, 2007. ). In recent years, with the advent of assisted reproduction and the legalization of same-sex relationships in North America, an estimated 77% of LGBTQ+ people of childbearing age are already parents or are considering having children through either fertility treatments or adoption (Family Equality, 2019). Most of the literature that considers queerness in relation to parenting has focused on the outcomes of children in two parent same-sex families, framed in terms of comparison with “gold standard” heteronormative families (Mendez, 2020). There is very little literature that considers the processes of parenting or the possibilities that alternative family structures open up (Klesse, 2018). This project will consider how queering the concept of family is an act of resistance. Most, if not all, queer-identifying people still face barriers to forming their families, whether in accessing healthcare, by social services or within their own families (Gregory et al., 2022; Farr, 2020). The anticipated value of the results of the study are that some insight will be gained into the experiences of queer parenting in Canada. Results of the research will be published in an edited collection called Queer Joy as Resistance (proposed publisher: New York University Press) with an anticipated publication date of Spring 2024. Our presentation will share results from the study including interview excerpts, our experiences of collecting data with families and how our findings compare with those in the literature.
25. Labor Market Policies and Effects [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 2.270
  • Is There a “Fatherhood Bonus” in Spain? The Impact of Children on Wages According to Occupational Characteristics, Family Structure and the Use of Longer-Term Care Leaves. .....Marta Dominguez-Folgueras, Sciences Po; M. José González, Universitat Pompeu Fabra; and Irene Lapuerta, Universidad Pública de Navarra (UPNA)
    Registration Complete

  • This paper examines the impact of fatherhood on earnings in Spain, using panel data from 2006 to 2021. While there is extensive research on the negative effects of motherhood on earnings, our understanding of the effects of fatherhood, particularly in the Spanish context, remains limited. In some countries with available data, fathers tend to experience a financial advantage, commonly referred to as the "fatherhood bonus". This phenomenon has been attributed mainly to gender role specialisation, with women taking on caring responsibilities while men are in paid employment, employers' preferences for male employees and self-selection into parenthood, as those more established in the labour market may also be more likely to become fathers. This paper seeks to assess the impact of fatherhood on men's earnings and to explore its underlying factors by focusing on three understudied dimensions: the wage advantage of fathers' occupational categories, family structures (men living in heterosexual partnerships, same-sex partnerships or single-parent households) and the use of extended care leave to care for young children after an initial period of maternity and paternity leave. The study is based on the Continuous Sample of Working Lives, a survey of individuals who have made contributions to, or received benefits from, the Spanish social security system during the reference years. To estimate the expected earnings of men with and without children, we use unconditional quantile regression on longitudinal data. In addition, we integrate quantile regression with fixed effects techniques to account for self-selection into fatherhood.
  • Scheduling Standards in Union Contracts and in Public Policy—Substitutes or Complements?. .....Peter Fugiel, Rutgers University
    Registration Complete

  • Unpredictable schedules can wreak havoc in the lives of workers and their families. To address this problem, policy makers, advocates, union leaders, and other practitioners have developed novel scheduling standards, most notably in the United States and Canada. While the provisions vary across industries and jurisdictions, they include limits on employer discretion in assigning shifts, a minimum length of advance notice, premium pay for unsociable shifts, and compensation for schedule changes. To date the most ambitious and consequential scheduling standards take the form of union contracts or subnational (i.e. state or local) legislation. Research and media reports on scheduling standards mostly focus on legislation, framing it as a substitute for the protections of a union contract, particularly in fast food restaurants and other industries where union density is low. However, comparative research shows that public policy and union contracts can complement each other, resulting in broader coverage and stronger enforcement than either achieves in isolation. Drawing on case studies of scheduling standards and stakeholder interviews in Seattle, New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia, this paper identifies institutional conditions, organizational practices, and discursive frames that promote complementarity between scheduling legislation and collective agreements, rather than substitution of one for the other. I argue that complementary standards hold considerable promise for proponents of fair scheduling, but they demand broader solidarity and strategic coordination to realize this promise.
  • How State Paid Family Leave Policies Impact the Labor Market Choices of New Mothers. .....Samantha Schenck, Central Connecticut State University
    Registration Complete

  • Many American families have a difficult time balancing their obligations at work with their responsibilities at home. This is especially true after the birth of a child, especially considering the United States is the only industrialized nation that does not have a universal paid maternity leave program. Currently, US workers that qualify for the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) for the job protection guarantee must rely on employer provided benefits in order to be paid during any leave taken by new mothers. Consequently, the ability to take leave and the length of leave available is distributed very unequally among different groups of workers. Past research has shown that mothers from disadvantaged groups, such as those from low-income households, minorities, and single mothers take less maternity leave because they are less likely to have access to paid leave through their employers and their reduced ability to afford unpaid leave. Recently several US states have passed their own paid family leave programs that would provide virtually all working mothers in the state with access to wage replacement during any maternity leave taken. This research uses data from the National Logitudinal Survey of Youth and several standard difference-in-difference models, as well as synthetic difference-in-difference regression analyses to explore the impact of these state-sponsored paid family leave programs on different subgroups of mothers. This research will pay particular attention to how differences in the generosity of the wage replacement benefit impacts how the policy changes the labor market behavior of new mothers
26. Gender Roles, Ideologies, and Practices [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 2.285
  • Are Attitudes and Behavior Aligned? Cohort Dynamics in Gender Attitudes and The Division of Childcare. .....Hyunjae Kwon, University of Minnesota
    Registration Complete

  • The children of the gender revolution—born in the 1970s and 1980s—grew up in a vastly different social landscape than their parents: women were entering the labor market at an unprecedented rate. Social structure, however, lagged behind the newly emerging work-family lives, preventing the children of the gender revolution from actualizing their more gender egalitarian attitude and ideals. Investigating the link between gender attitudes and the division of domestic work across birth cohorts may help us understand how closely ideals and behavior align across cohorts. Quantitative studies have seldom examined the historical transformations in gender attitude and division of domestic labor simultaneously mainly due to data limitation. Using 3 waves of cross-sectional data from the Work and Family Life Study, 1980-2022 (N = 5,771), the current paper examines how the correlation between gender attitude and division of childcare varies across cohorts (10-year birth cohorts from 1930’s to 1980s). From the 7-item gender attitude measure, we create two categories of gender attitudes: one tackling attitude regarding women’s role and another addressing men’s role. Preliminary results show that gender attitudes become more egalitarian across birth cohorts for both mothers and fathers. We also find that for mothers, the division of childcare becomes more egalitarian from the 1950s cohort to the 1970s cohort, but there is no difference between the 1970s and 1980s cohorts. For the conference, I plan to examine the correlation between gender attitudes and the division of childcare for mothers and fathers and test models with controls.
  • Relationship Between the Work-Family Interface, Gender Role Ideology, Household Chores and Organizational Citizenship Behavior During Covid.. .....Ujvala Rajadhyaksha, Governors State University; Zeynep Aycan, Koc University; Feldt Taru, University of Jyväskylä; Rantanen Johanna, University of Jyväskylä; Dilem Cinli, Koc University; Meryem Seyda Zayim, Koc University; and Ayse Burcin Baskurt, University of East London
    Registration Complete

  • Current COVID-19 studies suggest that the pandemic particularly negatively affected women in terms of work-family balance. We advance this research line by examining how conservative gender ideology (CGRI) is related to this phenomenon by utilizing a pan cultural perspective as opposed to a more commonly used cross-cultural perspective. The 2022 Global Gender Gap Index ranks Turkey 133rd, UK 30th, US 23rd and Finland 2nd out of 156 countries. This increased the variance in CGRI in our data (n = 819 working parents, 60% women) which was collected during COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-2021 via one time point e-surveys in these four countries (Turkish participants representing 32% of the whole sample and US, UK, and Finnish participants 32%, 18% and 18%, respectively). More precisely, we investigated how CGRI, time spent on household chores, work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (WFC, FWC), work-family balance (WFB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) were linked to each other. Structural equation model (SEM) analyses showed that among both genders high CGRI was linked to higher time spent on household chores which was further linked to high OCB via high WFB. Instead, only among women high CGRI was linked to higher time spent on household chores which was further linked to high OCB via low WFC. These findings seem to suggest that high CGRI and involvement in household chores, possibly both reflecting strong family values, were assets for working parents during COVID-19 pandemic conditions forcing them into very intensive reconciliation of remote work and household chores (e.g., due to 24/7 childcare).
  • Understanding Work-Family Enrichment: Unpacking the Influence of Trait Resilience, Gender Dynamics, and Culture. .....Tejinder Billing, Rowan University; and Rupashree Baral, Indian Institute of Technology Madras
    Not Registered

  • This study investigates individual determinants of work-family enrichment, explicitly focusing on trait resilience, gender, and cultural context. While prior research has extensively examined various determinants of work-family enrichment, limited attention has been directed towards the role of trait resilience. Resilience, defined as the capacity to rebound from failure, adversity, or conflict (Luthans, 2002), is an important individual factor influencing the effective extraction of benefits from work and family domains, thereby contributing to work-family enrichment. Moreover, this research delves into the moderating influence of gender on the association between resilience and work-family enrichment. We seek to discern potential gender disparities in how resilience impacts the directionality of work-family enrichment. Specifically, it investigates whether men are more adept at leveraging work-related resources for experiencing work-to-family enrichment or, conversely, whether women excel in utilizing family resources, resulting in heightened family-to-work enrichment. We use data from both the United States and India to empirically test these relationships. This multicultural approach facilitates a nuanced examination of the interaction between trait resilience, gender, and work-family enrichment. The study aims to provide comprehensive insights into the personal determinants influencing work-family enrichment by exploring these dimensions across different cultural contexts.
27. Eldercare: Family Complexity, Dynamics, and Wellbeing [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 2.430
  • Caregiving Trajectories and the Well-Being of Caregivers. .....Bram Audenaert, KU Leuven; and Lore Van Herreweghe, KU Leuven
    Registration Complete

  • The goal of this paper is to investigate the impact of caregiving trajectories on the well-being of informal caregivers. Over the past decades, policymakers across Europe have been aiming to reduce the fiscal strain by e.g. increasing the retirement age or increasing employment, in particular among older working-age adults and by restructuring the use of public funds to provide LTC services. A general shift occurred towards ‘active citizenship’ of older people including policies to promote home-based familial care provision. This however increases the burden on adult children or partners of elderly in need of care. Not only are older adults increasingly expected to be engaged in paid employment, it is also assumed that the provision of informal care has adverse effects on the well-being of the caregivers. However, a growing group of studies has showed that the provision of informal care can also have positive effects on the well-being of informal caregivers. There are two possible reasons for these contradictions. First, most of the studies on the well-being of informal caregivers are cross-sectional in nature and do not acknowledge the dynamic nature of informal caregiving. Second, it remains unclear how different LTC policies reinforce or mitigate the long-term well-being impact of informal care. This paper will empirically map out caregiving trajectories and investigate how different care regimes have impact on the prevalence of certain caregiving trajectories and if the care regimes have a moderating impact on the relation between caregiving trajectories and the well-being of informal caregivers.
  • Perceived Support and Job Search Barriers Among Unemployed Carers of Elderly or Disabled Relatives. .....Hugh Bainbridge, University of New South Wales; Lukas Hofstätter, Carers NSW; and Sarah Judd-Lam, Carers NSW
    Registration Complete

  • Many people of working age are also unpaid caregivers for an elderly or disabled relative. Extensive research has linked this caregiving role to withdrawal from the workforce. Caregiving demands may lessen over time though and returning to paid work is often a desirable individual, organisational, and policy goal. However, while job search is challenging for caregivers, little consideration has been given to the re-employment process. The current study moves to address this gap by examining the extent to which job seeker beliefs about societal recognition of a role that is central to their identity (caregiving) affect perceived barriers to employment. We then extend this by exploring how this effect occurs (whether the effect is mediated by social connections), and when this occurs (whether the effect is moderated by three forms of support). In a survey of job seekers with caregiving responsibilities, greater societal recognition of caregiving was associated with lower perceived job search barriers. This effect was mediated by social connectedness and moderated by support in the form of coaching and planned respite from caregiving. Job seekers who reported lower societal recognition of caregiving benefited most from coaching and planned respite from caregiving.
  • The Role of Culture in Senior Caregiving: Preliminary Analysis of Canadian National Surveys of the Care Economies in Context Project. .....Ito Peng, University of Toronto; and Pelin Gul, University of Toronto
    Registration Complete

  • It is now widely acknowledged that Canadian population is ageing, and it will continue to age over the next several decades. Today, people over the age of 65 make up 19% of the total population, up from 11% in 2000. This population is projected to increase to 26% by 2068, with those aged 85+ ageing faster than other 65+ subgroups. What is less well known is that today over 30% of Canadian seniors are foreign-born, as compared to 21% in the total population. As these seniors begin requiring care, the number and proportion of 1st and 2nd generation caregivers will also grow. Public support for long-term care is never more important now; yet families remain the main source of caregiving for Canadian seniors. Our surveys of unpaid family caregiving in Canada show families continue to provide much of senior care. Amongst 1st and 2nd generation caregivers, culture plays an important role in shaping their understanding of and perceptions about their caregiving roles, and who and how care should be provided to older people. Culture is used to justify the familial division of caregiving responsibilities. More specifically, men are more likely to justify the allocation of caregiving responsibilities based on cultural norms—and thus perpetuating the unequal roles of men and women in senior caregiving—while women frequently shoulder much of caregiving responsibilities, regardless of the need for such justification.
  • Household Headship, Filial Expectations and Mortality in Older Widows: Evidence from Panel Survey of India.. .....Babul Hossain, International Institute for Population Sciences
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  • The presence of older widows is always symbolic of power for families in India. An older widow is in India correctly cared for and respected by their family, which implies the widow represents a good family. If a widow is left to manage independently, is not taken care of properly and is treated less respectfully, in other words, experiences a lack of filial responsibility, the older widow represents a bad family. Thus, in Indian culture, the household dynamics and familial aspects can be more relevant when discussing the well-being of older widows. In this context, this study investigates the relationship between household headship and mortality experiences for widowed women aged 45 and above in India. The study used the India Human Development Survey, a nationally representative panel survey. The results indicate that no excess mortality risk was observed for widows compared to married women, where widows or their sons were household heads. On the other hand, when the widows in households are headed by others (viz. brothers, sons-in-law, grandsons and extended family members), they experience heightened mortality risk than married women. Subsample analysis suggests that widow-heading households if they were expecting financial support from sons, had higher mortality than widows who did not expect financial support from sons. By adjusting for the endogeneity between household headship and economic status using an instrument variable regression model, the study confirms that older widows in households headed by others have double the mortality risk compared to widows heading households themselves.
28. Work-Family Experiences and Negotiations During and the COVID-19 Pandemic [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 2.435
  • Irritability and Ice Cream: A Narrative Analysis of Work-Family Conflict in Dual-Earning Couples During the COVID-19 Pandemic. .....Katheryn Maguire, Wayne State University; Krista Brumley, Wayne State University; and Shirin Montazer, Wayne State University
    Registration Complete

  • The COVID-19 pandemic altered work and relational lives of people across the world. Whereas some couples faltered under the pressure of balancing work and family during the height of the pandemic, others thrived. Much of the work-family conflict (WFC) research has centered on deductive perceptual (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985; Netemeyer, 1996) and behavioral (Clark et al., 2019) measures to identify factors that may differentiate WFC experiences. In contrast, we offer a phenomenological account of how 37 heterosexual, dual-earning couples made sense of their pandemic work/family experiences through the lens of the theory of resilience and relational load (Afifi, Merrill, and Davis, 2016), recognizing that the pandemic may have altered the way they understand WFC. Using data from both spouses, our inductive account of what WFC "looked" like in the family reveals two overarching narratives: (a) one shows emotionally-close couples who work together as a team and communicate about their needs, despite having high stress jobs that blur work/family lines and require at least one of the spouses to work outside the home; yet, they hesitate to use the word conflict to describe their experiences. (b) The other shows emotionally distant couples who seem to value work above family, leaving each spouse to cope on their own. They do not hesitate to use words like conflict; indeed, their relational lives seem characterized by conflict. By examining what couples were saying and doing, we can ascertain how past conceptualizations of work-family conflict compare to work-family conflict in the context of COVID-19. [249 words]
  • Lessons from the COVID 19 Pandemic: The Lingering Impact of a Reduction in Parental Self-Care Behaviors. .....Leslie Forde, Mom's Hierarchy of Needs; and Kelly Basile, Emmanuel College
    Registration Complete

  • The COVID-19 pandemic created significant challenges for working parents, particularly mothers, in terms of their ability to manage work and family roles (Hjálmsdóttir & Bjarnadóttir, 2021). A common by-product of increased challenges to work-family role management is a reduction in self-care among those with caring responsibilities for others (Coye et al., 2020). This study seeks to examine some of the challenges to self-care that have lingered despite the lifting of COVID restrictions and resumption of traditional services and resources. This study involves an ongoing survey of parents about their goals, behaviors and barriers related to self-care. Data has been collected from nine separate cohorts of participants since the survey began in March 2020. The use of time-based cohorts allows us to track trends in parents’ self-care behaviors during and post COVID-19 pandemic. Preliminary results from the 3,280 participants suggest that parents continue to engage in self-care behaviors at a level that is lower than pre-pandemic behaviors. Further, results also suggests that within the past year, parents are more likely to report that they are doing ‘terribly’ or ‘not as well as usual’ in their role as a spouse or partner and in their role as a caregiver to themselves than they were during the first year of the pandemic. However, parents are also less likely to report that they are doing ‘terribly’ or ‘not as well as usual’ in their roles as partners or workers. Results suggest the importance of identifying ongoing barriers to self-care behaviors that have persisted beyond pandemic conditions.
  • Do Less Gendered Unpaid Work Arrangements During the Covid-19 Pandemic Lead to Higher Satisfaction From the Division of Childcare and Housework Among Parents?. .....Ilyar Heydari Barardehi, University of Warsaw; and Anna Kurowska, University of Warsaw
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  • Due to COVID-19 pandemic-induced restrictions parents were compelled to reorganize caregiving and housework responsibilities. Despite some increased involvement of men in housework and childcare during the pandemic, women, particularly mothers, continued to bear the primary burden of unpaid care work. Previous research focusing on time use data indicates that women's well-being is closely linked to their hours spent on paid work and housework, while men's well-being appears less affected by these factors. The present study contributes to the literature by shedding light on how parents, especially women, derive satisfaction from the distribution of unpaid work during the pandemic. To explain gender differences in satisfaction stemming from the distribution of unpaid labour, we rely on equity theory and the role strain model. Using the Familydemic Harmonized Dataset (survey data from US, CA, PL, SE, DE and IT; Kurowska et al 2023) and conducting regression analyses, the study reveals that a more equal or degendered division of unpaid work during the pandemic is associated with higher satisfaction in both childcare and housework responsibilities. This effect is more pronounced among mothers than fathers. Notably, for fathers who already had equal or degendered arrangements before the pandemic, these shifts were associated with reduced satisfaction. The gender gap in satisfaction widens as the division of unpaid labor becomes more gendered. Importantly, in cases of couples with degendered pre-pandemic housework arrangements, the gender gap in satisfaction persists even in case of progressive housework division arrangements during the pandemic.
  • The Contours of Emotional Gaps Between Mothers and Fathers: Deflecting Guilt During Pandemic Times. .....Melissa Milkie, University of Toronto; Laila Omar, Princeton University; and Casey Scheibling, University of Nevada, Reno
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  • Parental guilt is an important social problem tied to fathers’ and especially mothers’ wellbeing. Although research suggests a guilt gap, with women feeling moral pressure to sacrifice work for family and meet very high standards, examining how parents deflect guilt to buffer other negative emotions and distress can extend knowledge of the contours of the gendered gap. Within a stress process framework, we analyze the construction and deflection of guilt with interview data from 150 American, Australian and Canadian parents in 2021. Results indicate 73% of mothers report some guilt compared to 42% of fathers. Parents utilize rich vocabularies of guilt in maintaining a “good parent” identity. Many mothers (and a few fathers) seem unable to deflect feelings of inadequacy, describing guilt as the “fabric of life” of parenting. Mothers’ descriptions of “mom guilt” include both relief and humor but also foretell relentless pressure. Yet parents also discursively deflect guilt in three notable ways. First, some parents effectively deflect guilt to narrow channels of activity or isolated spheres of emotion. Second, parents of both genders, but especially fathers, are able to thwart some negative emotions from guilt through deflection to macro causes like the pandemic. Third, fathers articulate connected deflection by emphasizing guilt as a shared experience with their partners, potentially minimizing negative emotion. We discuss how the gendered nature of work and family ideologies link to the differential power to deflect guilt, leaving many mothers to contend psychologically with responsibilities across a broad array of family and child problems.
  • Revisiting Gender Housework Gap During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Importance of Social Class and Parental Status. .....Haoming Song, Case Western Reserve University
    Registration Complete

  • An emerging line of work documents the unequal consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic at home. Focusing on parents in non-probability samples, however, findings from this line of work remain inconclusive on whether the gender inequality in housework has exacerbated and relevant explanatory mechanisms. In this study, I revisit the question using nationally representative high quality time diary data, and I critically expand the analyses to the intersection of gender, class, and parental status. Using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) 2019-2020, I examine changes in routine housework time (e.g., cleaning and cooking) in dual-earner couples. My analyses showed that, despite an increasing trend across subgroups, it is childless women of different education but not parents that showed significant and sizable increases in housework time. These increases were also significantly higher than their childless male counterparts, which exacerbated gender inequality. Further testing the mechanisms of work time and location including full-time work and telecommuting status, however, largely did not explain this unequal trend. I conclude by discussing the importance of family diversity and intersectionality in studying changes in unpaid labor division after disruptive events, and call for more future studies on specific mechanisms.
29. Precarious Work, Gigs, and Entrepreneurship [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 2.445
  • The Precarity of Part-Time Work: Examining Multiple Dimensions of Perceived Job Quality for Women and Men in the U.S., 2002-2018. .....Jeffrey Dixon, College of the Holy Cross; and Andrew Fullerton, Oklahoma State University
    Registration Complete

  • Over time, literature on “precarious work” has increasingly adopted the view that part-time work is not necessarily of poorer quality than full-time work, buttressed by conflicting findings on the relationship between part-time work and job quality especially in Europe. Furthermore, some scholars specifically argue that part-time work may be of higher quality than full-time work on selected dimensions of job quality like scheduling flexibility, which is especially likely to benefit women given traditional gender roles and their over-representation as part-time workers in the US and other countries. The current study examines these and other claims in the US context, using more indicators of (largely perceived) job quality than prior research and disaggregating the analyses by sex category. Based on ordinal logistic and OLS models of General Social Survey (GSS) data for selected years between 2002 and 2018, preliminary results indicate part-time work is consistently and negatively associated with perceived promotion opportunities, economic security, satisfaction with benefits, and income. The findings of other dimensions of job quality, such as job insecurity, autonomy, and scheduling flexibility, are generally more variable across job quality indicators, part-time work measures, and sex category. Among the aforementioned dimensions of job quality, however, part-time workers are more likely to report they are able to take “time off during [their] work to take care of personal or family matters,” regardless of sex category. The sum total of our preliminary findings paint a more nuanced picture of part-time work in the US with implications for workers’ work-life interface.
  • Work-Life Balance for Solopreneurs. .....Veronica Freitas de Paula, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; and Vérica Freitas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
    Registration Complete

  • What are the main criteria for choosing a job? If you are an entrepreneur, would you consider your family before making decisions regarding business growth? Do these decisions change if the person is a man or a woman? This article reflects on changes in the career choices of male entrepreneurs living in Finland and the impact of family time on their decisions regarding starting a business or changing careers. Factors such as nationality, age, and place of residence are considered when comparing different cases of entrepreneurs. We also analyzed the possible interference of local and regional policies, as gender equality might be closer in some areas than others. Through interviews for data collection, it was possible to identify some crucial information regarding these entrepreneurs’ paths and decisions in their professional lives. The interviews were conducted aiming to identify business growth in the initial stages of company development, but despite not being listed as a possible factor, work-life balance was frequently mentioned. This recurring aspect prompted the reflection on the differences that might be perceived between the Global North and South.
  • Gendering the Gig Economy: How Women and Men Make it Work on Digital Platforms. .....Brendan Churchill, University of Melbourne
    Registration Complete

  • The labour market rarely ‘works’ for women in the same way that it does for men. Women are more likely to find themselves in poor-quality jobs, poorer working conditions and consequently, poorer pay than men. Some women turn to self-employment to overcome this because it offers flexibility and greater control over their work schedules. It is thus no surprise that some women are turning to digital platforms for work because like owning one’s own business, platform work offers flexibility and schedule control, which for many women seems like a better way of obtaining greater work-life balance. This reflects that digital platforms like Uber and Airtasker sell themselves to prospective workers as flexibility havens. This research paper looks at how the gig economy is gendered and whether the gig economy ‘works’ for women in a way that the traditional labour market does not. Drawing on survey data from the Making it Work in the Gig Economy (2020-2023) project as well as in-depth qualitative interviews (n=40, this research paper examines the experiences of women (and men) in the gig economy. The findings suggest that women benefit from having greater autonomy and flexibility over their working lives, particularly their schedules, but the gig economy does not deliver in other aspects, such as pay and remuneration or better work-life balance. Moreover, they encounter significant stress in looking for and securing work, which impacts their time with partners and children. These findings are discussed concerning current attempts to regulate the gig economy.
  • “Moral Work” of Precarious Workers-Caregivers in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic. .....Radka Dudová, Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences; and Hana Hašková, Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences
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  • Due to the familialist orientation of welfare state policies and low work flexibility, parenthood in the CR has a larger negative impact on women’s employment than in other EU countries, and women are viewed as primary caregivers and secondary earners. Persons with care commitments rely relatively often on non-standard forms of employment (NSFE) in order to combine paid and unpaid work. The COVID-19 pandemic represented a risk that impacted especially those in precarious employment (characterised by low pay, insufficient and variable hours, short-term contracts and limited social protection rights), mixing labour market contraction and instability, economic crisis, health crisis and care crisis. This paper explores how caregivers make sense of their precarious employment situation and how it, according to their narratives, reflects in their caregiving. Based on qualitative research of caregivers - parents of young children and persons providing care to their elderly relatives - during and soon after the COVID-19 pandemic in the Czech Republic, we develop the concept of “precarious parents – precarious caregivers” and we study the forms of “moral work” caregivers in precarious work conditions employ in order to make sense of their experience. In an attempt to reconstruct their subjective stability and positive self-image, the participants in the interviews tried to redefine their situation in such a way as to turn the moral meanings of precarious work to their advantage or at least to minimize their negative content. This reconstruction of the self then led to their further precarization.
  • Fragmented Employer Liability and Challenges to the Equitable Implementation of Fair Workweek Laws: The Case of Franchise Ownership. .....Hyojin Cho, University of Chicago; and Susan Lambert, University of Chicago
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  • Many low-wage workers are employed in retail and food service industries, which are known for employers’ widespread use of precarious scheduling practices, such as posting the schedule with short notice, making last-minute changes once posted, and varying the number and timing of hours week to week. To address these issues, several municipalities in the US, including San Francisco, Seattle, New York City, Philadelphia, Chicago, and the state of Oregon, have enacted Fair Workweek Laws (FWLs). These laws are intended to establish new labor standards that regulate precarious scheduling practices by requiring employers to provide greater schedule predictability and access to work hours for their low-paid employees. However, the high prevalence of franchising ownership in retail and food service sectors is likely to challenge the implementation of FWLs. Studies show that franchises are more likely to violate labor standards due to limited resources and weaker compliance incentives compared to corporate-owned businesses (Ji & Weil, 2015). Drawing on in-depth interviews with frontline managers in worksites covered by Seattle and Chicago’s FWLs, we compare the extent to which managers’ practices align with FWL provisions between franchise and corporate-owned businesses, examining factors that may contribute to ownership-based divergence in the implementation process of FWLs. Additionally, we unpack variation among franchises to identify the conditions under which franchises are able to align their practices with FWL provisions. Franchising's rapid growth in low-wage service industries is a global trend. Our study aims to provide policy and practice insights to effectively implement labor standards protecting low-paid workers.
30. Class, Gender, and Race: Privilege and Stratification in Work-Life Experiences [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 3.210
  • Work-Life Balance, But For Who: Examining the Construct Through the Lens of Privilege. .....Marie-Hélène Budworth, York University; and Huda Masood, Sam Houston State University
    Registration Complete

  • Changes to the nature of work have altered how work and family are experienced. A key driver of this shift being the identification of essential and non-essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic (van Zoonen & Hoeven, 2021). As a result, the early 2020s created a divide between those who have an option to work from home and those who do not. In general, flexibility is available to those who are in a “privileged labour market position” (Felstead, Jewson, Phizacklea, & Walters, 2002, p.214). Although the pandemic has ended, hybrid work arrangements persist, revolutionizing the structure of the workforce globally. This change raises important scholarly questions about who has access to work-life balance. The purpose of this paper is to advance theory by applying a critical lens in understanding the role of “privilege” as it relates to the work-life interface (Shuck et al., 2016). This work examines the following questions: (a) How is the concept of work-life balance experienced differently by those who have choice or flexibility in how the work is organized versus those who do not? (b) How has this concept evolved relative to the context created in recent years? (c) Who is disadvantaged due to the work-from-home arrangements? How? and (d) Who benefits from such an arrangement? How? The aim of this research is to support a critical dialogue on what it means to maintain a balance between work and life domains in today’s world.
  • Can Workplace Inclusion Close Racial and Ethnic Gaps in Work-Family Spillover?. .....Ipshita Pal, St. John's University; Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute; and Stacy Kim, Life Junctions
    Registration Complete

  • Work-life scholars and practitioners have consistently found organizational practices, formal and informal, are linked to employees’ work-life spillover. However, few studies have examined whether such practices have similar consequences across ethnoracial groups—an important gap—given differences in relevant demands and resources, both work-related (such as, access to benefits, interpersonal relationships, and social exclusion) and nonwork-related (such as household division of labor, caregiving responsibilities and kin support). In this study, using a diverse nationally representative sample of U.S.-based employees from the 2016 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 1489), we examine ethnoracial differences in work-life spillover and its association with workplace inclusion, a set of relational practices that make employees feel accepted, valued, supported, and involved, through workgroup support and belongingness, a culture of respect and trust, participatory decision-making, and a whole-employee approach. Using logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics, we estimate and compare probabilities of spillover between white and non-white employees over the distribution of inclusion scores. We find work-to-family spillover is high for both groups and negatively associated with workplace inclusion, but ethnorcial differences are not significant; however, while family-to-work spillover is also high; it is significantly negatively associated with workplace inclusion only for non-white employees. Overall, the ethnoracial difference in work-family spillover is significantly smaller in more inclusive workplaces. Our findings provide new evidence on the role of employer practices in shaping work-family outcomes and indicate that they may be more consequential for non-white employees.
  • An (Un)necessary Separation from Families? The Case of Migrant Farmworkers in Canada. .....Jill Hanley, McGill University; Guillermo Ventura Sanchez, Concordia University; and Pankil Goswami, McGill University
    Registration Complete

  • The experience of migration for temporary foreign workers in Canada provides novel perspectives in understanding critical issues of work and family studies. Focusing on the injured migrant farmworkers in Quebec and Ontario, the research studies throw light on how injured migrant farmworkers survive in alien and challenging conditions in Canada and experience radical changes in living and working without their family. Precarious conditions of work aided by exploitative employers and lack of family care and support in cases of work injury amplifies the need to better respond to challenges that arise for these workers. The initial findings point out the need for family to be accompanied by workers while they venture out on this long treacherous path to work on Canadian farmlands. However, the design of the program for temporary foreign workers working in agriculture makes it more difficult to bring families points out to the larger theme of bordering practices for temporary workers. The current study tries to provide new contributions in the field of work and family studies and the transitions that families experience from the perspective of migrant farmworkers in Canada. The study also brings forward the issue of migration of workers from the global south within the realm of family and work studies.
31. Health and Well-Being in the Work-Family Context [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 3.265
  • "Betwixt and Between": How Liminal Experience Facilitates Work Recovery and Well-Being. .....Soo Min Toh, University of Toronto - Rotman School; and Xue Xiang, University of Toronto - Rotman School
    Registration Complete

  • The trend toward remote work raises critical questions for work and family researchers. As the boundaries between work and personal life blur, the role of liminal activities comes into the spotlight. With its roots in anthropology, the construct of liminality refers to the suspension of "ordinary social structures" (Johnsen & Sorensen, 2015, p. 321), such as the social roles individuals perform in their work and family lives. Individuals can enter this state of liminality by performing liminal activities that are not part of their social role requirements (e.g., exercising, commuting) to facilitate psychological role transitioning and recovery from work (e.g., McAlpine & Piszczek, 2022). Building on resource theories (Hobfoll, 1998), our ongoing empirical study identifies mechanisms that may hinder individuals from entering this liminal state and reaping associated recovery benefits. Central to our investigation is the role of reflection in liminal experiences (Beech, 2011). We posit that while positive self-reflection can amplify the benefits of liminality, rumination might serve as a deterrent. Additionally, we posit that individuals’ positive and negative affect play a key role in the liminal experience such that entering into the liminal space with high negative affect prevents individuals from realizing the benefits of liminality. Furthermore, we investigate the roles of conformity and varying levels of collectivism in the experience of liminality, determining if they serve as facilitators or barriers. This research advances our understanding of evolving work-life dynamics and resource recovery strategies and has implications for managing work boundaries, especially in the digital age.
  • Divorce and Mental Health: Analysis at the Intersection of Age, Gender, and Income. .....Stefania Molina, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli; Enrique Alonso-Perez, Charité Berlin; and Michaela Kreyenfeld, Hertie School
    Registration Complete

  • This paper examines how divorce relates to mental health, and how this association is stratified by gender, age, and individual income. Data is drawn from German register data, which includes marital histories of divorcees and diagnosed health outcomes. The analytical sample includes persons aged 30-59 in 2015 (n=23,426,639). In a first step, we conduct a descriptive analysis of the annual incidence of cancer, heart, muscular, nervous system, respiratory and mental disease diagnosis by age, gender, and divorce status. In a second step, we employ a Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity and Discriminatory Accuracy (MAIHDA) in which the outcome variable is the annual incidence of mental disease diagnosis to compare the patterns of the newly divorced (divorced for less than four years) to the patterns of the never divorced. The analysis helps to identify high-risk populations along the age-gender-income spectrum. Compared to the never divorced, we find a very strong age gradient among newly divorced women. While age seems to be a general risk factor, the small group of women with a very high income face a relatively low risk of receiving a mental disease diagnosis. Among men, older and low-income males are at particularly high risk of being diagnosed with a mental disease. The findings may suggest that the negative effects of gray divorce on women's mental health may be mitigated as women become more integrated into the labor market.
  • The Influence of Home Demands and Home Resources on the Duration of Sickness Absence. .....Maaike de Jong, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG; Tialda Hoekstra, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen/UMCG; Nicole Snippen, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG; Haitze de Vries, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG; Jolanda Schreuder, Schreuderarbo; Sandra Brouwer, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG; and Corné Roelen, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG / Arbo Unie
    Registration Complete

  • Purpose Due to changes in both work and home environment within the past decades employees find themselves struggling to balance the competing demands of work- and home-life more and more. To date, research has mainly examined the influence of work demands and resources on work-life balance and sickness absence. The influence of home demands and resources has hardly been investigated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of home demands and resources on time to return to work (RTW). Methods This is a prospective study with 2-year follow-up which used survey and sick-leave registry data from a longitudinal cohort study among sick-listed employees. Statistical analyses were conducted by Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Results: A total of 120 employees were included (44% female, mean age 52.4 (SD 10.8)). No univariable associations between home antecedents and time to RTW were found in the total group. Multivariable analyzes showed significant interaction effects between work and home resources (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00) and between work demands and home resources (HR 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06) with time to RTW. Analyzes stratified by diagnosis category showed a significant association between home resources and time to RTW in employees with mental disorders (n=26) (HR 0.96; 96% CI, 0.93-0.99). Conclusions Home resources are associated with time to RTW, both direct in mental disorders and in interaction with work antecedents in the total group. More research is needed in larger study populations and with a validated measuring instrument.
  • The Interplay Between After-Hours Connectivity, Psychological Detachment, and Emotional Exhaustion. .....Kristine Lescoeur, OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University; Vilde Hoff Bernstrøm, OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University; and Wendy Nilsen, OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University
    Registration Complete

  • With the increased use of information and communication technology, employees have become more accessible to their employers during non-work hours, enabling them to be constantly connected to work. These new boundary-crossing manners of working might be detrimental to employees’ well-being. The objective of the study is to examine the longitudinal interplay between after-hour connectivity, psychological detachment, and emotional exhaustion in employees with and without caregiver responsibilities. 2893 Norwegian employees who had teleworking opportunities answered a four-wave survey between February 2021 and August 2022. Each survey included measures of work-related connectivity during non-work hours (Intensive Smartphone Scale), psychological detachment, and emotional exhaustion (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory). We used multilevel structural equation modeling to examine to which degree psychological detachment from work is an underlying mechanism in the link between after-hour connectivity and emotional exhaustion. We explored differences between men and women in different age groups, with and without caregiver responsibilities. Preliminary results showed a positive relationship between connectivity and emotional exhaustion, and a negative relationship between connectivity and psychological detachment. Finally, psychological detachment partially mediated the relationship between connectivity and emotional exhaustion. The findings are in line with our expectations and indicate that detachment can explain why connectivity might increase exhaustion. We discuss gender and caregiver differences in light of life course theories.
32. Women's Economic Decision Making [Paper Session]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 3.270
  • Women’s Work-Related Decision-Making and Implications for Economic Well-Being: Evidence from India. .....Vedavati Patwardhan, University of California, San Diego; and Lotus McDougal, University of California, San Diego
    Registration Complete

  • The decision to work is an important yet understudied facet of women’s economic empowerment. This study explores the relationship between married women’s autonomy over the decision to work, workforce participation, and control over financial resources, using cross-sectional survey data collected in 2022 in India’s three most populous states, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. Logistic regressions demonstrate that women in all three states are significantly more likely to engage in paid work when they alone have the final say over the decision to work, compared to when their spouse is the primary decision-maker. We also find that sole decision-maker status is positively related with women’s control over money in Bihar and Maharashtra, and with women’s savings and remittances in Maharashtra. In Maharashtra, women who jointly decide with their spouse are also more likely to work, and joint decision-making is positively associated with women’s control over money in all three states. Our study highlights work-related autonomy as an important pathway to women’s economic opportunities and inclusion in India, and is among the first to empirically examine the relationship between women’s work-related decision-making and economic outcomes. Overall, the results are in line with other evidence on the positive relationship between women’s bargaining power within the household and a variety of health and human capital outcomes, and offer support for designing programs aimed at encouraging women’s participation in the workforce.
  • Ill Matched or Right for Each Other? An Exploration of Copreneurial Ventures, Family Dynamic, and Firm Performance. .....Chiung-Wen Tsao, National University of Tainan
    Registration Complete

  • The number of copreneurial ventures (couple-owned businesses) is on the increase, however, little is known of the factors that influence the success of this type of family business. Wives have traditionally played many subtle roles in family firms: spouse, parent, in-law, and family leader. And most importantly, they play the role of care givers for the peace and harmony in the family and in the firm. Wives’ involvement is critical and substantial in both family and business spheres, however, a consideration of the potential effects of wives’ involvement in family business is largely absent from the general family business research literature. The decision to launch a business should depend not only on analysis of the opportunity, but also on the degrees to which one's spouse shares a common vision about the goals, risks, and rewards of the business. This research draws upon resource-based view (RBV) and family capital perspectives in order to identify the various facets of wives’ involvements in copreneurial ventures, and aims to extend our understanding of the involvement of wives that predict the family dynamic and success of couple-owned businesses. This study employed the multiple-case study interview and documentary data to capture the thought and behavior of the co-entrepreneurial couples from five successful Taiwanese family businesses. A conceptual framework and related propositions were developed, which provides a practical tool for understanding the various facets of wives’ involvements and their impact on both family dynamic, and firm performance of copreneurial ventures.
  • The Feminization of Freedom: An Analysis of Love, Happiness and Freedom From the Perspective of Single, Never-Married, Childfree Women of Color. .....Kimberly Martinez Phillips, Memorial University
    Registration Complete

  • This article addresses singleness as a state of being and not a transition for single, never-married, voluntarily childfree women of color. As the characterization of adult romantic relationships has evolved, the meaning of singleness has also gone through a transformation. My research applies the theoretical frameworks of feminist standpoint theory and decolonial feminism through an intersectional lens to explain how women of color experience love and relationships in a non-traditional way, and how they create a singular corridor that allows them to exist on the boundaries of heteronormative marriage and romantic love. I examine two research questions: 1) How do never-married, voluntarily childfree women of color experience and feel about romantic love, singleness, sex, and attachments in society? and 2) how do their experiences within these contexts construct a sense of self? My study utilized a qualitative research methodology with an inductive inquiry approach. I conducted forty semi-structured interviews with women between 36 and 61 years old. I argue that these women have a unique positionality in society. They are women who have remained free from the heteronormative obligations to a husband or children, and they are also women who have not had the privileges of some of their white counterparts. Therefore, they have a group-based experience and knowledge that is rooted in group identity.
33. Exploring Family Wellbeing Through the Lens of Family Work: Job Characteristics and Inequalities in Diverse Families in Canada [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 3.430

Organizers: Sophie Mathieu, Vanier Institute of the Family; Margo Hilbrecht, Vanier Institute of the Family;

  • Heidi Cramm, Queens University;
  • Kim de Laat, Waterloo University;
  • Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay, TELUQ University;
34. The Future of Fatherhood [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 3.435

Organizer: Richard Petts, Ball State University
Presider: Richard Petts, Ball State University

  • Marc Grau Grau, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya;
  • Brad Harrington, Boston College - Center for Work & Family;
  • Jasmine Kelland, University of Plymouth;
  • Margaret O'Brien, Univ of London;
  • Fatima Suarez, University of Nevada, Las Vegas;
35. Work-Life Boundary Management in a Technology-Driven Work Era: Enablers of Performance and Well-Being (sponsored by the WFRN special interest group for 'Work, Family and Technology') [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | MB 3.445

Organizers: Kaumudi Misra, California State University, East Bay; Angela Grotto, Manhattan College;
  • Effective Boundary Control and Equality Outcomes: Moving to the Future. .....Ellen Ernst Kossek, Purdue University
  • Work is becoming more digitalized and intensified, due to rising connectivity. This is changing boundaries between work and personal life, causing employees and organizations to experience boundary control tensions. One strategy organizations are implementing involves experimenting with redesigning work to allow more flexibility. Employees are also seeking new boundary management strategies. Unfortunately, flexible work means different things to different people in different job contexts across job levels (workers, managers), creating challenges for research and practice. To advance alignment, I suggest conceptualizing flexibility policies as a means to have different forms of control over the work role boundary. I encourage researchers to effectively measure the mixed consequences of the differential availability and use of flexibility and its varying boundary control challenges for different workers across occupations, gender, and cultures. I argue that the ability to have control over the work and nonwork boundary is a rising form of job inequality. In particular, virtuality is a double-edged sword for women, which I illustrate with results from intervention studies. The first study is on the flexstyle leadership training assessment of boundary management styles, i.e., the varied strategies individuals prefer to manage work-life boundaries. Individuals can be clustered into separators, integrators, and cyclers who vary in boundary control and identity alignment, and work/nonwork outcomes. (Kossek, 2016; Kossek & Lautsch, 2008, 2012). I also share results from recent studies on professionals, drawing on STEM faculty samples and focusing on the gendered consequences of disrupted boundaries, and conclude with future research directions.
  • How and When TASW-Fairness Influence Personal Initiative and Work Withdrawal: The Role of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism. .....Sunjin Pak, California State University, Bakersfield; Amit Kramer, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig; and Boreum Ju, California State University, Bakersfield
  • Employees increasingly conduct supplemental work outside the work domain using information and communication technologies, such as laptops, smartphones, or other mobile devices. This work is not covered by a formal contract or being directly compensated. While different studies have addressed technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) using fairness-related research questions, very limited work addressed this theoretically, grouping these questions under the overarching “fairness” framework. To address this, we propose the concept of TASW-fairness and use conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship of TASW-fairness with two resources-investment strategies: acquiring new resources (personal initiative behaviors) and conserving resources reserves (work withdrawal behaviors). We also examine whether energy mediates these relationships. We collected a sample of 728 U.S. employees and found support for the mediation hypotheses. When employees perceive TASW as fair (unfair), they report higher (lower) energy levels and are thus likely to conduct personal initiative (work withdrawal) behaviors. As individual differences may alter the relationship between perceived fairness and energy, we test a moderated-mediation model with conscientiousness and neuroticism as moderators of the indirect relationships of TASW-fairness with personal initiative and work withdrawal behaviors. We find that among highly conscientious employees, the relationship between TASW-fairness and personal initiative is more pronounced, and the link between TASW-fairness and work withdrawal behavior diminishes.
  • A Qualitative Study of Cross-Cultural Differences in Manager Experiences With After-Hours Interruptions From Work. .....Angela Grotto, Manhattan College; Kaumudi Misra, California State University, East Bay; and Ronit Waismel-Manor, The Open University, Israel
  • Role theory suggests that culture shapes identification with work and nonwork roles; such differences may shape experiences with after-hour interruptions from work and tactics for establishing boundaries. Yet, cross-cultural differences remain largely unexplored in the boundary management literature. Boundary management research also rarely focuses on managers or has not distinguished the experiences of managers from employees. Yet, the manager experience is likely unique, given power differences and their responsibility to set interruption norms for their team members while adhering to their bosses’ norms. Consequently, there is a lack of understanding of the tactics that managers use to establish and communicate boundaries. This qualitative study is part of a larger study in which we examine cross-cultural differences in manager experiences with after-hour interruptions from work. Interviews with managers from Israel and India revealed differences in role identification, expectations and thresholds for interruptions, responses to interruptions, and boundary management tactics (for themselves and their employees). Additionally, themes of power and gender emerged in relation to boundary setting and communication. Since power distance and gender differentiation vary across cultures and are relevant in workplace interactions, such as interruption, we will explore these cultural values in a survey study.
  • Remote/Hybrid Work During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Examination of the Mediating Role of Remote Work Self-Efficacy in the Relationship Between Techno-Stressors and Job Performance. .....Xi Wen (Carys) Chan, Griffith University; and Jeremiah Belina, Other
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred drastic changes in how we live and work, with remote/hybrid work gaining prominence as a means to safeguard employees from the COVID-19 virus transmission. While remote/hybrid work offers many benefits, it also poses challenges. Increased reliance on technology due to remote/hybrid work has led to heightened techno-stress, negatively impacting remote employees' well-being and performance. This study applied the work-home resources (W-HR) model to explore the mediating role of remote work self-efficacy between techno-stressors and job performance. Data was collected from 127 remote workers and analysed using the SPSS PROCESS macro. Results revealed that techno-stressors were significantly and negatively related to remote work self-efficacy, and remote work self-efficacy was significantly and positively related to job performance. Remote work self-efficacy also mediated the negative relationship between techno-stressors and job performance. Implications and limitations of the current study, as well as future directions for research are discussed.
  • Kaumudi Misra, California State University, East Bay
  • Angela Grotto, Manhattan College
36. Dual-Earner Couples and the Work-Family Interface: Understanding Dynamics from a Dyadic Perspective [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Thursday | 1:30 pm-3:00 pm | S2.115

Organizers: Anna M. Stertz, RWTH Aachen University; Bettina S. Wiese, RWTH Aachen University;
Presider: Anna M. Stertz, RWTH Aachen University
  • Dual-Earner Couples’ Sharing of Work-Related Events: Effects on Relational and Personal Well-Being. .....Yue Yang Sun, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen; Tianyuan Li, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Anna M. Stertz, RWTH Aachen University; and Bettina S. Wiese, RWTH Aachen University
  • With the increasing attention paid to personal growth and self-expressive goals in modern marriages, dual-earner couples’ sharing of work-related events with the partner can be of real essence in promoting mutual support for each other’s personal growth, and this could thereby contribute to both partners’ relational and personal well-being. In the current study, a total of 102 heterosexual dual-earner couples were recruited from communities in Hong Kong, with wives’ average age being 41.8 (SD = 9.8) and husbands’ average age being 44.0 (SD = 10.4). The duration of the marriage ranged from 0.25 to 35.33 years, with an average of 13.87 years (SD = 10.63). They completed a pre-test survey, a 14-day daily diary study, and a follow-up survey one year later. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was adopted to analyze the dyadic effects of sharing positive and negative work-related events on relationship satisfaction and personal well-being on the same day and one year later. In general, the sharing of both positive and negative work-related events had beneficial effects on the outcomes. Specifically, sharing positive work-related events had more immediate effects on both partners’ relationship satisfaction, while sharing negative work-related events benefitted relationship satisfaction more in the long run. Also, wives’ sharing had more immediate effects on both partners’ relational and personal well-being, while husbands’ sharing had more long-term effects on the partner’s personal well-being. The findings highlight the importance of work-related sharing in dual-earner couples and the need to differentiate its short-term and long-term effects.
  • How Both Parents’ Career Commitment Affects Couples’ Decisions About Parental Leave. .....Anna M. Stertz, RWTH Aachen University; and Bettina S. Wiese, RWTH Aachen University
  • This study examines couples’ parental leave decisions from a psychological perspective combining career and relationship research. We investigate (a) how a partner’s career commitment influences this partner’s leave length (actor effect), (b) how one partner’s career commitment influences the other partner’s leave length (partner effect), and (c) how the interaction of both partners’ career commitment influences the mother’s and the father’s leave length (interaction effect). We analyzed longitudinal dyadic data (N = 365 heterosexual couples mainly from Germany) collected during pregnancy to 18 months postpartum using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Overall, we found similar patterns of actor and partner effects for mothers and fathers. The more career-committed a partner, the shorter the leave of this partner. The more career-committed one partner, the longer the leave of the other partner. For fathers, we also found an interaction effect: in couples where the mother was highly career-committed but the father was not, fathers took the longest parental leave. In contrast, if the father was highly career-committed, he took a short leave regardless of the mother’s career commitment. Thus, mothers seem to be willing to become more involved in the family in favor of their partner’s career ambitions, but fathers do so only if they themselves do not have a high level of career commitment. The study highlights that a view of career commitment limited to individuals does not do justice to dual-earner couples. Here, a dyadic perspective contributes to a deeper understanding of couples’ career-related decisions in the early-family phase.
  • Financial Integration Variation Among Same-Gender and Mixed-Gender Couples. .....Joanna R. Pepin, University of Toronto; and Chandler Fairbanks, University at Buffalo (SUNY)
  • Past research has shown links between financial integration and greater relationship stability and quality. These associations are primarily based on mixed-gender couples and may differ in important ways depending on the gender composition of the couple—whether a man and a woman, two men, or two women. Using U.S. population representative data from the 2020–2021 National Couples’ Health and Time Study (NCHAT), we use logistic regression to examine couple-type variation in the associations between complete financial integration and marital status and using three scales: instability risk, relationship dissatisfaction, and negative interactions. Findings show married women partnered with women are less likely than other married couples to completely pool their finances, but we find little variation among cohabitors by couple-type, after adjusting for variation in demographic background characteristics. Among all couple-types, results also show lower probability of complete financial pooling is associated with higher values on a relationship instability scale. Unlike relationship stability, the association between relationship quality and financial integration depends on the gender composition of the couple. Greater relationship dissatisfaction was associated with lower probabilities of complete pooling among all couple-types except men partnered with men, whose financial integration appears not to be responsive to levels of relationship dissatisfaction. There is a positive association between reports of negative interactions and probability of pooling for all couple-types, but the association is stronger for same-gender couples than for mixed-gender couples.
  • Work-Family Reflection: A Decision-Making Intervention for Dual-Earner Couples. .....Courtney Masterson, University of San Francisco- School of Management
  • In this experimental study, we test the effects of a “work-family reflection” intervention on dual-earner couple’s engagement in collaborative and effortful decision-making processes when faced with events at the intersection of their work and family lives—such as a promotion, relocating to a new city, or becoming the primary caregiver for an aging parent. March (1994: 14) explains that “Decisions are framed by beliefs that define the problem to be addressed, the information that must be collected, and the dimensions that must be evaluated.” We propose that when dual-earner couples reflect upon the constellation of their work and family roles, goals, and experiences, they are more likely to frame decisions in a way that captures the full picture of their lives as workers and family members. When they pause to consciously think about, analyze, and question the past as a means to generate greater knowledge and consciousness (Ardelt & Grunwald, 2018), they may be more likely to frame the work-family event at hand as necessitating a “we” decision (vs. me) and as one that require their attention, effort, and collaboration. Extant research suggests that reflection may help a couple to slow down the decision-making process to better understand one another’s perspectives and, ultimately, resist gendered or power-based scripts in decision-making (Gerace et al., 2017). In the proposed session, we will present the work-family reflection intervention and share results from the pilot experimental study.
37. Coffee and Poster Session 1
Thursday | 3:00 pm-3:45 pm | MB9
  • In the Company of Animals: Recommendations for Pet-Friendly Organizations in a Post-Pandemic World. .....Souha Ezzedeen, York University; and Tina Sharifi, York University
    Registration Complete

  • One of the most visible manifestations of the pandemic was the shift to remote work for office workers, accompanied by the unprecedented adoption of millions of pet animals across North America and around the world. These “Covid Puppies” or “Pandemic Pets,” along with their pre-pandemic counterparts, are reported to have significant health and well-being outcomes for individuals. More recently, remote work has transitioned to a hybrid work environment, whereby employees are mandated to balance work partly at home and partly remotely. While research reports substantial benefits of this newfound work structure, pet owners are faced with significant psychological challenges in parting with their companion animals as well as logistical and financial challenges in ensuring their care during their absence. As a result of this shift, reports indicate that a greater number of pets are being surrendered or relinquished by pet owners. To address the challenges of this post-pandemic work environment, many global organizations have endeavored to reshape HR and corporate policies and practices to better engage and leverage their flexible workforce, including ramping up their pet-friendly policies. The trend of pet-friendliness, which at times includes permission to bring pets to the office, had begun before the pandemic and appears again on the rise. In this presentation, we explore different ways for organizations to be pet-friendly and respond to pet ownership among their workers within a post-pandemic world.
  • Remote Work, Stock Market Participation and Inequality. .....Lorenz Meister, Free University of Berlin / DIW Berlin; Lukas Menkhoff, DIW Berlin / Humboldt University of Berlin; and Carsten Schröder, DIW Berlin / Free University of Berlin
    Registration Complete

  • Stock market participation jumped upwards in Germany in the year 2020 by about 25%. A major cause for this was the enforced use of remote work. We show this by repeating a benchmark study with demanding data requests and adding remote work to the explanatory variables. Moreover, we implement an instrumental variables estimation based on commuting distance and work-from-home capacity. The transmission channel seems to work via relaxing time constraints: the effect is not present for households with children, presumably because they invest the time gains in childcare. Finally, we show that remote work has a distributional effect. Using a Theil-index decomposition, we show that income inequality between those who own stocks and those who do not decreases significantly. Thus, remote work makes the stock market accessible to a broader population, including lower income groups.
  • Towards a Better Understanding of the (Unequal) Influence of Parenting: It’s About Time!. .....Renske Keizer, Erasmus University Rotterdam
    Registration Complete

  • The key objective of my research project is to create a breakthrough in our understanding of the mechanisms by which social class influences parenting and child outcomes. I argue that such a breakthrough can be obtained by treating time as a resource. With large social class discrepancies in people’s ability to use, control, and negotiate time, I propose that how parents deal with unexpected events, and how this is reflected in, and transpires into, their parenting behavior, and subsequently child development is an important but overlooked mechanism in the intergenerational transmission of inequality. The proposed project is timely and relevant: inequalities in child outcomes have grown over the last decades, governments have been unsuccessful in putting a halt to this development, politicians and policy members are in urgent need for scientific input for better-tailored policies to reduce inequality in children’s outcomes, and scholars have not been able to come to a consensus on the underlying mechanisms. I propose to kickstart a new, interdisciplinary, research field that links the sociological stratification literature to developmental psychology theory on parenting, while making use of recent advances made in analyzing daily within-family data. My mixed-method multi-actor study will be the first to embed rich Experience Sample Method (ESM) data on how parents deal with unexpected events, collected amongst 200 mothers and fathers from both higher and lower social class families, into the large-scale ongoing longitudinal data collection on stratification processes within and across families in Rotterdam that I am leading. The collection of rich qualitative data will allow me to develop time-sensitive theory based on findings derived from the ESM data collection.
  • The Effect of the Home Domain on Career Sustainability. .....Jeffrey Greenhaus, Drexel University; Gerard Callanan, West Chester University of Pennsylvania; and Gary Powell, University of Connecticut
    Registration Complete

  • The concept of sustainability, traditionally viewed as the protection and renewal of the natural environment, has increasingly been applied to the study of careers. Interest in sustainable careers—that is, careers in which individuals experience happiness, health, and productivity at work over the life course—has grown substantially in the last several decades because dramatic changes in work (e.g., impermanent, unstable work arrangements), family life (e.g., single parenthood), and personal characteristics (e.g., deterioration of skills) have either disrupted individuals’ continued employment or have threatened their positive experiences at work. Although the empirical literature has provided insight into the individual and organizational factors that can affect the sustainability of a career, the effect of the home domain on career sustainability has been widely neglected, despite the insistence of many scholars that the intersection of the work and home domains is central to understanding a sustainable career. To overcome this limitation in the literature, we develop a conceptual framework of the career sustainability process and demonstrate that the home domain can affect career sustainability in three broad ways; as a (1) facilitator of action that individuals can take to achieve happy, healthy, and productive experiences at work, (2) source of potentially disruptive change over the life course and as a resource for coping with change, and (3) repository of experiences that spillover to affect happiness, health, and productivity at work. We conclude with a research agenda to guide theory development and stimulate empirical research.
  • Examining a Work-Family Balance Measure Through an IRT Lens. .....Alyssa Lezcano, University of South Florida; Stephen Stark, University of South Florida; Tammy Allen, University of South Florida; Michelle Hughes Miller, University of South Florida; Kimberly French, Colorado State University; Eunsook Kim, University of South Florida; and Grisselle Centeno, Florida Southern College
    Registration Complete

  • Interest in the construct of work-family balance (WFB) has grown considerably over the past decade (Casper et al., 2018). One of the most popular brief measures of WFB is the 5-item measure used in Greenhaus et al. (2012). The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Greenhaus et al. (2012) measure based on a sample of 956 university faculty. Specifically, we test whether the data fit a unidimensional model, the efficacy of each item, and whether there are differences in item responses across gender. Item response theory (IRT) analysis shows that the scale is unidimensional, and that a four-item measure may be equally informative as the original five-item measure. Further, differential item functioning analyses provide evidence indicating that men and women do not have a different probability of endorsing specific options for the four included items. Recommendations are made for future research and practice.
  • Understanding Work-Family Balance Through the Lens of Partner Work-Family Boundary Negotiation. .....Yu-Shan Hsu, Concordia University; Maggie Wan, Texas State; and Margaret Shaffer, University of Oklahoma
    Registration Complete

  • As the work-from-home/hybrid work trend continues post-pandemic, how dual-earner couples reconcile each other’s boundary management expectations, in order to achieve work-family balance, has becomes an important topic. While most work-family research focuses on the individual-level effort in achieving work-family balance, we argue that work-family balance can be understood from a system perspective. That is, work-family balance is achieved via successful negotiations with other key stakeholders, such as spouses, regarding boundary management expectations between work and family domains. For example, if both dual-career couples are working after ‘normal’ office hours, who will tend to household tasks such as preparing meals? Also, if both are working during ‘normal’ office hours, which partner will be responsible for picking up a sick child at school? To understand work-family balance as a dynamic process that may fluctuate daily and from a system perspective that involves both employees and spouses, we draw on the theory of identity negotiation and crossover theory. We propose a conceptual model of work-family boundary management negotiation that conceptualizes work-family balance as a negotiation process regarding boundary management between partners. Specifically, our model articulates how partner work-family boundary negotiation, defined as the collaborative decision making of work-family boundary management expectations, helps dual-earner couples meet each other’s expectations regarding boundary management, and in turn, facilitates dual-earner couple’s work-family balance. This research contributes to the work-family literature by making it explicit that work-family balance is a couple-level process of negotiating boundary management expectations between an employee and the spouse.
  • Examining the Role of Acculturation Strategies in Immigrant Employees’ Work-Family Conflict. .....Maggie Wan, Texas State; and Margaret Shaffer, University of Oklahoma
    Registration Complete

  • With the forces of globalization and economic shifts, there has been a noticeable rise in the presence of immigrant employees and their families around the world. Acculturation is a critical process through which immigrant employees adapt to a new culture upon relocating to another country, but we know little about how this process influences their work-family interface. Drawing upon the theories of acculturation and belongingness, the study aims to understand whether and how each of the four acculturation strategies - assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization – has unique influences on immigrant employees’ work-family conflict as mediated by the feeling of exclusion at work. In addition, we consider work centrality as a pivotal factor that would enhance the proposed indirect effects. We sampled 696 immigrant employees from 31 host countries to test the hypothesized model. We found that separation and marginalization were positively associated with immigrant employees’ feeling of exclusion at work, which further increased their work-family conflict. Meanwhile, integration was negatively associated with the feeling of exclusion at work and consequently reduced work-family conflict. In addition, work centrality moderated the intervening relationships, such that these indirect effects were stronger when the level of work centrality was higher. Interestingly, an assimilation strategy had no effect on immigrant employees’ work-family conflict. This research not only brings important contributions to the literature, but it also offers timely practical implications that would advance immigrant employees’ work-family experiences.
  • Crossover of Spousal Job Stress to Sleep Outcomes of Their Partner: Proposed Mediation via Anxiety and Moderation via Partner Support. .....Caroline Deal, University of South Florida
    Registration Complete

  • This study uses dyadic data from 1515 couples to investigate how job stress of the focal spouse relates to sleep quality and duration of both the focal spouse and their partner. Job stress of the focal spouse has been linked to negative impacts on the psychological health and mortality of their partner; however, sleep has yet to be considered as an outcome. Job stress has repeatedly been linked to sleep problems, and sleep is a phenomenon shared daily by most couples, making both variables particularly relevant. My study draws from crossover theory (Westman, 2001), which describes processes through which stressors from one spouse crossover to their partner. Conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) is also relevant: it postulates that individuals strive to avoid resource loss and that resource loss results in psychological distress. Thus, I hypothesize that job stress of the focal spouse will negatively impact their sleep quality and duration via anxiety, but that these relationships will be moderated by perceived partner support such that higher partner support will correlate with a decrease in the negative impact of job stress on sleep outcomes via decreased anxiety. I further propose that job stress of the focal spouse will negatively relate to sleep quality and duration of their partner through the mechanisms of partners’ increased anxiety and family demands as partners provide more support for their spouses. I will use Actor-Partner Interdependence Models to analyze each member of the couple from the focal spouse and partner perspectives.
  • A typology of working time arrangements among dual-earner couples in South Korea: with a focus on working hours, work schedules, and flexibility. .....Seohyun Jung, University of Kent; and Heejung Chung, University of Kent
    Registration Complete

  • This study examines how working time patterns shape the division of labour among dual-earner couples in South Korea. It provides an important extension of the ‘time availability’ perspective, by taking a multidimensional approach to assess the concept of ‘available time’ at the couple level. Specifically, this study measures three aspects of working time: (i) working hours, (ii) non-standard work schedules (e.g., evening, night and weekend work), and (iii) flexible working (e.g., homeworking). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) is used on data taken from the 2019 Korean Time Use Survey (KTUS) to identify the dominant couple typologies based on working time characteristics. It also explores the factors (e.g., marital and job-related characteristics) explaining the variations in working time typologies, and investigates how these typologies affect the division of housework and childcare between partners. This study will provide an enhanced understanding of how heterosexual dual-earner couples manage their diverse work and family responsibilities, shedding light on the dynamics of time allocation within these households.
  • Caregivers and Providers: The Impact of Parental Role Disclosure on Hiring Evaluations. .....Elizabeth Eley, Concordia University
    Not Registered

  • This research explores the impact of parenthood disclosures on hiring recommendations. We empirically test whether disclosing one’s parental role as a primary caregiver or a financial provider in a job interview influences hiring evaluations of men and women. Research has shown that women face motherhood penalties in the workplace due to being viewed as less than ideal workers, but increasingly men are also taking on more active parenting duties in the home and it is possible that caregiving fathers could also face penalties. At the same time, prior research has found that both women and men face backlash when they violate gender norms of femininity (e.g., nurturing) and masculinity (e.g., agency), respectively. We hypothesize that violations of gendered ‘home norms’ (e.g., a male primary caregiver or a female breadwinner) and gendered ‘work norms’ (e.g., a male in a caregiving occupation or a female in a STEM occupation) can also impact hiring evaluations. Using an experimental design, we manipulated applicant violations of gender norms by varying gender, occupation (i.e., nursing and engineering), and parenting disclosures (i.e, provider, primary caregiver and no disclosure) of an applicant for a fictional nurse manager or facilities manager position. Pilot data were collected from university students, and participants in the main study are individuals with hiring experience recruited from a panel service. Participants heard a “phone interview” and viewed the applicant’s CV and job description. Then, participants were asked to give their evaluations and hiring recommendations. Results and practical implications for organizations will be discussed.
  • Parental School Runs Program, Economic and Man-Hour Loss; A Nigerian Perspective.. .....Cosmas Uhuo, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki
    Registration Complete

  • Parental school run is a direct activity of parents and other older ages in the practice of manning and undertaking the welfare of their children at tender age. This is the parental involvement towards safe taking, keeping and picking of their children from schools prior and during resumption of their professional duties. An open-ended questionnaire was administered on one hundred civil and public servants working under the employment scheme of Ebonyi State Government who volunteered for inclusion right from the premise of Godis international school Abakaliki. Chi square results showed that out of 58 males enrolled in the program (4.6%) lost their jobs due to their employer’s ethical standards to zero tolerance. The ages between 30-40 years of age were highly affected with hourly loss to duty and economic and job losses while (8.2%) of women who participated in the test were neither recorded with any job and economic loss. The study attest to high productivity and efficiency to duty with attendant economic increase to males than females across Ebonyi State employment scheme. Therefore, the study advocates for the recruitment of child care personnel who will be engaged with school run activities. This will drastically reduce any loss occasioned by school runs programs by parents. This will also reduce unemployment and boast national economic growth.
  • Chasing Dreams or Paying Bills: How Multiple Jobs and Calling Influence Work-Life Conflict. .....Grace Vestuto, Illinois Institute of Technology; and Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology
    Registration Complete

  • Changes in economy and technology has impacted the experience of the worker, with worker who have multiple jobs and are using communication technology at all times. The increase in demands and potential for controlling them is the focus of this study. It is high level but inclusive.
38. Big Ideas Talks [Plenary]
Thursday | 4:00 pm-4:45 pm | H 110

Organizer: Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute
39. Rosabeth Moss Kanter Award for Excellence in Work-Family Research
Thursday | 4:45 pm-5:30 pm | H 110

Organizer: Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute
40. Windsor Ballrooms - Versailles Lounge Gala Reception
Thursday | 7:00 pm-9:00 pm | Windsor Ballrooms - Versailles Lounge
41. Invited Session: Insights from Champions of Age Diversity at Work [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 2.210

Organizer: Julie Miller, AARP

  • Lona Choi-Allum, AARP;
  • Carly Roszkowski, AARP;
  • Christina Matz, Boston College;
  • Julie Miller, AARP;
42. Gender, Partnerships, and Family Dynamics [Paper Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 2.265
  • Intensive Partnering: Gendered Partnership Aspirations and Household Inequality. .....Yinan Wang, Harvard University
    Registration Complete

  • Existing scholarship addressing the discrepancy between rising egalitarian gender ideals and persistent household inequalities has either focused on structural/cultural influences on couple dynamics or on couples’ post-hoc justifications. This study identifies an overlooked perceptual mechanism - partnership aspirations - that operates prior to couple dynamics as guidelines that shapes their following interactions, resource distribution, and responsibility allocation. Using 89 interviews with college-educated individuals, I argue that their partnership aspirations can be characterized as “intensive partnering,” a multi-layered support framework emphasizing intertwining support for the partner, relationship, and household. Its maintenance demands intensive and extensive energy, cognitive capacity, and emotional investment; continuous adaptation and incorporation of cultural tools in adjustment to partner’s expectations; and persistent assessment of both parties’ personal and professional lives. Notably, female participants emphasized these demands more frequently than their male counterparts. These insights illuminate the perceptual underpinnings of household gender dynamics, opening new research directions on domestic gender inequality.
  • The Mental Load: Implications for Work-Family Integration Among Canadian Mothers. .....Haneen Abraham, University of Alberta; and Rhonda Breitkreuz, University of Alberta
    Registration Complete

  • The mental load is a form of labor that describes cognitive and emotional labor undertaken by women, often in the form of rumination or anticipation about tasks pertaining to the functioning of the family system. Unlike tasks typically associated with reproductive work, such as childcare and housework, the mental load is an invisible form of labor. Characterized by its ambiguous boundaries, the mental load is a critical yet often overlooked factor in the work-family integration of Canadian mothers. Employing a socio-ecological, critical feminist approach, this study examines the ways in which the mental load impacts maternal employment choices. To conduct this analysis, data was collected from six focus groups and individual interviews with 58 mothers of preschool children in the Province of Alberta. The findings of this study highlight the diverse ways in which mental load is experienced, revealing how the mental load intersects with paid work and its impact on maternal employment choices. Specifically, we show how spouses' lack of recognition or awareness of the cognitive aspects of reproductive and household labor perpetuates gender inequality within households and hinders mothers' capacity and desire to engage in full-time employment. Because earned income is the key source of financial well-being for the majority of Canadian households, this research is important to explore pathways to enhancing income security while also contributing to the broader goal of gender equality in Canada.
  • Gender Ideology and Marital Dissatisfaction in Global Perspective. .....Nandeen Bhattacharyya, International Institute for Population Sciences
    Registration Complete

  • The worldwide reduction in satisfaction of marital union is guiding traditional marriages to dissolve rapidly. Despite a sharp increase in research on gender norms and marital interface, most of the scholarly papers are concentrated on certain geographical areas having the advantage of quality longitudinal family data. Since gender ideology is transiting worldwide and has a diversified effect on individuals' decision-making and lived experience, this study provides insight into the ways in which gender ideology influences dissatisfaction in marital unions. This study uses the data from the ISSP 2012 module ‘Family and Changing Gender Roles’ to answer the question of whether individuals with varied gender ideologies show dissimilar patterns in marital dissatisfaction. With the help of a multinomial regression model, coefficients of three categories (dissatisfied, neutral, and satisfied) of marital quality are estimated by gender ideology. We find a significant association between marital dissatisfaction and egalitarian gender ideology in a global context. The adjusted percentage of marital dissatisfaction by gender ideology estimated from multinomial regression coefficients converted into Multiple Classification Analysis shows more dissatisfaction in marriage with egalitarian gender ideology rather than traditional ideology and even more among females. The rigid traditional ideologies of society prevent an individual from combining the two spheres of gender roles leading to a higher level of marital dissatisfaction. This global study highlights that individuals specifically females with an egalitarian gender ideology vis-à-vis those with a traditional gender outlook tend to be more dissatisfied in their marriage than their counterparts.
  • In Search of a Suitable Boy: Tracing Gendered Linkages Between Employment Status and Marriage Market Outcomes. .....Shreya Singh, International Institute for Population Sciences; Srinivas Goli, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS); Anu Rammohan, University of Western Australia; and Harchand Ram, International Institute for Population Sciences
    Registration Complete

  • The Indian marriage market is characterized by its unique penchant for several requisites and restrictions on entering into a marital union. In recent times, these impositions have been undergoing a marked shift. Marriage as an institution is becoming increasingly sensitive to economic indicators. The erstwhile demands of religious, caste, wealth and educational endogamy have now been supplemented by the requirement of a steady job. Using longitudinal data collected by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, this paper seeks to map the gender differentials in employment status and marital status. The Cox Proportional Hazards Model reveals that employed males have a greater hazard ratio of entering into a marital union as compared to unemployed males, while the opposite is observed in the case of females. We thus conclude that linkages between employment status and marriage market outcome are considerably different for males and females, thereby adversely affecting their age at marriage.
43. A Life Course Perspective on Entry to Parenthood 2 [Paper Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 2.270
  • Women at Work: What It Means and What It Should Mean. .....Anagha Tendulkar Patil, Sophia College (Autonomous) Mumbai
    Registration Complete

  • The structure and functions of the institution of family are being rapidly revised across the globe. One can observe a concomitant change in the status and image of women and their evolving relation with their family. The paper attempts to review the journey of girls to womanhood as they emerge as workers and then of a woman to an older adult as they struggle to refurbish their identity in society. The causal processes in this transition be it of education, be it of urbanization or be it of industrialization impact family functioning and are instrumental in challenging the established algorithm of functioning of the family. The paper uses a qualitative design to focus on the changing paradigms of gender specific work appropriation which emerge out of the social and cultural guidelines of WORK for women and how women twist, adjust, tweak, engineer their work styles to match it with the then required family commitments and demands. The theoretical base of the paper is of the Life Course perspective, and it uses case study method to appreciate the typical trajectories of family life. It interrogates the participation of women in the work force and studies the wear and tear of ‘not working but busy’ and ‘working but available for housework’ situations from gender lenses. The paper makes an attempt to comment on what having a ‘working woman’ implies and what it should imply to the family members.
  • Shaping the Future: Insights From a Longitudinal Study on Women's Career Aspirations During Pregnancy and Postpartum. .....Vilma Ražauskienė, Lithuanian Centre for Social Sciences
    Registration Complete

  • This longitudinal study delves into the meanings of work for women during a transitional life stage. While the topics of opting out and opting in have garnered considerable attention, certain aspects of career development after childbirth remain underexplored. Existing literature often dichotomises women into two primary groups, and some theories propose a three-group classification. However, such divisions may be overly simplistic and not universally applicable to all women. The objective of this study is to enhance the understanding of women's career aspirations. To achieve this objective, two waves of individual semi-structured interviews with ten women at two specific time points were conducted: during pregnancy and four to six months postpartum. Although convenience sampling was employed for data collection, the research participants exhibited variation in marital status, educational level, number of children, breastfeeding practices, and other characteristics. The results of the study demonstrate that the meaning of work for the research participants varied both during pregnancy and after childbirth. Additionally, some participants unexpectedly adjusted their career aspirations after becoming mothers. The salience of the new identity as a mother is discussed as a precursor to temporarily stepping back from a career with aspirations to re-enter the labour market later on. This research enriches the discourse on work-life balance by offering valuable insights into how early motherhood shapes women's career goals, decisions, and expectations.
  • Exploring Parenthood Through the Perspective of The Voluntarily Childfree. .....Sunna Símonardóttir, University of Iceland
    Registration Complete

  • Fertility has decreased drastically across advanced, industrialized nations. One way to understand this development is to focus on individuals’ and couples’ fertility intentions to understand the decision-making process underlying the choice not to have a child and to explore how gendered parenting ideologies and circumstances affect this decision. The Icelandic context presents an interesting backdrop for this research, with its emphasis on gender equality, diverse family forms, and policies that support both parents’ participation in work and care. In this study I examine modern parenthood through the lens of those who are voluntarily childfree by interviewing 22 individuals, and couples who had decided to be childfree. The findings suggest an important divergence in the identity work performed by men and women as they negotiate their wishes to be childfree. The role of the mother is seen as mentally and emotionally draining, intricate, and requiring great personal sacrifice which suggests that intensive mothering narratives have directly influenced and informed decisions on fertility in the Icelandic context. Although the interviewees recognize flaws in the face of the egalitarian society regarding the unequal responsibilities and duties of mothers and fathers, they do not question the ideology of individualism and intensity that characterizes modern parenthood.
  • Parental Leave and Social Sustainability: How Can the Design of Parental Leave Meet a Social Sustainability Agenda?. .....Thordis Reimer, University of Hamburg; and Margaret O'Brien, Univ of London
    Registration Complete

  • According to the Brundtland Report published in 1987, sustainable development is divided into three pillars: ecological, economic and social development. So far, the concept of social sustainability has mostly been used to consider social consequences that arise from the connection with ecological or economic conditions. We would like to expand the existing concepts to include the perspective of parental leave regulations as a matter of the sustainable development of societies. After presenting already developed concepts of social sustainability, parental leave policies are examined for their relevance with regard to sustainable societies based on previous research. The analysis is structured along three design features of parental leave regulations. This includes the length of parental leaves, the level of benefits during parental leaves and access to these entitlements and benefits according to social or employment status. Comparative policy data are drawn from the International Network for Leave Policy and Research 2023 Review, which comprises 2022 data for 49 countries. In our conclusion, we discuss how the design of parental leave policies can meet a social sustainability agenda according to the UN Sustainable Developments Goals. Also, we use the perspective of parental leave policy as a question of the sustainability of societies in order to look at existing concepts of social sustainability, illuminate their strengths or weaknesses and discuss their further development.
44. Work and Family in the Global South [Paper Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 2.285
  • Navigating Breastfeeding and Employment: A Context-Sensitive Intersectional Exploration Among Muslim Mothers in South Africa. .....Feranaaz Farista, University of Cape Town; and Ameeta Jaga, University of Cape Town
    Registration Complete

  • Many Muslim women face workplace biases stemming from their dress code, skin colour, or observance of prayer and cultural practices, particularly in regions where Islam is not the prevailing faith. Muslim mothers returning to work after maternity leave, wishing to continue breastfeeding, face further challenges from their intersecting identities. Dominant Eurocentric and masculine workplace norms and lack of support from managers and co-workers for women’s breastfeeding in the workplace leads to mothers concealing their breastfeeding at work, ceasing breastfeeding, or exiting paid employment to meet Islamic expected breastfeeding duties— compromising the retention of diverse women in the workplace. This study offers novel insights into an understudied subgroup of mothers who navigate breastfeeding and employment within multiple layers of context. Data from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Muslim mothers in Cape Town, South Africa, were analysed through an intersectional transnational psychology lens to emphasise the influence of globalisation and exposure to multiple socio-cultural frameworks including work, family, community and governance structures. The integration of transnational psychology with intersectionality expands current approaches to the psychology of women on work-family topics like combining breastfeeding and paid employment. This theoretical lens reveals the intricate identity tensions that Muslim mothers encounter between their work and family responsibilities. We present recommendations for designing and implementing culturally sensitive and gender-equitable work-family policies to enhance workplace support for lactating Muslim mothers while fostering greater inclusivity and retention of diverse women. Keywords: Breastfeeding and lactation at work, transnational psychology, intersectionality, retention of diverse women, Islamic feminism, South Africa, global South
  • Beyond the Nuclear Family: Unravelling Diverse Family Structures and Workplace Breastfeeding Support for Employed Women in the Global South. .....Prudence Bongekile Mabaso, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal
    Registration Complete

  • As global initiatives intensify to create supportive workplace environments for breastfeeding mothers, understanding family structures is crucial for inclusive and effective policy and practice. Yet, existing perspectives predominantly centre around the white, middle-class, dual-earner paradigm, overlooking diverse family landscapes in historically oppressed regions like South Africa. This qualitative study, utilising in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with employed women, challenges the dominance of the nuclear family in supporting breastfeeding working mothers. Anchored Southern theories and intersectional analysis, the study critically examine the social, historical, and cultural contexts (e.g., high physical mobility between urban centres and rural villages and state of fatherhood) that shape unique family structures in South Africa, thus redefining our understanding of workplace breastfeeding. The study contributes to a pluralistic understanding of family and support, advocating for a holistic and culturally responsive approach to workplace breastfeeding initiatives. By amplifying voices from diverse family backgrounds, the study fosters nuanced strategies to address breastfeeding complexities in the workplace. With implications for management practices, this research aims to develop contextually informed strategies promoting sustained breastfeeding among employed women, acknowledging and addressing family diversity in the Global South.
45. Cultural Influences on the Life Course [Paper Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 2.430
  • Working Women on India’s Urban Marriage Market. .....Megan Reed, Emory University
    Registration Complete

  • Many marriages in India follow a male breadwinner model resulting in India having one of the lowest rates of female labor force participation in the world. Despite this pattern, there is evidence of growing labor force participation among the highest educated women in India’s metros. This study uses data from 46 interviews conducted in New Delhi to examines how the urban middle class makes sense of the competing cultural ideals of male breadwinning and dual earner marriage. Men married to working women frequently report that they were explicitly looking for a working woman on the arranged marriage market. Women’s careers were seen as essential to some families because the second income could help insure against financial instability. Working women, on the other hand, report that they want to work because their careers provide them with autonomy and a sense of accomplishment. Countering narratives which idealize the breadwinning household model, dual earning couples argued that working women make better partners and that shared career experience helps facilitate a companionate marriage. There was less willingness, however, to challenge gender roles in the division of household and care work. Dual earner couples employed patchwork of different strategies to manage household labor including employing domestic workers and relying on the labor of other female household members.
  • Social Infertility in Japan: Redesigning Social Policies and Future Trajectories. .....Takashi Mita, Kyoto Sangyo University; and Yukari Ito, Osaka University
    Registration Complete

  • Japan tackles a complex infertility issue that transcends medical remedies and is intricately linked to socio-economic challenges. This research centers on the concept of "social infertility," signifying the absence of comprehensive "family formation policies." In 2022, our qualitative survey delved into this issue, with a particular emphasis on work and family-related policies within Japanese local governments, revealing structural limitations and societal transitions. Numerous factors contribute to the contemporary Japanese population's hesitance to initiate families or have children. These include a rising number of single young adults, financial hardships among non-permanent employees, resistance to diverse family structures, and a deficiency in collective problem-solving in society. This has led to a sense of isolation, with existing support systems often favoring established families over prospective ones. Utilizing the methodology of Futures Studies, we discuss future social policies derived from interviews with local government officials and mayors. The research explores potential family formation scenarios using four conceptual models: "growth," "collapse," "discipline," and "transformation." These scenarios consider various elements, such as economic growth, escalating social inequality, effective social policies, and transformative changes to enhance quality of life. We underscore the necessity of tailoring social policies to suit each scenario, striving for a significant societal transformation. Without such adaptations, Japan's fertility challenges will persist, hindering the nation's path to achieving a balanced demographic structure. Additionally, each of the four models incorporates international comparisons, offering insights into the applicability of these findings to other regions worldwide.
46. The Role of Relational Partners in Work Identities and Career Decisions [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 2.435

Organizers: Elise Jones, U.S. Coast Guard Academy; Alexandra Rheinhardt, University of Connecticut;
Presiders: Elise Jones, U.S. Coast Guard Academy; Alexandra Rheinhardt, University of Connecticut;
  • Collateral Damage or Vicarious Beneficiary?: Unpacking the Experience of Career Breaks Induced by Collateral Transitions. .....
  • This paper examines the multi-level dynamics of gendered organizational imprinting in the experience of 56 professionals (47 women, 9 men) who took breaks from work to support their significant others’ career advancement in a year-long international MBA program. Leveraging archival data from The School of Business (TSB) and members’ accounts of women’s history in the organization, along with 175 interviews (4 time periods) and subsequent LinkedIn data of trailing spouse informants, we use an imprinting frame to make sense of patterns in individuals’ narratives and career trajectories. We find that a historical gendered organizational imprinting of spouses as non-professional “housewives”—communicated via institutional artefacts, practices, and spaces—was disproportionately experienced by the women in our sample, where the men perceived the imprint but were largely immune to the social implications of their TSB position. Despite arriving to TSB with similar education levels and work experience vis-à-vis the MBA student population, women who were most susceptible to imprinting, having invested in their spouse’s opportunity and their relationship by leaving their own jobs, were more likely to have narratives and career trajectories in later interviews and on LinkedIn that showed them taking on a “support” (rather than returning to a “professional equal”) role post-TSB. In contrast, the male partners and a few female partners escaped or consciously rejected the imprinted role. These were more likely to report benefitting from professionally-valuable TSB networks and knowledge, negotiating their spouse’s next career steps based on their own opportunities, and avoiding career penalties post-TSB. Through this study, we seek advance knowledge of what collateral transitions—those induced by another person’s transition—mean particularly for women’s careers and provide a longer-term view of turn-taking in dual career couples.
  • Against the Odds: The Role of Identity Partner Husbands in the Construction of Women’s Counternormative Worker Identity. .....Elise Jones, U.S. Coast Guard Academy
  • Although scholars have long recognized that identities are inherently relational, the literature is relatively silent on the role of interpersonal relationships in identity construction. In this study I address the role of an identity partner – a person who plays a significant role in an individual’s identity construction – in the construction of a counternormative identity. I conducted a broader inductive, qualitative study with 50 working mother professionals who, as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, were socialized from their youth to devote full time to caregiving and rather than pursuing careers. In individual interviews with 27 of these women and their husbands, I discovered that husbands shape women’s identity construction by both facilitating and impeding a worker identity that deviates from the norms of women’s faith community. While men acted primarily as identity partners by validating, cultivating, and collaborating a worker identity that is counternormative in the context of the women’s faith, some impeded women’s worker identities by engaging in deprioritizing and moderating approaches. The findings of this study illuminate the role of an identity partner in identity construction processes and the importance of expanding the context in which identity construction is examined.
  • From Grieving to Career Change: How Personal, Grief-Inducing Events Affect Work Identity. .....Lidiia Pletneva, London School of Economics
  • Building on an inductive, qualitative study of employees who experienced grief-inducing events such as the termination of a significant relationship as the result of bereavement or the breakup of a strong, committed partnership, this paper explores how and with what consequences such events affect identity and work identity in particular. Using the results of 55 in-depth interviews, I develop a conceptual model of the impact of personal, grief-inducing events on work identity. I find that these events prompt identity humanizing that can take two paths: toward self (in both work and life domains) and toward others (in both work and life domains). Such processes were induced by affective, cognitive, and relational triggers generated by grief-inducing events. In turn, identity humanizing leads to the reallocation of work-life balance resources, career path change, or job crafting behavior. This paper advances theorizing on identity, the meaning of work, and the work-life interface.
  • The Impact of CEO Parenthood Status on Flexible Work Policies and Employee Leave and Turnover Decisions. .....Christina Hymer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
  • This study examines how CEOs’ parental status shapes employee decisions around parental leave. Drawing on Work-Life Events Theory and Upper Echelons Theory, we argue that CEOs who have children are more likely to draw on their life experiences as a working parent to enact flexible work policies than CEOs who do not have children. In turn, we theorize that employees will feel empowered by these flexible work policies to take parental leave, thereby increasing their organization’s rate of leave-taking employees, and return to the firm following their leave period, lowering the organization’s turnover rates of leave-taking employees. We draw upon publicly available information on CEOs and survey data from the Australian government to test our hypotheses. We apply a time-lagged multilevel mediation model with a sample of 278 CEOs within 218 Australian firms from 2017 through 2020. Our analyses support our partially mediated theoretical model, such that CEO parental status leads to more flexible work policies, which then lead to higher rates of employees taking parental leave. In contrast to our theory, however, we find a similar partially-mediated relationship wherein CEO parental status leads to flexible work policies, which then lead to increased employee turnover rates following parental leave, rather than decreased turnover as we predicted. Taken together, our findings advance research on CEOs’ impact on policies and outcomes pertaining to their firm’s workplace environment, which not only contributes to the diversity, equity, and inclusion literature but also have considerable practical implications for firms in their talent management efforts.
47. Four Day Workweek Redux--Distribution, Issues and Progress [Thematic roundtable with multiple presentations]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 2.445

Organizer: Lonnie Golden, Penn State University - Abington College
Presider: Lonnie Golden, Penn State University - Abington College
  • Reduced and Compressed Work Weeks and Their Gendered Impacts.. .....Maria Foggia, York University
  • Maria Foggia from York University (Toronto), will present findings regarding reduced and compressed work weeks and their gendered impacts.
  • Emerging Four Day Work Week Trends in Australia: New Insights. .....John Hopkins, Swinburne University
  • Emerging Four Day Work Week Trends in Australia: New insights based on interviews with Australian firms who have already adopted 4DWW arrangements. A scoping review based on the feasibility of adopting 4DWW is presented first.
  • Time for What They Will: Changes in Work Hours and Time Spent on Non-Work Activities, 2003-2022. .....Joe Peck, Urban Institute
  • Joe Peck, from the Urban Institute in DC, will explore the differences in time use allocations by hours worked. It distinguishes between "productive" and "nonproductive" (including pure leisure) time repercussions. It finds nuanced differences in the amount of time sacrificed for more work hours by gender, race/ethnicity, part/full time and parental status. Inferences are made for reducing or compressing workweeks.

  • Wen Fan, Boston College;
  • Lonnie Golden, Penn State University - Abington College;
48. Health Determinants and Outcomes Across Varied Work-Family Arrangements [Paper Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 3.210
  • Performance at Work and at Home: An Exploratory Analysis of the Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Diets of Working Parents. .....Soo Min Toh, University of Toronto - Rotman School; Julie McCarthy, University of Toronto; Cilia Mejia-Lancheros, Institue for Better Health; Jess Haines, University of Guelph; and David Ma, University of Guelph
    Registration Complete

  • As the world grapples with a cost-of-living crisis and the threat of food insecurity, understanding how workers’ diet affects their health and engagement at work and homes is paramount. Food can be beneficial in promoting well-being and role performance at work and at home. Among dietary nutrients, omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have been shown to reduce depression, anxiety, and stress. The role of omega-3 FA, commonly found in seafood and supplements, in replenishing and building mental and physical resources necessary to engage with work and home responsibilities is poorly understood. This exploratory study examined associations between omega-3 FA in working parents’ diets and their performance, ability to fulfill responsibilities and duties in the workplace and at home, and the mediating role of their mental health status. We examined the 3-day diet records, depressive symptoms, and performance of 146 parents of 82 one- or two-parent families from the Guelph Family Health Study. Pathway analysis was performed using Mplus. Results showed an indirect and positive role of omega-3 FA intake on parents’ working and family performance through diet’s influence on depressive symptoms. Furthermore, this association varied by biological sex and females with greater omega-3 FA intake had lower depressive symptoms. These findings advance work-family research highlighting diet as a potential influence on role performance. Specifically, it highlights the need for adequate omega-3 FA intake so that working parents are equipped to function successfully at home and at work.
  • Precarious Lives, Precarious Work: Social Determinants of Racialized Immigrant Men’s Mental Health. .....Salmaan Khan, Ryerson University
    Registration Complete

  • A pilot study sought to shed light on the impacts of precarious working conditions (unpredictable work schedules, long hours, low-wages, and unsteady contract work) on the mental health of racialized immigrant men. Interviews and focus groups with a sample of racialized men working in precarious jobs, unearthed the intersectional nexus of social forces related to race and gender roles, in addition to their work arrangement, that negatively impacted their sense of wellbeing and mental health. Many of the men dealt with work related stress through substance use issues which in turn had consequences for their relationships with their spouse and children. The men we spoke with lamented the lack of a relationship they have with their children because of their work situation, but also showed an awareness of dominant notions of masculinity and gender roles that only further exacerbated the situation and which equally contributed to shaping how they dealt with work stress and uncertainty. This study is significant in drawing attention to underlying systemic social and economic issues that need to be addressed when considering policies and practices aimed at fostering more healthy parent-child relationships as well spousal relationships. As it stands these topics, with respect to members from racialized communities, have tended to be discussed and addressed in predominantly culturalist terms; in terms of identifying limitations in existing cultural practices or norms.
  • Change and Heterogeneity in Women’s and Men’s Experienced Well-Being. .....Liana Sayer, University of Maryland, College Park; Kelsey Drotning, U.S. Census Bureau; and Sarah Flood, University of Minnesota
    Registration Complete

  • The pandemic has caused sharp disruptions in work and family patterns and exacerbated chronic and life stressors for individuals and families. Women have also experienced greater care burdens and impacts on employment compared with men. How the pandemic has affected women’s and men’s experienced well-being (EWB) during daily activities is unclear, however. This is a critical gap because of the robust influences of EWB across the life course on health. The uneven experience of pandemic-related stress and strain across population sub-groups may be exacerbating pre-pandemic inequities in EWB. We use the 2010-2013 and 2021 American Time Use Survey and Well-Being Module data to investigate how EWB changed during the Pandemic and how change varies by gender, employment, and family status. We assess change in EWB averaged across activities and experienced during episodes of paid work, household and care work, and leisure activities. Our results show that women and men report more fatigue and less meaning in 2021 whereas stress, pain, sadness, and happiness are similar before and during the Pandemic. Employed women report higher fatigue and less happiness and meaning compared with men and unemployed women. Documenting changing patterns of gender differences in EWB across daily activities for employed and not-employed adults contributes by providing richer and more nuanced evidence about the extent and nature of gender inequality in well-being during the pandemic.
  • Intersecting Realities: An Inquiry into Economic Stress, Work-Family Conflict, and Well-Being. .....Tejinder Billing, Rowan University; and Rupashree Baral, Indian Institute of Technology Madras
    Not Registered

  • The U.S. population has witnessed increased inflation over the past two years. While the cost of most of the products has increased, there has not been a concomitant increase in the earrings of individuals, resulting in economic stress on many, especially families. This study examines how economic stress might be related to the work and family interface. Despite extant literature examining economic stress within familial contexts, a notable absence of studies exists regarding the interrelation between economic stress, work-family conflict, and overall well-being. This is surprising since managing work and family lives heavily relies on financial resources. Hence, it is crucial to understand how economic insecurity or cognitive evaluations of financial resources are related to one’s ability to manage work and family lives. Using the theoretical underpinnings of conservation of resources and cognitive appraisal theories, we develop arguments on an individual’s perception of their current economic situation and their cognitive evaluations of insecurity create stressors in their lives that might lead to depleting resources in work and family domains, creating a conflict between work and family lives. Using data collected over a period (in 2022 and 2023), we will examine the links between economic stress, work-family conflict, and individual well-being. The study results provide important insights into the nexus of economic stress, work-family conflict, and well-being.
  • Caring for Autism: Exploring the Work-Life Balance of Employed Caregivers. .....Esther Canonico, Imperial College London; and Daniela Lup, ECSP Business School
    Registration Complete

  • Issues surrounding autism in the workplace affect not only individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but also their carers. Grounded in the work-life interface literature, this qualitative study aims to examine the impact of caring for individuals with ASD on the work domain. While there are some existing studies that have explored the repercussions of caring for individuals with disabilities on work-life balance (Brown & Clark, 2017; Hodgetts et al., 2014), the available research is limited. Prior research has provided evidence of the substantial costs borne by caregivers of individuals with autism, encompassing diminished productivity, missed career opportunities, and reduced income (e.g., Montes & Halterman, 2008; Ganz, 2007). However, little is known about how caring for someone with ASD can affect caregivers' experience at work, their work-life balance, and associated work-related attitudes, such as job engagement, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and organizational commitment (Hurley-Hanson et al., 2020). To address this limitation, we conduct in-depth interviews with working carers, including parents and spouses, of individuals with ASD. The insights gained from this study will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the challenges faced by caregivers of individuals with ASD and the impact on their professional lives.
49. Flexible Work Arrangements: Experiences and Impacts [Paper Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 3.265
  • Flexible Working Arrangements and Allocation of Time: A Cross-National Perspective. .....Olga Leshchenko, University of Konstanz
    Registration Complete

  • Flexible working arrangements in terms of location and scheduling of work aim to provide workers with an opportunity to balance work and private domains of life. Nonetheless, there is evidence that flexible working can lead to the expansion of paid labor rather than life beyond work. This pattern also depends on gender identification, with women increasing unpaid work contributions and men increasing their paid working hours. Several small-N studies argue this might be due to individuals' work or family devotion and attitudes towards gender roles. This paper goes beyond the analysis of individual-level factors. It investigates across 28 European states how the context moderates the relationship between flexible working arrangements (i.e., working time autonomy, flexitime, homeworking) and hours spent on paid and unpaid activities. Using the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) for the years 2010, 2015, and 2021 and applying multilevel modeling, this study aims to uncover whether, in more gender egalitarian contexts, flexible working is associated with more time allocated to leisure and family among both men and women. Moreover, it explores if, in more secure labor markets (with a greater trade union density and lower unemployment rate), flexible working is associated with more time spent on leisure and family rather than on work. Analyzing these institutional factors will help understand how different gender normative and economic contexts either hinder or enhance work-life balance for both men and women through the provision of flexible working arrangements.
  • Remote Socialization: A Field Experiment in India. .....Stephanie Chan-Ahuja, London Business School
    Registration Complete

  • Prior research on remote working highlights its benefits including higher job performance and job satisfaction, among others (Raghuram and Wiesenfeld 2004, Gajendran and Harrison 2007, Spieler et al. 2017). However, while a large body of research suggests that remote working leads to increased productivity and positive psychological outcomes, anecdotal evidence suggests that organizational leaders are observing decreased productivity and high quit rates among remote workers. I propose that one reason for this discrepancy is that the current remote workers are socialized into organizations remotely while previous remote workers are mostly socialized into organizations in the office. Socialization, the process by which new hires acquire the expected behaviors, values, and social connections needed to assume an active role as a member of an organization, is a critical part of an employee’s onboarding and it affects the rest of an employee’s tenure at the organization (Van Maanen and Schein 1979, Jones 1986, Miller and Jablin 1991). However, to date, we know very little about the efficacy of newcomer socialization in a remote setting (Saks and Gruman 2021). To test this, I conduct a 3-week field experiment in India where I hire 240 workers for a real-effort task in data analytics. I randomize individuals into working from the office and working remotely. The results from this field experiment can inform our understanding of how remote working policies impact new hires into organizations.
  • Dynamic Configurations: How Changing Patterns of Team Members’ Locations Shape Remote Workers’ Experiences. .....Aurora Turek, Harvard University - Business School; Salvatore Affinito, Harvard University - Business School; Ashley Whillans, Harvard University - Business School; Leslie Perlow, Harvard University - Business School; and Preeti Varma, INSEAD
    Registration Complete

  • To understand the experiences of remote workers in the “new normal”, as hybrid and remote work become increasingly common, it is critical to consider where teammates work relative to each other and how these configurations vary over time. However, the experience of working remotely has been predominantly studied within the telecommuting literature, where team members’ locations are presumed to be static. We introduce the construct of dynamic configuration to conceptualize changes in team members’ physical locations relative to one another over time. We propose that dynamic configurations influence whether remote workers experience positive work-related outcomes, based on variations in the proportion of remote team members. We argue that this relationship is driven by remote workers’ perceptions of their burden on teammates and of their team’s inclusiveness, which together drive remote workers’ perceptions of learning, relationship development, and flexibility. Building on self-determination theory, we propose that these perceptions influence how much the team environment supports remote workers’ core psychological needs. Finally, we consider the role of the organizational culture around remote work in which teams are embedded in shaping remote workers’ experiences. Our theorizing advances the telecommuting literature by illuminating the critical role of dynamic configuration in examining remote workers’ outcomes.
  • Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Flexible Working Arrangements: Investigating the Role of Job Security Regulation. .....Antje Schwarz, Bielefeld University
    Registration Complete

  • Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), as the voluntary contribution to an organization beyond formally required tasks, needs to be examined in the new reality of flexible working. Arguments of the social exchange theory suggest higher voluntary contributions in exchange for enabled flexibility. Opposing arguments of the social presence theory suggest that flexible working arrangements contribute to lower social presence and higher felt distance between coworkers, resulting in a lower willingness to perform OCB. Moreover, national job security regulations might alter the effects depending on the stability of employer-employee relationships as assumed in the varieties of capitalism approach. This study examines the association between flexible working (schedule control and telework) and the willingness to perform OCB at the workplace and whether the effects vary by the national regulation of dismissals in 17 European countries. The willingness to perform OCB is investigated from the individual- and country-level perspective with a multi-level analysis based on data from the European Social Survey (10) enriched by OECD macrodata. The results indicate a higher absolute willingness for employees who are working flexibly, as assumed with the social exchange theory, speaking against the social presence theory. High job security regulations are also related to a higher willingness for OCB. In detail, cross-level interactions reveal a stronger OCB-enhancing effect of the regulation of dismissals for employees who are not working flexibly than employees who are working flexibly. The findings highlight the importance of the joint examination of flexible working arrangements and job security regulations to understand the complex effects.
  • Does Working From Home Lead to Higher Employment of Parents? Evidence From Europe.. .....Magdalena Grabowska, University of Warsaw; Anna Kurowska, University of Warsaw; and Anna Matysiak, University of Warsaw
    Registration Complete

  • The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 caused a tremendous increase in the share of employees working from home (WfH) in all European countries. A bunch of studies have recently investigated how WfH affects workers’ career opportunities, such as promotion or salary increase, showing that even in the post-pandemic context WfH exerts negative consequences on workers’ career outcomes. Little is known, however, whether this mode of work has the potential to increase the presence of parents in paid employment. This is possible as WFH may allow persons with care obligations, in particular mothers, to enter employment even though it is related to lower promotion opportunities or salary than onsite work. This paper fills this research gap in the context of the European Union. We address this question using the data from 2005-2022 aggregated at the country level from the Labor Force Survey for 27 European countries. Our preliminary results show that the spread of WfH significantly affected mothers’ employment, but the impact differs between the countries. In particular, we find that in Central and Eastern European countries, the spread of WfH has a negative impact on mothers’ employment, whereas for other countries, this effect is positive. We also find similar patterns for fathers’ employment, but these results are not statistically significant. Our results suggest that there might be some other factors (e.g., institutional settings or cultural differences) that mediate the impact of the WfH spread of parents’ employment.
50. Paid Leave Policies and Perceptions [Paper Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 3.270
  • Parental Leave Policies Presentation in Media: A Comparative Analysis of Croatia and Montenegro. .....Branko Bošković, University of Donja Gorica
    Not Registered

  • Parental leave policies play an important role in child’s and parents’ well-being and there is an interest in their effects on fertility behavior. Different policy approaches may result in differing outcomes, but there is a lack of analysis of the perception of parental leave in the media. Media discourse may move from justifying and pro-natalist to more restrictive and protective. Research of the prospective impact it may have on welfare and inequality, especially related to women, is missing. The analysis will look at the leading portals in Croatia and Montenegro and it will focus on the major framing and understanding of parental leave. The two countries have different parental leave policies. Croatia is a European Union member state and Montenegro is a candidate country and it is important to see how leading media in these countries report on parental leave policies. Period from 2017 to 2023 will be covered so the major policy changes are included as well as a period of the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis will inspect a discourse, frequency and framing and it will look at how a discourse is shaped: whether it is political, economic, social or influenced by other factors. It will be compared with the major trends in welfare and inequality, to see if there is a correlation between them. This approach can be an example of the theoretical and empirical analysis that can be applied in different contexts, to see whether media influence perception and use of the parental leave.
  • Debt Crises in a Gendered Economy: Paid Leave as a Social Safety Net for Vulnerable American Households. .....Tracey Freiberg, St. John's University
    Registration Complete

  • As the formalized global workforce has become more inclusive, it is more common to see households outside of the traditional male breadwinner model, leaving a benefits hole for many Americans. As such, mainstream conceptions of household debt have inadequately captured the sources and, subsequently, sufficient solutions for questions of economic security in the United States. Specifically, states with paid family and medical leave programs (PFML) attempt to shift the responsibility of reproductive work to a shared responsibility with employers, instead of fully on individuals. While PFML in the US is gender neutral in language, usage is overwhelmingly female, seemingly providing a safety net for dual income and female-led households in the form of partial wage replacement. Using the Survey of Income Program Participation, I examine household debt levels in PFML states, versus their non-PFML counterparts. While PFML programs notoriously only provide financial benefits for Americans in formalized employment, and therefore ignore the reproductive work done by full-time (unpaid) caretakers, I aim to show that while PFML may lessen burdens of short-term household debt, PFML ultimately is an insufficient tool for US household debt alleviation, in its current form, as its claimants often come from vulnerable households and work in industries that routinely punish caretakers. Yet, when promoted and used as a part of a larger set of policies for economic stability, paid leave programs may help strike a better balance between work and life constraints.
  • The 2021 Baby Boom in Iceland: Exploring the Role of a Parental Leave Reform and the COVID-19 Pandemic. .....Ásdís Arnalds, University of Iceland; Ari Klængur Jónsson, University of Iceland; and Sunna Símonardóttir, University of Iceland
    Registration Complete

  • In 2021, during the hight of the COVID-19 pandemic, the total fertility rate in Iceland rose unexpectedly from 1.72 to 1.82. The increased number of births followed an important reform in the Icelandic paid parental leave scheme, which included an expansion of the leave from 10 to 12 months. Analysis of data from Statistics Iceland and focus group interviews with parents who had a child in 2021 were used to explore if and how the parental leave reform and the societal changes related to the pandemic shaped parents’ decision to have a child in 2021. As the rise in fertility was short-lived, the results indicate that the baby boom of 2021 can hardly be explained by the parental leave reform. Rather, at least for educated women, who already had children and were in a good financial state, it seems that the pandemic created a favourable atmosphere for having a child. Parents’ narratives from the focus group interviews suggest that the pandemic might have been a good time to start or add to the family because of the increased time spent at home and the limited involvement in social activities outside the home.
  • Perceptions of Workplace Support for Paid Parental Leave Use in Iceland. .....Ásdís Arnalds, University of Iceland
    Registration Complete

  • The presentation places focus on perceived support for the use of paid parental leave in Iceland, a country that has offered non-transferable leave for fathers for over 20 years. Iceland provides a unique setting for such research, given the country’s long tradition of emphasizing both parents’ participation in work and care. Although most fathers use their right to take paid parental, about 20% of fathers in Iceland use no leave at all. The presented study aims to explore whether workplace practices and attitudes create hindrances for fathers’ leave use. The findings are based on analysis of comprehensive survey data among employees in Iceland. A special emphasis is placed on examining how leave is perceived to be supported by supervisors and co-workers and to understand respondents’ own attitudes towards the leave use of male and female employees. The findings show that although the vast majority of respondents predict that supervisors and co-workers would support both mothers and fathers in their use of paid parental leave, mothers were perceived to receive greater support than fathers. The gender difference in perceived support was especially evident in workplaces where the majority of employees were male. Thus, the findings indicate that workplace attitudes might create hindrances for fathers’ leave use.
51. Contextualizing Work-Family Conflict: Considering Class and COVID-19 [Paper Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 3.430
  • An Eight-Wave Study of Manager Burnt-Out Risk in New Zealand: Is Covid-19 Impacting Managers Still?. .....Jarrod Haar, Massey University; and David Brougham, Massey University
    Registration Complete

  • Job burnout refers to a work-related state of exhaustion, characterized by tiredness, lower cognitive and emotional processes, and cynicism. The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) is unique because a high burnt-out risk can be calculated, representing severe burnout levels. The present study focuses on managers due to their importance in the workplace, not only in decision making, but also due to contagion effects on followers. A quasi-natural experiment was achieved due to studying manager burnout immediately before Covid-19 lockdown in New Zealand (February 2020), immediately post-lockdown (May 2020), and then roughly every six months: December 2020, April 2021, November 2021, May 2022, December 2022, and June 2023. These were paid panels (each wave is unique) between n=268-505. Each study included the BAT plus high work demands with odds ratios calculated. The burnt-out risk rate was 19.5% (February 2020), 20.6% (May 2020), 25.2% (December 2020), 32.7% (April 2021), 52.1% (November 2021), 31.4% (May 2022), 25.9% (December 2022), and 27.2% (June 2023). This provides evidence that high burnt-out risk grew steadily and peaked in late 2021 but remain stubbornly high. Currently, around a quarter of managers are working while burnt-out. High work demands are key, with significant odds ratios towards burnt-out risk of 6.7/5.6/7.8/4.6/3.2/4.6/3.7/10.1 times the risk. The findings suggest managers as a group might be suffering a serious impediment to their well-being, through managing massive change not only through COVID-19, but also managing working-from-home expansion. This group needs greater organizational support and attention to their well-being for their personal and organizational futures.
  • Work-to Family Conflict or Family-to Work Conflict? Variations in Work Family Conflict on Women's Mental Well-Being By Class.. .....Berglind Hólm Ragnarsdóttir, University of Akureyri; Valgerður S. Bjarnadóttir, University of Iceland; and Andrea Hjálmsdóttir, University of Akureyri
    Registration Complete

  • In this presentation we report findings from a study where we estimate the effect of work-family conflict on women’s mental well-being and explore whether that relationship is contingent on class. Prior research finds that high levels of work-family conflict negatively impact women’s well-being. However, most research concentrates on women of high socio-economic status. Variation in the effects of work-family conflict across socio-economic class has been understudied. Moreover, most estimates of work-family conflict do not distinguish between the differing effects of work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict, two directional components of work-family conflict that have different antecedents and consequences. We use data from a cross-sectional phone survey conducted on a sample of Icelandic women in spring 2022. Key findings include: i) work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict both have a direct effect on symptoms of anxiety and depression for all women, ii) when we introduce the interaction term for class we find that work-to-family conflict increases symptoms of anxiety and depression across the class spectrum, but, iii) the effect of family-to-work conflict is contingent on class position. Working-class women are more likely to experience symptoms of depression and anxiety due to family-to-work conflict than women of intermediate or salariat class. These findings underline the importance of including class-structures in research on work-family conflict and not ignoring class disparities in women’s resources and barriers when it comes to juggling work and family. Moreover, these findings demonstrate the need to consider both work-to-family conflict as well as family-to-work conflict in research on work and family.
  • The Impact of COVID-19 on Childcare and Gender Equity. .....Alicia Modestino, Northeastern University; Jamie Ladge, Northeastern University; Alisa Lincoln, Northeastern University; and Zachary Finn, Northeastern University
    Registration Complete

  • The COVID-19 pandemic was labeled by some to be a “She-cession” due to the disproportionate impact on Women workers. Other projects tried to assess how much of this impact was due to lack of childcare, through various estimations and guesswork, such as using variation in lockdown timings and households with young children. Our project uses novel survey data, collected from May to June of 2020, to directly ask respondents whether adverse labor outcomes were caused by childcare deficiencies. The data gives us a close look into how childcare decisions are made at a unique moment in time. We examine gender differences after a shock to childcare needs occurs, allowing us to answer questions about household childcare decision making in ways that have not been answered before, using this innovative dataset. We find that women are disproportionately more likely to have unwantedly reduced their hours worked during the early months of the pandemic, due to childcare responsibilities, and to be dissatisfied with their jobs. Additionally, we find that standard policies aimed at lessening these impacts, such as family or medical leave, and newer policies including childcare subsidies and the ability to work from home, proved ineffective in alleviating the experienced adverse outcomes. From these results, we learn that gender dynamics and childcare responsibilities played a significant role in the gender differences seen in labor outcomes during the pandemic. This can help to inform future policy makers looking to support working parents and women, by better understanding how childcare decisions are made.
  • Pandemic Shadows: Unmasking Gender Disparities in Academic Productivity and Well-Being. .....Marisa Young, McMaster University; Nicole McNair, McMaster University; Gabriella Christopher, University of Toronto; and Loa Gordon, McMaster University
    Registration Complete

  • Women academics experience inequalities across multiple facets in the workplace, including research productivity; teaching, advising and mentoring responsibilities; service workload, and cross-over stress between work and family obligations. The recent COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated these gender disparities. Drawing upon 2021 data from 475 research faculty and staff at a lead research university in Canada, we highlight such inequalities. Our data suggest that the impact of the global pandemic has been far-reaching and potentially long-lasting for women in academia. Results initially suggest that men and women experienced similar setbacks in productivity due to COVID-19. However, women experience far greater work-family conflict and mental health problems due to COVID-19; and, both work-family conflict and mental health problems due to COVID-19 are strongly associated with lost productivity during this period. In other words, even though it appears women and men have similar productivity, women were disadvantaged compared to their male counterparts during the pandemic because of unequal exposure to work-family conflict and mental health, which ultimately correlates with lost productivity. We discuss these results and conclude our paper with a discussion about the importance of rethinking the operationalization of “productivity” in post-secondary institutions, given the “un-covering” of differential exposure and vulnerabilities to stressors and mental health during the pandemic.
  • Navigating the Interplay of Financial Well-Being, Boundary Blurring, and Work-Life Balance: A Theoretical Exploration.. .....Joan-Ark Manu Agyapong, University of Cape Coast; Abigail Opoku Mensah, University of Professional Studies; Ummu Markwei, University of Professional Studies; Mercy DeSouza, University of Professional Studies; and Mary Naana Essiaw, University of Professional Studies
    Registration Complete

  • Abstract Purpose This theoretical exploration aims to investigate the interplay among financial well-being, boundary blurring, and work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted an extensive literature review and analysis of relevant theoretical frameworks to examine the association among financial well-being, boundary blurring, and work-life balance. Findings The findings of this study indicate that financial well-being notably impacts boundary permeability and work-life balance. Individuals with superior financial well-being demonstrated an increased probability of experiencing enhanced work-life balance and lesser extents of boundary blending. Limitation A constraint of the study is its emphasis on theoretical and conceptual expedition as a research paradigm rather than utilizing a descriptive investigational pattern. Implication This paper underscores the crucial connection between financial wellness and achieving a harmonious work-life equilibrium, highlighting that individuals with sound financial stability are more likely to experience improved work-life balance and enhanced overall wellness. Additionally, the study illuminates the adverse consequences of boundary permeability, wherein the boundaries between occupational and personal life become indistinct, negatively impacting both financial well-being and work-life equilibrium. Originality/value This paper contributes to the current corpus of research by investigating the intricate interplay between financial well-being, boundary permeability, and work-life equilibrium. The findings provide valuable perspective for individuals, employers, and policymakers to devise strategies aimed at promoting financial well-being and preserving work-life balance. By exploring the complex dynamics between these factors, the study contributes new insights to help interested parties establish measures conducive to enhanced wellness in both financial and work-life domains. Keywords Financial well-being, boundary blurring, work-life balance
52. Towards Understanding the Dynamics of Defence and Public Safety Personnel Families [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 3.435

Organizers: Heidi Cramm, Queens University; Marilyn Cox, Queens University; Deborah Norris, Mount Saint Vincent University;

  • Marilyn Cox, Queens University;
  • Heidi Cramm, Queens University;
  • Deborah Norris, Mount Saint Vincent University;
  • Heidi Cramm, Queens University;
53. Author Meets Reader: Misconceiving Merit: Paradoxes of Excellence and Devotion in Academic Science and Engineering [Author Meets Readers Session]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | MB 3.445

Organizer: Sarah Damaske, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)

  • Mary Blair-Loy, University of California, San Diego;
  • Erin Cech, University of Michigan.;
  • Ellen Ernst Kossek, Purdue University;
  • Kim de Laat, University of Waterloo;
  • Jaclyn Wong, university of south carolina;
54. Woman Worker in Emerging Economies: Comparing India Chile and Nigeria [Workshop]
Friday | 8:30 am-10:00 am | S2.115

Organizer: Shweta Singh, Loyola University, Chicago
Presider: Shweta Singh, Loyola University, Chicago
55. Coffee
Friday | 10:00 am-10:30 am | MB Atrium and MB Third Floor Lobby
56. Remote Work: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly 1 [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 2.210
  • Remote Work and Burn-Out: Gender and Parents Rates into COVID-19 Pandemic Recovery. .....Leah Ruppanner, University of Melbourne; and Brendan Churchill, University of Melbourne
    Registration Complete

  • For many employees, remote work is critical to reducing burn-out by allowing workers to better reconcile work and life demands. Yet, workplaces are increasingly weighing whether to scale back access to remote work into the pandemic recovery. It is within this context that this study makes a contribution through three central questions: (1) have workers recovered from the burn-out of the pandemic?; (2) does access to remote work moderate this relationship?; and (3) do these patterns vary by gender and parental status? We apply original survey data collected from a representative sample of Australian workers (n=1,050), a country that experienced prolonged exposure to remote work given it legislated some of the longest, hardest extended lockdowns. We find that access to remote work is associated with less burn-out for men, regardless of parental status. By contrast, only mothers without children reported less burn-out if they had access to remote work. Mothers, by contrast, report more burn-out associated with working remotely. Investigating types of remote work in greater detail, we find that access to remote work that allows employees to dictate when they work flexibly is negatively associated with burn-out for men and women workers alike, with no significant differences by parental status. By contrast, workers in organizations with set at-home work days and those that have workers always working from home reported no significant benefit in terms of burn-out. Our results indicate that worker-driven access to remote work is most beneficial to workers generally but not for mothers.
  • Shifting Workscapes: Exploring Gendered Experiences with Remote Work. .....Marni Fritz, University of Illinois, Chicago; and Carolyn E. Waldrep, University of Texas, Austi
    Not Registered

  • Workplace arrangements across the world changed in 2020, with an outsized impact on women. Among other changes, the pandemic triggered a massive shift to remote work, providing a unique opportunity to study its effects on American workers and their families. In this research, centered on families with children, we conducted in-depth interviews with 84 participants (37 men and 47 women) in remote work arrangements that vary by duration of remote work and whether one or both partners worked remotely. The study explores differences by gender between parents’ experiences working remotely and their preferences for continuing remote work, as well as the impact of job characteristics and family structure. How was remote work different for mothers and fathers during the pandemic, and can these pandemic experiences shed light on the potential benefits and drawbacks of remote work arrangements after the pandemic? Can remote work offer more flexibility to enable women to combine work and family better, or will it overlap and expand both domestic and work responsibilities? We will consider how men and women responded differently to remote work during the pandemic, based on gendered household expectations of tasks and parenting: job satisfaction, job productivity, social access, household chores, family earning responsibility, and flexibility for children’s schedules and needs. We will unpack the pandemic-specific influences on remote work, especially questions of remote schooling or parental responsibilities for childcare, to understand how gender and family structure interplay with the ongoing strengths and challenges in remote work.
  • What Are the Individual-Level Consequences of Teleworking in a Post-COVID-19 Era?. .....Joelle van der Meer, Erasmus University Rotterdam; Laura den Dulk, Erasmus University Rotterdam; Samantha Metselaar, Erasmus University Rotterdam; and Brenda Vermeeren, Erasmus University Rotterdam
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  • The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the utilization of teleworking, as many employees were required to work from home during the pandemic. Even in a post-COVID-19 era, teleworking remains at a relatively high level in many countries and sectors compared to before the pandemic (Eurofound, 2022). The literature presents conflicting findings concerning teleworking and its impact on individual-level outcomes (Kelliher & De Menezes, 2019). Despite the presumed advantages of flexibility, researchers have struggled to establish a clear connection between teleworking, job satisfaction, performance and other outcomes. Gajendran and Harrison (2007) developed a theoretical framework to study the effects of teleworking on individual-level outcomes, mediated by several psychological factors. However, the landscape of work arrangements has significantly shifted in a post-COVID-19 era. For instance, many employees gained experience in working from home, including those who were not allowed to telework previously. Consequently, it is relevant to study the individual-level consequences of teleworking in this new context. We use the model of Gajendran and Harrison (2007) as a starting point to study individual outcomes of teleworking in a post-COVID-19 era. Job satisfaction and performance are included as individual-level outcomes. We will investigate whether the relationship between the intensity of teleworking and these outcomes are mediated by (a) autonomy, (b) work-life balance satisfaction, (c) relationship with supervisor and (4) relationship with other co-workers. We focused on a public sector context and studied teleworking in a large Dutch municipality (N= 3439). Data was collected in October 2023.
57. Stigma, Discrimination, and Equity In Work and Family [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 2.265
  • Advancing Gender Equity in the US Workplace: Lessons Learned from Exemplary Organizations. .....Christine Bataille, Ithaca College; Margaret Shackell, Ithaca College; and Rachel Ng, Ithaca College
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  • In 2015, the United Nations committed to 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Three of these goals, #5 Gender Equality, #8 Decent Work and Economic Growth, and #10 Reduced Inequalities, target gender equity (GE). GE is the process of ensuring fairness through measures that dismantle the historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from operating on a level playing field (UNESCO, 2003). The US is behind other developed countries in providing programs and policies that advance GE. In fact, a 2019 report by UNICEF ranked the U.S. at the bottom of the “most family friendly” list of the world’s richest countries. To help U.S. employers make advancement towards GE, we selected 20 leading US-based organizations. These companies represent a range of industries and were identified through Target Gender Equity, gender equity rankings, and articles profiling organizations committed to advancing GE. To date, we have analyzed publicly available sustainability/GE reports for 15 of the 20 organizations and have interviewed representatives from five of them. Preliminary results indicate that mentoring/sponsorship programs for women, paid parental leave and workplace flexibility, setting GE targets, tracking progress, and sharing data with key decision makers all work to increase GE in these organizations. Our findings will inform the development of a survey that we plan to administer to a large set of US organizations to learn ways to close the gender gap and bring the US in line with other developed nations.
  • Everyday Life, Parenting and Family Relations in Poverty in Mature Welfare State. .....Mia Tammelin, University of Tampere; and Katri Viitasalo, University of Helsinki
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  • Poverty and economic hardship in families with children are persistent across the Western world. In addition to insufficient financial resources, economic hardship and poverty are often coupled with income insecurity and unpredictability. This places significant pressure on parenting and the management of family life that at the societal level may cement inequality. In this study we argue that poverty is not only about the lack of resources and the experience of material deprivation but has to be understood as a lived experience in relation to others. This brings up experiences of disrespect, stigma, insecurity and deprivation of rights, but also innovative strategies. Using the data “Everyday Experiences of Poverty: Self-administered Writings 2019” (Turunen & Isola 2019, N=89) we analyse poverty as relational and lived experience. Particularly the study is interested on how family relations are represented, and how mothers’ and fathers’ describe parenting practices in the context of poverty, and the role of labour markets in creating instability. We use thematic content analysis. The preliminary findings suggest that family relations in the context of poverty are multifaceted. Parenting is shaped by strategies to ensure maintaining family routines and to minimize the detrimental impact of poverty on children, including for example unstable daily life amplified by unstable labour market and economic situation. Parents create strong community ties to maintain family life in the context of poverty, including for example sharing meals with others’.
  • Does Stigma-Based Work-Family Conflict Depend on the Type of Stigma?. .....Katina Sawyer, University of Arizona
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  • Over a decade ago, researchers introduced a new form of work-family conflict into the literature - stigma-based work-family conflict - (Sawyer, Thoroughgood, & Ladge, 2012) - to complement the time-based, stress-based, and behavior-based work-family conflict subdimensions explored heavily in prior literature. Yet, since the development of the construct of stigma-based work-family conflict, the concept has only been explored in same-sex couples. In this presentation, I will present in-depth qualitative data gathered from 15 self-identified members of stigmatized families (with the exclusion of same-sex couples given they have already been studied), to expore if and how the concept of stigma-based work-family conflict applies to their working lives. Interviewees were members of mixed race or religious couples, couples in which one member was physically disabled or struggled with serious mental health challenges, couples in which one member was previously incarcarated, or couples in which one partner had a stigmatized illness. While interviewees reported that their stigmatized family identity increased perceptions of conflict with their work role, the data demonstrated that intersectionality also influenced this process. Further, our data also demonstrated that others' perceptions of controllability of the stigma changed how employees in stigmatized families experienced work-family conflict. Overall, this paper sheds light on understudied populations and their families, while highlighting unique mechanisms that explain why some families may face more stigma-based work-family conflict than others. This contributes to the literature by expanding the scope of the types of families that work-family researchers consider when exploring more mainstream themes and constructs to stigmatized working populations.
  • Reducing Barriers to Entry for Women Seeking Board Work. .....Rachael Pettigrew, Mount Royal University; and Chantel Cabaj, DirectHer Network
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  • In Canada, since the implementation of board composition disclosure requirements in 2014, there has been an increase of women on boards. However, change in representation has been slow, with year-over-year increases of ~2.2% and almost 20% of disclosing organizations still have zero women on their boards. To better understand the talent pipeline and its potential blockages, we explored the current board experience, board aspirations, and perceived barriers (pipeline blockages) of women interested in board work. The findings from a SSHRC-funded research conducted in partnership with DirectHer Network, a Calgary-based non-profit that offering governance training. The data from a survey completed by 358 participants, followed by 4 focus groups of women and gender-diverse participants revealed distinct board pathways to board work for not-for-profit, government, and for-profit board work. The research highlights diverse viewpoints to capture the broad array of board experiences and illuminates the talent pipeline from the front end, where the board talent is grown and developed, rather than simply analyzing the output of that pipeline (i.e., the individuals currently sitting on corporate boards). The presentation will discuss perceived professional (e.g., lack of sponsorship, networks, and access to opportunities) and personal barriers (e.g., the need to prioritize paid work and care responsibilities). We conclude by making a number of practical recommendations to both individuals and boards to increase representation of women on boards.
58. Life Course Transitions: Aging and Retirement 1 [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 2.270
  • Post-Retirement Work, Life Satisfaction and Emotional Well-Being Among Older Adults in Israel. .....Alisa Lewin, University of Haifa; and Haya Stier, Tel Aviv University
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  • Although retirement is often perceived as withdrawal from employment, retirement, in effect, takes many forms. Some workers depart completely from the work-force while others retain some form of employment, ranging from full-time work to full-time retirement. Moreover, post-retirement work has both financial and intrinsic incentives. People have financial incentives to work post-retirement, especially if they have not accumulated sufficient pension savings, and they respond to non-financial incentives as well because work provides opportunities for social engagement and other psychological benefits. This study examines motivations for post-retirement work and its effects on older adults' life satisfaction and emotional well-being. Using Social Survey data collected by Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics for the years 2017-2020, this study selected individuals post retirement age (62 + for women, 67 + for men), and investigated factors associated with post-retirement work and its effects on emotional well-being. The findings reveal gender differences, whereby economic needs motivate men to seek full-time employment, and good prospects in the labor market channel women toward full-time employment. Part-time employment is as good as full-time employment in contributing to men’s satisfaction and emotional well-being, whereas post-retirement work increases women's life satisfaction only if it is full-time, and has no effect on emotional well-being. This study has policy implications: Post-retirement part-time work may help promote healthy ageing and may facilitate the transition out of employment and into retirement. Recruiting older adults may diversify the workplace and perhaps contribute to older workers' life satisfaction and emotional well-being.
  • Grandparent Childcare by Gender and Generation. .....Lyn Craig, University of Melbourne; DongJu Lee, University of Melbourne; Myra Hamilton, University of Sydney; Elizabeth Adamson, University of New South Wales; and Virpi Timonen, University of Helsinki
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  • Grandparents are an important source of childcare worldwide. This paper presents results from a mixed methods study, looking firstly at how cross-generational demographic characteristics factor into grandparent care provision considering the cultural assumptions and policy settings families live within, and secondly at the lived experiences of parent-grandparent dyads in negotiating work and care. Using the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, we identify determinants of both the demand for, and supply of, grandparent childcare in Australia (4,266 grandparents, 9,822 parents). Quantitative results suggest that grandmothers and mothers, as much or more than fathers and mothers, balance their reciprocal participation in employment and childcare. Unlike in other countries, university-educated grandmothers are more likely to provide childcare and university-educated mothers are more likely to draw upon it. The qualitative interviews (n=45) reinforce that cross-generational care provision is primarily a negotiation between mothers and grandmothers, with a child’s mother and the mother’s mother tending to be most intensely involved, and that a major motivation for it was supporting mothers’ workforce participation. They provided detailed new insight into the complex organisation and inter-familial and cross-generational co-operation involved in managing and maintaining grandparent care relationships. From a policy perspective, the results suggest the caring labour of grandmothers is currently critical to the workforce participation of mothers. They point to inadequate public policy support for Australian working mothers to capitalize on their historically high educational attainment, and suggest that to compensate, grandmothers are stepping in as both ‘mother savers’ and ‘system savers’.
  • Care Provision Among Older Adults in Mexico: An Examination of Time Use Patterns and Subjective Wellbeing. .....Lia Acosta Rueda, University of Toronto
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  • How much time do Mexican older adults spend looking after their grandchildren and how does it matter for their quality of life? In this paper, I focus on examining the role of unpaid care provided by older adults in Mexico, where little research has been conducted on a potentially vulnerable population. Using the most recent (2019) Mexican National Time Use Survey (ENUT), this research investigates the relationship between grandparent's provision of care and their subjective wellbeing (happiness and life satisfaction). Additionally, it explores how unpaid care provision is allocated based on three social locations – by gender and socioeconomic status – and two social contexts (rural versus urban). My results point to the importance of childcare care provision that goes beyond the nuclear family and formal institutional provision. The study’s findings contribute to the literature by promoting a better understanding of childcare arrangements within contexts characterized by limited institutional childcare support and strong normative preferences for family-based care.
  • Intergenerational Tensions of Gender, Work and Care in the Labour Market: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Grandparent Childcare in Australian Policy Dialogue. .....Elizabeth Adamson, University of New South Wales; Virpi Timonen, University of Helsinki; Myra Hamilton, University of Sydney; Alison Williams, University of Sydney - Business School; and Lyn Craig, University of Melbourne
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  • The Australian government, along with many Western governments, have established new legislation and policy strategies to encourage and promote labour market participation, particularly for women, and also mature age workers. This means two generations of women – often mothers and grandmothers – face simultaneous pressures to increase their employment., However, it is unclear how grandparent childcare is considered and constructed in policy discourse on women’s labour market participation. Focusing on the Australian Government’s priorities on women’s economic security and gender equality, this paper examines the policy dialogue that emerged between 2012 and 2022, in the context of two shifts in federal politics – to a more conservative Coalition government in 2013, and to a more progressive Labor government in 2022. Australia uses public inquiries to generate community views and policy recommendations, which offers insight into public debate about particular policy issues. Drawing on stakeholder submissions (n = 75) to four public inquiries focused on women’s employment between 2012 and 2022, this paper interrogates how grandparents are positioned in the submissions as workers and carers. Informed by welfare regime theory and model ageing theory, the paper finds that grandmothers are portrayed in multiple competing ways by government and non-government stakeholders: as ‘mother savers’, ‘system savers’, ‘work/care jugglers’ and ‘untapped labour’. The findings offer insight into the attitudinal, cultural and policy context in which Australian parents and grandparents navigate intergenerational work and care arrangements and considers how policies can better support workers and carers across genders and generations, in both Australia and internationally.
  • Menopause at Work: Let's Talk. .....Janet Mantler, Carleton University; Anne Bowker, Carleton University; Emma Bider, Carleton University; and Sandra Ogbuagu, Carleton University
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  • Menopause remains a taboo topic in the workplace despite perimenopausal women (ages 45 to 55) being the fastest growing demographic for labour force participation (Brewis et al., 2017). As part of a larger study of the menopausal transition in which we interviewed 60 Canadian women, we asked how menopause symptoms affected their work. Menopausal symptoms, such as disrupted sleep, loss of energy, heavy periods, intrusive vasomotor conditions, and brain fog, had varying and often unpredictable degrees of severity that affected their ability to concentrate and resulted in taking sick days for about half of our participants. Simple accommodations such as having desk fans or flexible work arrangements would have aided their ability to work successfully, yet few of our participants asked for accommodations. Participants did not discuss menopause with supervisors, particularly men, because they felt it would make these people uncomfortable as menopause is still viewed as a “women’s issue.” As one participant said, “it’s not always easy for women to ask for those …you don’t want to be a high maintenance person” (PB). Women in leadership were even more reluctant to say anything because “at a senior level, you know, you don't want to talk about your health issues” (ML). Demeaning jokes, particularly about vasomotor symptoms, indicate that stigma about menopause remains. Given that 50% of the workforce will experience this physical transition during their working years, more conversations need to take place, particularly with managers, to increase understanding and develop some straightforward accommodations.
59. Parenting and Family Dynamics [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 2.285
  • Testing the Indirect Effects of Work-Family Strain on Parenting Stress. .....Ines de Pierola, Oregon State University; Beth Phelps, Oregon State University; and David Rothwell, Oregon State University
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  • Many families are working yet struggling to make ends meet. The Family Stress Model suggests that economic hardship places direct pressure on parenting (Masarik & Conger, 2017). We extend the FSM by asking: to what extent does work-family strain mediate the relationship between material hardship and parenting stress? Method  We used wave 5 data from the Future of Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS). Parenting stress (PS) was measured through a 0-4 scale based on role-strain and child’s perceptions. Material hardship (MH) was measured with five items (food, housing, utilities, medical, bills). Work-family strain was measured through three items (work schedule related family stress, difficulty at work dealing with childcare, and inflexible work schedule to handle family needs). Formal mediation analyses tested how much of the relationship between material hardship and parenting stress was accounted for by mother’s work-family strain. Results and Discussion Parenting stress was associated with statistically significant greater material hardship (1.93 for no MH, compared to 2.17 for those with extreme MH). Work-family strain significantly mediated the relationship with parenting stress (p < .001), explaining 20% of the variation. Findings suggests that workplace interventions and other policies reducing work stress may indirectly lower parenting stress, especially for working mothers with low to moderate levels of material hardship.
  • Couples’ Experiences of First-Time Grandparenthood: Grandchild-Related Bliss and Psychological Well-Being. .....Jasmin Dorry, RWTH Aachen University; and Bettina S. Wiese, RWTH Aachen University
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  • Being a grandparent for the first time represents a new phase in the family life cycle. Grandparenthood can be an enriching role that provides the opportunity to support one’s adult children and to meet the need for generativity. Therefore, it can be assumed that it promotes a grandparent’s individual well-being. But what about grandparental couples’ well-being? Since grandparenthood is usually experienced individually and as a couple, this paper adopts a dyadic perspective to explore how it affects the psychological well-being of grandparent couples. We examine the longitudinal associations between grandmothers’ / grandfathers’ grandchild-related bliss with each other’s general and partnership-related well-being (Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, APIM). The survey takes place at two measurement time points (four weeks apart) to examine the direction of the effects. Preliminary APIM analyses (N = 78 couples) revealed significant positive actor effects for grandchild-related bliss at T1 on a positive attitude to life (an important facet of general well-being) and on relationship satisfaction for grandmothers and grandfathers at T2. Furthermore, we found a partner effect: Higher grandchild-related bliss, as reported by the grandfather at T1, predicted stronger positive relationship quality, as reported by the grandmother at T2. These are preliminary results as data collection will not be completed until 2024. Findings to date suggest that taking a longitudinal couple’s perspective is a fruitful new approach to learn more about how the transition to grandparenthood affects grandparents as individuals and partners in a committed relationship.
  • The Influence of Domestic Service Intervention on Parenting in Chinese Urban Families. .....Jiahui Hou, Kobe University
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  • In recent years, there has been a noticeable surge in utilization of domestic services in China’s urban areas, challenging the traditional role of grandparents as primary caregivers. This study aims to investigate the implications of market-oriented domestic service interventions on parenting within Chinese urban households. The research employs a semi-structured interview as the research method. Participants included four mothers who employ domestic helpers. The interview is about if they used to ask grandparents caring for grandchildren, why they use domestic service, and how it changes the sharing of housework and childcare within the family before and after employment. Results revealed that (1) although the influence of gender role consciousness continues, women now prioritize motherhood over the role of a wife. The introduction of domestic services has notably shifted the caregiving focus from general housework to a more concentrated emphasis on childcare. (2) The use of domestic services has, to some extent, replaced grandparents’ support for nuclear families and avoided grandparents’ intervention in parenting.
  • Modernization, Urbanization and Family Structure in India: Evidence from Three Decades of Macro-Panel Data Analyses, 1991-2021.. .....Tapas Dey, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai
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  • Despite a dramatic change in household and family structures, the existing literature in the Indian context does not provide sufficient knowledge on the familial changes in the process of modernization over time under the framework of demographic transition. The study is conducted to answer the question of whether the process of modernization influences the Indian traditional family systems as this theory is postulated and employed based on Western family constructs. The study uses the panel data generated using the National Family Health Survey, India Human Development Survey, Economic Survey and Census of India for 1991-2021. Panel data fixed-effects estimates suggest a positive and significant association of ‘family structure’ with ‘modernization’ and ‘urbanization’. The rise in literacy rate and structural changes in the economy are positively associated with family changes in India. We checked for endogeneity in family structure and modernization association by instrumenting urbanization and modernization with the per capita income. The results hold in the IV regressions as well. A rise in GDP from the service sector, literacy rate, mass media exposure of females and access to bank account are positively and significantly associated with urbanization, whereas, the service sector GDP is positively and significantly associated with modernization. India is on the brink of reaching the pinnacle of urbanization and modernization. In the near future, the country is poised to witness a surge in family nucleation as a natural consequence of these advancements.
60. Fatherhood in Transition: Adapting Paternal Roles and Responsibilities in a Changing World [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 2.430
  • ‘I Am Different’: A Qualitative Analysis of Part-Time Working Fathers’ Constructions of Their Experiences. .....Eric Mercier, University of Adelaide; Amanda LeCouteur, University of Adelaide; and Paul Delfabbro, University of Adelaide
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  • Although there has been an increasing interest in the notion of involved fatherhood, few studies have examined how fathers who work part-time and engage in child-rearing make sense of this experience. The present study explores how part-time working fathers positioned themselves in terms of their ‘at home’ and ‘at work’ identities. Thematic analysis was used to examine 30 interviewees’ accounts of their experiences. Three central themes were identified: (1) choosing to work part-time, (2) benefits of working part-time, and (3) contrasts with fathers as ‘breadwinners’. A common feature in all of these themes was interviewees’ flexible transition between traditional and non-traditional types of masculinity. The ways in which part-time working fathers positioned themselves as caring for children while maintaining attachment to more traditional types of masculinity are considered in terms of implications for theory and for fathers’ personal development. At a time where expectations of fathers engaged in child-rearing are increasing, the results of this study could be drawn on in the area of personal development to support men in forming new strategies around fathering practices.
  • Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior and Father Involvement in Parenting: The Role of Work Family Conflict as a Mediator.. .....Kartika Widiningtyas, Surabaya University; and Artiawati Artiawati, Surabaya University
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  • Fathers' involvement has a positive impact on children's development, so the role of fathers in childcare is as important as the role of fathers as breadwinners. However, father involvement in childcare is still lower than mother, especially in Asia. Resources in the work environment are external factors that influence the level of father involvement in childcare. Work-family conflict in working fathers can lead to reduced father involvement. Supervisor support at work has the potential to reduce the emergence of family work conflict and thus increase father involvement. This study aims to examine and explain the relationship between supervisor support behavior towards family with father involvement through family work conflict. This study was conducted using quantitative methods with path anatlysis techniques and involved 188 respondents of fathers working in one of the state-owned banks in Malang, Indonesia. The sampling technique used purposive sampling. The results showed that family supportive supervisor behavior influenced father involvement through work family conflict (z=2.034; p=0.042) so that supervisor support for family life is needed for working fathers to reduce the potential for work family conflict to be more involved in childcare. Role models and supervisor initiative are needed to restructure work to facilitate employee effectiveness in balancing work and family life to increase father involvement. In addition, it was found that gender ideology has an association with father involvement.
  • Paternity Leave-Taking and U.S. Fathers’ Participation in Housework. .....Richard Petts, Ball State University; Daniel Carlson, University of Utah; and Chris Knoester, Ohio State University
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  • Paternity leave is one policy that is believed to promote greater gender equality, and numerous studies have shown that paternity leave promotes greater father involvement in childcare. However, less is known about whether paternity leave-taking may facilitate father involvement in other forms of domestic labor such as housework. Using repeated cross-sectional data on partnered parents from the Study on Parents’ Divisions of Labor During COVID (SPDLC), we examine whether paternity leave-taking and length of paternity leave are associated with U.S. fathers’ shares of, and time spent in, housework. Findings suggest that paternity leave-taking is positively associated with fathers’ shares of, and time spent in, housework tasks. Results also suggest that longer paternity leaves are associated with fathers performing greater shares of housework. Overall, evidence from this study suggests that the benefits of paternity leave may extend to fathers’ greater participation in housework, providing additional support for the belief that increased use of paternity leave may help to promote gender equality.
  • Caregiving Fathers Experiences Post Covid- “It’s a Little Bit of a Kick in the Face”. .....Jasmine Kelland, University of Plymouth; and Daniel Deahan, University of Plymouth
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  • The Covid-19 pandemic disrupted traditional patterns of the management of work and caregiving (Andrew et al., 2020) and at that time UK fathers expressed intention to have greater involvement in caregiving after the pandemic (Fatherhood Institute,2022). Perhaps unsurprisingly, the post-covid work context is typified by changes in work patterns (Shirmohammadi et al., 2023) and increases in staff turnover (Cosgrove et al., 2023), however, little qualitative research has been undertaken to explore the experiences of caregiving fathers in this context. Thus, we undertook 27 in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK caregiving fathers in Summer 2023 to explore how they are managing work and care post-covid. We find caregiving fathers report an increase in flexible working and workplace visibility which has positively impacted upon their family life. However, they continue to experience less workplace support than mothers with levels of conditionality existing and support being dependent on line-managers' parental status and the organisational context. Our findings provide evidence for the continuation of elements of ‘fatherhood forfeits’ (Kelland,2022) and expand knowledge on ‘paternal supervisory gatekeeping’ (Hennekam et al, 2022). The provision of workplace flexibility was emphasised as a central retention factor, with many fathers leaving their employment if they did not receive the flexibility they needed, offering a potential explanation for ‘the great resignation’ (Cosgrove et al., 2023). We argue that despite a climate of increased support post-covid, parental gendered differentials remain, which impact upon labour retention, highlighting the ongoing need for organisational and policy action to support caregiving fathers in the workplace.
  • How Do We Measure Father Involvement? Methodological and Epistemological Issues in a Canadian Mixed Methods Study on Household Tasks and Responsibilities. .....Kim de Laat, University of Waterloo; and Andrea Doucet, Brock University
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  • This paper compares fathers’ survey responses to questions about their involvement in childcare and housework, and couple interviews in which the same fathers reflect on their involvement at home. It is based on data from a Canadian qualitative study with diverse Canadian families (the Care/Work Portrait project) and the Canadian Familydemic survey, which is part of a six-country Familydemic comparative project. We highlight two key findings from a sample of twenty fathers from diverse socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds who participated in a national survey and a follow-up up interview with their partners. First, we find evidence of higher levels of agreement between fathers’ individual survey responses and couples’ interview responses on fathers’ involvement in care tasks: discrete interventions into childcare or housework that have a clear beginning, middle, and end, (for example, cooking a meal). Second, there is less agreement between our quantitative and qualitative data about fathers’ involvement in care responsibilities, which is the type of cognitive labour that involves noticing needs and managing, organizing, and planning different spheres of family life (for example, meal planning). We draw on two in-depth case studies to illustrate how and why, in surveys, fathers may overestimate their involvement in forms of care and household work that involve cognitive labour and varied temporal and spatial dimensions. Our mixed methods data provides methodological and epistemological insights into the importance of attending not only to what we measure, but also how, when we make assessments about gender equality in household divisions of labour.
61. Childbearing, Fertility, and Paid Leave [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 2.435
  • Kids, Books & Consumption: A Developing Economy Model. .....Indrajit Thakurata, Indian Institute of Management
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  • This study estimates the implicit child-birth related expenditures that parents across income groups may be facing based on their empirically observed fertility rates. Employing a two-generation, multi-period model with endogenous fertility, income risk, borrowing as well as human capital investment constraints, the study numerically simulates intergenerational poverty traps as part of low income households’ optimizing behaviour. It explores the relative strengths of parental incomes, child-bearing related parental expenditures, and its transmission into cognitive ability of the child, in enhancing intergenerational mobility of human capital. Cognitively developed children increase parental human capital investments through reduction of fertility, assets and consumption. Policies like subsidised education, and wage certainty improve children’s human capital through lowering of births while educational access improves both quality & quantity of children. Financial access is the only policy instrument to start human capital investments at very low income levels. The study finds that policy induced trade-offs are substantial when family sizes are small.
  • Negotiating Work and Family Spheres: The Dyadic Effects of Flexible Work Arrangements on Fertility Among Dual-Earner Heterosexual Couples. .....Senhu Wang, National University of Singapore; and Jolene Tan, Australian National University
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  • Abstract Making flexible work arrangements (FWAs) the default in workplaces has been suggested by academics and policymakers to promote a family-friendly workplace culture that is conducive for having and raising children. However, there is limited systematic research investigating how FWAs, as a long-term approach to negotiate work–family spheres, are related to fertility among dual-earner heterosexual couples. Drawing on the linked-lives perspective, this study aims to theorize the relationship between FWAs and fertility among couples and how it may vary depending on the interplay of both spouses’ work and family characteristics. We test our hypotheses using longitudinal couple-level dyadic data in the UK (2010–2022). The results show that while the availability of FWAs alone is not related to fertility, wives’ (rather than husbands’) actual use of FWAs is significantly associated with a higher probability of experiencing a first birth. Moreover, the effect of wives’ use of FWAs is particularly pronounced when both spouses work in professional and managerial occupations, and when husbands contribute a larger proportion of income and equal or more housework. This study reveals a gendered effect of FWAs on fertility across different work–family arrangements, which deepens our understanding of couple-level dynamics in the fertility process.
  • The Return to Work Crossroads: An Examination of New York State Mothers' Decision Making and the Impact of Paid Family Leave. .....Jillian Morley, Cornell University; and Elizabeth Day, University of Oregon
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  • This paper explores the influence of New York State's Paid Family Leave (PFL) policy on mothers' decisions regarding their return to work after childbirth. This research builds on the established relationship between female labor market outcomes and Paid Family Leave policies by interrogating the nuances in mothers' decision-making processes surrounding the return to work across industries. The study utilized open-ended interviews with 15 participants, including 10 PFL users and 5 mothers that were unable to utilize the state’s PFL benefits. Respondents were recruited through purposive snowball sampling and inquiries to maternal online networks. Qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts reveal the interplay between maternal aspirations, workplace conditions, and policy provisions to bridge the gap between mothers' desire to work and their employment decisions. The findings call for holistic policy solutions that address diverse challenges, such as childcare issues and breastfeeding support, while elevating opportunities presented by hybrid work arrangements.
62. Artificial Intelligence and Intersectional Inequalities in the Labor Market [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 2.445

Organizers: Nicole Denier, University of Alberta; Yang Hu, Lancaster University;
Presiders: Yang Hu, Lancaster University; Nicole Denier, University of Alberta;
  • Labor Market Trends Over Two Decades in Canada: An Intersectional Perspective. .....Alla Konnikov, Concordia University of Edmonton; and Karen D. Hughes, University of Alberta
  • Following a shift in migration policy that prioritizes skills and human capital, Canadian society has become increasingly diverse, with a growing proportion of first- and second-generation immigrants, many of whom are visible as ethnic and racial minorities. These transformations are shaping the labor market composition, with increased complexity, where some occupations and industries remain fairly homogeneous in terms of ethnicity, race, immigration status, and gender, while others are becoming far more heterogeneous. This uneven transformation results in more complex forms of inequality that converge along the lines of immigration, racialization, and gender. In the context of this growing complexity, studying labor market segregation using discrete approaches to sex and racial segregation is no longer fully capturing the complexity of the labor market landscape, thus necessitating an intersectional approach. This paper employs the intersectionality framework to illuminate the growing heterogeneity of labor market segregation, considering multiple factors such as gender, immigration, and visible minority status. Analyzing data from the Canadian Census (2001–2021), we map the changing demographic composition of the Canadian labor force, occupations, and industries over the past 20 years, documenting the growing intersectional complexity of the labor force, segregation patterns, and inequalities. This intersectional analysis offers a timely framework for understanding how growing digitalization and automation may converge with complex labor market inequalities to generate new, intersectional, and algorithmic forms of inequalities.
  • Between the Supply and Demand Sides: How Employers and Job Seekers Navigate Intersectional Inequalities In AI-Automated Hiring. .....Rujun (Ruth) Zhang, University of Alberta; Rebecca Deustch, University of Alberta; and Karen D. Hughes, University of Alberta
  • How do key actors on both sides of the hiring process – human resource (HR) professionals and job seekers – navigate intersectional inequality and artificial intelligence (AI) automated hiring tools? In this exploratory study, we bring together supply- and demand-side perspectives to aid our understanding of algorithmic hiring and intersectional inequality, drawing on empirical data from pilot interviews with HR professionals and potential job applicants. Our goal is to identify key factors and conceptual dimensions that shape demand- and supply-side understandings of intersectional algorithmic bias. Our methods involve semi-structured interviews with HR professionals (n = 4) and potential job applicants (n = 8). In our interviews with HR professionals, we examine hiring practices, EDI strategies, and how participants conceptualize the “ideal fit” of prospective candidates. In the interviews with job seekers, we look at the intentional impression-management techniques that participants use in order to present themselves as an “ideal fit” for the desired job post. Previous research has demonstrated that a variety of techniques including “resume whitening” have been employed by prospective job candidates to mitigate the negative perceived effects of their identity in job-seeking processes. Such techniques may take on new forms as the technological landscape continues to shift. Insights from our in-depth qualitative exploration provide new understandings of the knowledge and practices of people from both sides of the hiring process in “doing” and “undoing” intersectional inequalities in AI-automated hiring processes.
  • Algorithmic and Intersectional?: Evaluating Intersectional Inequalities in the Context of Digitalized Hiring. .....Nicole Denier, University of Alberta
  • Automated tools increasingly facilitate both the demand and supply sides of hiring, raising concerns about algorithmic biases and changing affordances for employers and job seekers alike. Automated systems have the potential to reproduce, amplify, or mitigate human biases evident within the organizational contexts in which they are implemented. Similarly, job seekers may use impression management strategies reflecting their understanding of relevant selection tools. Yet, most research on algorithmic bias and hiring focuses on how demand-side systems respond to discrete categories, not how intersectional diversity shapes both sides of the hiring process. This paper tests the existence of intersectional biases in evaluations of resumes and job postings using a vignette design. Our study asks individuals from different sides of the hiring process, such as HR professionals and employers, as well as job seekers and employees, to evaluate a random selection of jobs and resumes that differ in the presence of gender, ethnic/racial, and intersectional cues. Specifically, we ask about the suitability of individuals for the job, their potential for career advancement, commitment, and “fit” within the company. For respondents with hiring responsibility, we further ask about how AI could help them to select the top candidate from these resumes. Job seekers are additionally asked about how they would adjust resumes to increase the chances of securing these positions and how these adjustments respond to potential AI screening. Altogether, the experimental evidence provides insights into how diverse groups evaluate intersectional cues in hiring, and how AI screening tools shape hiring responses.
  • Inequality By Design: An Intersectional Lens Into Algorithm Design and Deployment in Hiring Processes. .....Yang Hu, Lancaster University
  • Labor market inequalities are often characterized by intersectional configurations involving mutually constituent and mutual-shaping relationships among multiple social categories such as gender, sexuality, race/ethnicity, and class. Theories of intersectionality have fertilized research on work and employment for over four decades. Nevertheless, while emerging research has examined the inequality implications of artificial intelligence (AI) in labor market processes such as hiring, performance assessment, and promotion, the notion of “intersectionality” is still a novelty in research on AI and algorithms in labor market applications. Against this backdrop, this paper provides a systematic interdisciplinary exploration of where and why intersectional inequalities may exist in the design of AI algorithms for labor market applications, and what potential mitigating strategies can be developed. The empirical analysis focuses on the case of hiring and specifically algorithms for screening job applications and assessing job interviews, drawing on three sources of data to capture the perspectives of multiple stakeholder groups: (1) technical reports and information on algorithm design; (2) interviews with staff in a globally leading firm developing AI algorithms for hiring purposes; and (3) interviews with individual job seekers on their experiences of encountering AI algorithms in job applications. The findings provide novel multi-stakeholder insights into AI algorithms and intersectional inequalities. It develops a conceptually informed and empirically validated roadmap for extending AI equality considerations through an intersectional lens and incorporating such intersectional concerns into the design and deployment of AI in hiring and labor market processes.

  • Alla Konnikov, Concordia University of Edmonton;
  • Karen D. Hughes, University of Alberta;
  • Rujun (Ruth) Zhang, University of Alberta;
  • Rebecca Deustch, University of Alberta;
  • Nicole Denier, University of Alberta;
  • Yang Hu, Lancaster University;
63. Work Hour Preferences and Problems [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 3.210
  • The Impact of Paid Time Off On Job Satisfaction and Resignations. .....Candice Vander Weerdt, Cleveland State University; LeaAnne DeRigne, Florida Atlantic University; and Patricia Stoddard-Dare, Cleveland State University
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  • A representative sample of US adults born between 1980 and 1984 surveyed via the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 was used to examine the relationship between paid time off (combined sick days, vacation, and personal leave) and job satisfaction and resignations. While controlling for 17 demographic and employment-related variables, logistic regression and fixed effects modeling reveal over a 17-year period access to 6 to 10 paid time off days is related to significantly increased job satisfaction for male workers, while 11 or more paid time off days is needed to observe a statistically significant increase in job satisfaction for all workers and female employees. There is no relationship between paid time off and resignations for employees afforded a low (1-5) number of days off per year; however, there is a significant reduction in turnover for employees who are provided a moderate (6-10) number of days or a generous ( 11 or more) number of paid days off. When analyzed in separate logistic models for males and females, a similar pattern was revealed with both males and females experiencing a statistically significant reduction in turnover when given a moderate or generous number of paid time off days. This research suggests one factor that led to the Great Resignation, paid time off, is an enduring rather than fleeting business concern. Implications for family policy and business will be discussed.
  • What Part of Well Being Are We Not Getting? Associations of Underemployment and Involuntary vs. Voluntary Part Time With Health, Happiness and Work-Family Outcomes. .....Lonnie Golden, Penn State University - Abington College; and Jaeseung Kim, Sungkyungkwan University
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  • Underemployment remains under-researched, not only as an indicator of labor underutilization, but as a threat to workers’ well-being and health. Our study explores how underemployment -- workers constrained by the labor market or their job to work part time (PT) but wishing to work more hours or to have a full-time (FT) job -- is associated with general health, emotional well-being, current happiness at work and job satisfaction. We use primary data collected in a two-wave panel in 2023 (N=1200, US) to establish both cross sectional and dynamic relationships between indicators of worker well being and three alternative measures of underemployment--working part time for involuntary reasons (IVPT); working PT and indicating a desire to work more weekly hours; and working PT but preferring a full time job. Wave I data find that, compared to full-time workers, IVPT workers showed lower self-rated health and higher frequency of emotional difficulties. PT workers who want more hours have more frequent emotional problems but not reduced health. PT workers who prefer a full-time job reported lower happiness at work, more emotional difficulty and more sick days, but not poorer health. In contrast, working PT for voluntary (VPT) reasons show consistently positive outcomes. Demographic and job characteristics amplify the reduced health status and job happiness: nonwhite and hourly-paid underemployed workers reported particularly lower life satisfaction and job happiness. Finally, fixed effects tests focus on the workers experiencing transitions into and out of the state of underemployment after 6 months, to cope with potential worker heterogeneity or endogeneity.
  • Here to Stay? Alternating Weekly Work Schedules and the Future of Work in Organisational Settings in Ghana. .....Kwaku Abrefa Busia, Lingnan University
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  • Following the realities of public restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic on one hand and inadequate workplace resources to accommodate all workers on the other hand, some Ghanaian organisations began to experiment an alternating weekly work schedule (AWWS). This novel flexible work arrangement allows employees to work for a particular weekday and then take a break from work for their personal life in the following weekday as their colleagues take charge of work responsibilities in a rotational manner. Drawing from in-depth interviews with 25 employees in public and private organizations, this qualitative study investigated the origins of this flexible work practice, individual and organisational benefits of the practice, as well as the challenges that comes with this alternating weekly work schedule. Preliminary research findings demonstrate that workers viewed the practice as beneficial in terms of greater work-life balance, reduced transportation cost to and from work, enhanced occupational commitment and improved work performance. For the organisations, this new work schedule arrangement was found to reduce organisational costs, enhance workplace well-being and facilitate organisational teambuilding.
  • No More Go-Getters? Empirical Evidence From Germany on Job Preferences. .....Lena Hipp, WZB - Social Science Research Center Berli; and Erin Kelly, MIT - Sloan School of Management
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  • The work-life field has long included research on work orientations and job preferences, which have been tied to the gender wage gap and generational dynamics more recently. The idea of “compensating differentials”—where women and especially mothers trade off higher wages for more family-supportive conditions—is thought to explain gender wage gaps. However, the empirical evidence on job preferences is not clear and is arguably out of date. Millenials and GenZers are now commonly stereotyped as prioritizing work-life balance, as lazy quiet-quitters. The media has proclaimed the “end of ambition” (Time Magazine, October 2022) among cohorts born after the mid-1990s, but research on cohort differences is also inconclusive. In a survey of 4,203 respondents in Germany, respondents were asked to choose from two hypothetical jobs that varied in income (10% more than current or 5% less), opportunities for professional advancement (good or few), and working hours (“long hours are common and availability outside of regular work is expected” or “working hours are flexible and [other employees say] they do not work longer than contracted”). Most women and men would prefer jobs with flexible and predictable working hours, even with lower salaries and less advancement. Women express preferences for these types of jobs at even higher rates than men (p<0.05), with no significant differences between parents and nonparents within gender. The interest in the no-advancement, steady job was lowest for those in their 20s, suggesting that it is actually workers aged 30+ who are more interested in less intensive work.
  • Tipping the Scales: Identifying the Working Hour Thresholds Impacting Health and Gender Wage Disparities. .....Sunjin Pak, California State University, Bakersfield; Amit Kramer, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig; and Yun-Kyoung “Gail” Kim, Salisbury University
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  • In this study, we delve into the intricate interplay of working hours and perceived health, and its subsequent influence on gender wage disparity, within South Korean context. Drawing from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS) spanning 2013 to 2021, a causal link between working hours and perceived health is established. Employing cross-lagged and instrumental variable approaches, this study highlights the distinct health impacts of working hours on men and women, resulting in gender-specific wage differences. The 2018 policy amendment in South Korea, which lowered the maximum weekly working hours, served as an instrumental variable. Key findings reveal an inverted U-curve relationship between working hours and health, with discerned inflection points at 41.36 hours per week for men and 28.95 hours for women. Additionally, our analysis uncovers a bidirectional relationship between self-perceived health and earnings. Consequently, prolonged work durations have a more pronounced negative impact on women's health, which might contribute to wage discrepancies. In summary, South Korea's 2018 initiative to curtail weekly working hours might play a pivotal role in narrowing both the health and wage disparities between genders. As the workforce transitions towards schedules that prioritize individual health boundaries, it is plausible to anticipate a progression towards more balanced health and wage outcomes across genders in the South Korean professional environment.
64. Gender, Identity, and Career Progression [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 3.265
  • Gender Inequality in Parents' Experiences of Remote Work: A Photo-Documentary Study. .....Jennifer Augustine, University of South Carolina; Morgan Koziol, University of South Carolina; and Nicholas Hollis, University of South Carolina
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  • The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased rates of remote work. This change in work is heralded as holding the promise of reducing parents’ work-family conflict and promoting gender equality. Yet, pre-pandemic research suggests that remote work promotes gender inequality; for example, because women who work-from-home tend to take on more caregiving, housework, and multitasking than men. At the same time, the extent to which these gendered processes remain true in the present context is unclear. Thus, this study investigates current gendered experiences of remote work. We do so by using a novel approach that blends photo-documentary methods and non-participant observation. Specifically, we take pictures and record field notes of 50 parents’ (25 mothers, 25 fathers) work-from-home spaces. We also collect basic survey data about parents’ employment status, demographic background, family composition, frequency of remote work, and interview data on what they like and dislike about their workspaces. Analyses of the visual data and textual analyses of the interview and observational data will highlight patterns with regards to mothers’ spaces and fathers’ spaces. Data collection is underway and planned for completion by February 2024. We expect that women will have less optimal and more improvised work-from-home spaces compared to men. Women’s work-from-home spaces will also include more intrusion from their home life (e.g., the presence of children’s toys) than men’s. These findings will contribute a novel visual representation of spatial and physical elements of remote work and the ways in which it continues to structure gender inequality.
  • The Impact of Partners’ Identity Comprehension on Workers’ Outcomes: The Role of Felt Understanding and Gender. .....Xing Liu, Wayne State University; Christina Hymer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville; and Sherry Thatcher, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville
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  • Research examining the work-family interface indicates that work-family conflict contributes to negative individual outcomes, including reduced well-being and job performance. While valuable, this research has traditionally only accounted for the perspective of the worker. In this study, we examine the impact of a partner’s perceptions of a worker’s work-family interface on a focal worker’s work outcomes. Drawing upon identity theory, we anticipate that a partner’s identity comprehension (i.e., the extent to which a partner understands the importance of a focal worker’s work- and family-related identities) positively relates to a worker’s levels of job satisfaction, job engagement, and work-family balance satisfaction. That is, as a partner more correctly assesses the importance of a focal worker’s identities, they are better capable of providing resources to help a focal worker navigate work and family demands. We anticipate that these positive relationships are mediated by a focal worker's perception that their partner understands their work-family conflict. Drawing upon gender role theory, we anticipate that these relationships are strengthened when the focal worker is female given gender differences in role demands that may contribute to greater levels of work-family conflict among women. We test our model using a multi-source, multi-wave cross-lagged design on a sample of 158 couples from Prolific. We find that partners’ identity comprehension enhances focal workers’ job satisfaction, job engagement, and work-family balance satisfaction. However, felt understanding only mediates the relationship between identity comprehension and work-family balance satisfaction for female workers. Our paper carries implications for the identity and work-family literatures.
  • A New Dimension of the Motherhood Penalty: Perceptions of Future Childbearing Risk. .....Tania Hutt, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
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  • While there is widespread evidence of the motherhood penalty in the U.S. labor market, it remains unclear whether future childbearing risk activates employers’ forward-looking concerns about job applicants. I draw from existing social-psychological research to theorize that future childbearing risk will be associated with forward-looking characteristics, such as future cost, risk, and growth potential. Using an original conjoint survey experiment that disentangles current motherhood status from future childbearing risk, I find that among childless women, future motherhood is penalized in perceptions of cost and risk while among current mothers, future additional childbearing is also penalized in perceptions of growth potential and competency. In addition, by examining how the penalty associated with current motherhood varies across low and high future childbearing risk, I find that when motherhood is signaled in isolation from future childbearing risk (i.e., mothers who are “done” with childbearing), mothers are penalized exclusively in perceptions associated with having current childcare responsibilities. In contrast, when current motherhood is combined with high future childbearing risk, the penalty is larger and impacts nearly all measures of cost, risk, growth potential, and reliability—being more closely aligned with the conventionally studied motherhood penalty. I also find some interesting variations of these penalties across racial and social class groups. I propose a theoretical framework that enables a deeper understanding of the motherhood penalty, showing how perceptions of future cost and risk of childbearing can affect childless women as well as exacerbate and expand the penalties already experienced by mothers of young children.
65. Perceptions and Measures of Work-Life Balance [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 3.270
  • Methods, Measures, and Money: Re-Examining Parental Leave Policy Effects on Earnings. .....Brigid Cotter, University of Southern California
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  • Parental leave schemes, along with other family policies, are intended to aid new parents in navigating care responsibilities and the increasingly difficult balance between work and family. However, the extent to which these policies help women and new parents is highly contentious. Work-family policy scholars have engaged in years-long, theoretically and empirically rich discourse that seeks to answer paradoxes in relationships between publicly funded family-friendly policies and indicators of women’s labor market outcomes, such as earnings. Scholars tend to disagree on the magnitude and extent to which parental leave policies affect labor market outcomes and career trajectories for parents. Often, this contention is oriented on what "good leave" is for parents, though scholars measure indicators in a variety of ways, creating an unstable benchmark for appropriate comparison across policy frameworks. This paper seeks to address these inconsistencies by examining and optimizing measurement techniques to standardize policy analysis among maternal, parental, and paternal leave schemes in 32 countries. This paper makes use of individual-level data from the LIS (Luxembourg Income Study) cross-national database and an original collection of leave policy indicators to assess measurement techniques' relationships to earnings differentials between mothers and non-mothers, furthering methodological approaches to assessing the connection between policy and labor market advancement.
  • Essential Features of Work-Life Balance: The Views of Australian Midwives. .....Sara Bayes, Edith Cowan University; Dianne Bloxsome, Edith Cowan University; Sadie Geraghty, University of Notre Dame Australia; and Kate Dawson, Australian Catholic University
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  • Work-life balance, also known as work-life integration, fit, quality, effectiveness or work-family balance, has become an important contemporary issue, and awareness of the phenomenon has increased over the last decade. This has led to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation (OECD) reporting on the work-life balance of its member countries’ citizens every two to three years since 2011, to individuals wanting and expecting that their job will respect their spare time, and to employers implementing work–life balance policies as a potential retention strategy. Although it has been identified that work-life balance is a notable factor in why midwives stay in their role, what specifically is important to midwives for work-life balance has yet to be reported. The aims of this project were to explore what work-life balance means to midwives, and to determine this phenomenon's crucial features. A Delphi approach was employed for this study. Australian midwives in clinical practice formed the sample. Participants were asked to share their views about what work-life balance in midwifery meant to them via a series of open-ended question in an electronic survey. These data were distilled into statements about work-life balance in midwifery that the participants then ranked. Finally, the top ten statements from this round were ranked by participants in order of importance. The findings from this study provide previously unreported insights into what midwives want and need from their job, and will be of interest to employers of these health professionals at a time of unprecedented global attrition in this workforce.
  • Academia and Parenthood: Gender Disparities, Work-Life Conflict, and the Path to Gender Equality. .....Marisa Matias, Porto University; Sara Magalhães, Porto University; Jorge Freitas, Porto University; and Daniela Leal, Porto University
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  • Academia is known to be a greedy institution, i.e. there is a culture that emphasizes workplace devotion and the ideal worker norm is firmly embedded (Minnotte, 2021). Pressure to work long hours is commonplace, and the expectations for scholarly productivity are a frequent source of stress. In this study, we aim to address gender biases and work-life imbalance in a Higher Education Institution in Portugal in the context of a Europe-funded project. Data was collected through multiple sources, including the university information system (n=4978 workers), four focus groups (n= 34), and a survey (n=262). The data was analyzed in five major areas: (a) absences due to family responsibilities, (b) experiences of returning to work after a parenting leave, (c) participation in leadership positions, (d) perceptions of barriers and support to career progression, (e) indicators on work-life conflict. Our data showed inequalities in the use of parental leave by men and women, with women being the ones perceiving more difficulties in returning to work after the leave and the ones receiving less support. Also, women, more than men, perceive more negative impacts in their careers after becoming mothers. This impact is salient in the fewer nominations to management bodies and in the opportunities for career progression. No gender differences were found for levels of work-to-family conflict, but teachers/researchers perceive more WLC than administrative staff. The data was used to design a gender equality plan which is now halfway in its implementation. The measures and their potential impact will also be discussed.
  • Help Me Control My Life! How Social Support Can Foster Work-Life Balance Through Boundary Control.. .....Justine Blaise Richards, Université of du Québec à Montréal; Dana Bonnardel, Université of du Québec à Montréal; and Yanick Provost Savard, Université of du Québec à Montréal
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  • Social support refers to psychological or material resources provided to an individual by others (Jolly et al., 2021). It is a crucial element for an individual’s well-being and it can be found in different life domains, (e.g., family). Receiving social support from either work, through colleagues or supervisors, or family members lowers work-family conflict (WFC) (Kossek E.E. et al., 2011), and enhances work-life balance (WLB; Jolly et al., 2021; Vaziri et al., 2022). Another variable that leads to WLB is boundary control, defined as the perception of control on different aspects of the transitions between work and life domains (Primecz et al., 2016). We posit that the relationship between support from colleagues, supervisors, and family members and WLB can be mediated by the perception of boundary control. Perceived boundary control, WLB, and social support were measured in a sample of 318 French-Canadian workers. Regression analysis show that social support (family: b = .28, p < .001; supervisors: b = .2, p < .001; colleagues: b = .26, p < .001) and boundary control (b = .55, p < .001) are positively related to WLB. Boundary control mediated the relationship between social support from supervisor (indirect effect = .1, CI [.03; .17]) and family members (indirect effect = .11, CI [.05; .18]), and WLB, but not when support came from colleagues (indirect effect = .06, CI [-.001;.13]). While family and supervisors can help control boundaries in an instrumental way, colleagues do not seem to have the power to do so.
  • From the Ideal Worker Norm to Work-Life Balance: Measuring Norm Shifts Within Occupational Contexts. .....Jan Müller, University of Zurich; and Heejung Chung, University of Kent
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  • Research shows that the ideal worker norm, the masculine-gendered expectation of unlimited work devotion, perpetuates class and gender inequality and negatively impacts job satisfaction, turnover rates, and work-life conflict. Despite increasing attention to this norm, operationalizations differ significantly, especially in occupational contexts. Conventional measures like the percentage of full-time workers and the amount of overtime hours fail to fully capture the complexity of the ideal worker norm. This study argues for a more comprehensive approach by: (1) Incorporating the gender dimension of the ideal worker norm; (2) Considering employers' viewpoints by deriving normative indicators from job advertisements; and (3) Accounting for the evolving nature of this norm through historical trend analysis. Another innovative element is the juxtaposition of the ideal worker norm with the work-life balance norm. We demonstrate the inclusion of these diverse aspects into four comprehensive indicators by means of multilevel factor analysis. We use rich supply and demand-side data from Switzerland collected from 2002 to 2020 and matched at the occupational level. We validate these indicators by exploring their association with the preferences for part-time work among both women and men. This analysis further illustrates how to assess the influence of occupational shifts in the ideal worker and work-life balance norms on other outcomes, using Random Effects Within Between (REWB) models. By adopting this nuanced, context-specific, and historical lens, our research provides novel avenues for better analyzing, understanding, and addressing the class and gender inequalities perpetuated or mitigated by the ideal worker and the work-life balance norm.
66. Employees Transition to Parenthood [Paper Session]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 3.430
  • Promoting Male Maternity Leave in Japanese Organizations: Strong Gender Norm Can Be Broken?. .....Renge Jibu, Tokyo Institute of Technology
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  • As is well known, the gender gap in Japan is very large. In 2023, according to the Gender Gap Index studied by the World Economic Forum, Japan was ranked 125th, the lowest among global north countries. That is because the lack of female leaders in the political and economic spheres, and second, the large gender gap in unpaid care work at home. In this presentation, I will discuss some employers’ and central government programs that encourage men to participate in child care as redistribution of unpaid care work is essential for gender equality. Various statistics show that the gap between men's and women's time for housework and childcare in Western countries is generally 1 to 2. In other words, mothers with preschool children spend approximately twice as much time as fathers on housework and childcare. In Japan, this gap is larger than in other countries, with mothers spending five times as much time as fathers on housework and childcare. This problem cannot be solved not only by public policy alone. Japanese government already offers the most generous male maternity leave system among developed countries (UNICEF, 2019). The problem lies in the culture rather than the system. In a society where strong gender norms prohibit people from exercising their rights, what measures are effective in promoting men's participation in the family? Several newest public policies and a case study of a large company with an interesting and socialistic human resource management strategy will be examined.
  • Accommodations for Lactating Workers: Combining Breastfeeding and Employment. .....Elizabeth A. Hoffmann, Purdue University
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  • In countries without maternity or parental leave beyond 6-8 weeks, such as the United States, workplace accommodations for lactating workers are essential. Without breast milk expression accommodations, women employees must choose between breastfeeding their children and full employment. Recognizing that many health organizations recommend nursing for at least 12-24 months (Mohrbacher 2014, World-Health-Organization 2002), various laws have been passed to enable combining working and continued breastfeeding. Some organizations’ policies comply with the letter of the law, but do not ameliorate the struggles of lactating women employees, creating lactation accommodations that satisfy the law but are purely symbolic. Other organizations focus less on the law itself and, instead, reinterpret legal compliance through the lens of managerial goals, finding ways to comply that directly help what objectives management already supports, yet also creating possible solutions for their lactating workers. Other organizations went beyond policies that furthered managerial goals to create successful accommodations for lactating workers. Often, these organizations have individual human resource specialists and supervising managers with personal or close second-hand experience with expressing breast milk. These allies push for organizational policies to directly aid lactating workers’ efforts, usually before any law or policy is even in place. Other organizations with successful lactation accommodations have supervising managers who initially were only perfunctorily supportive, but eventually became staunch advocates. These managers shifted away from either the legal directive or the managerial objectives. Over time, these managers embraced health-related reasons for supporting the pro-lactation policies and becoming strong advocates for effective lactation-at-work accommodations.
  • Gender, Transition to Parenthood, and Workplace Authority in Urban China. .....Manlin Cai, University of British Columbia
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  • Prior research has documented that parenthood typically leads to lower wages for women but higher wages for men. However, do motherhood penalty and fatherhood premium go beyond money and extend to other labor market outcomes? Drawing on six waves of nationally representative, longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (2010–2020), the current study examines how transition to parenthood affects women’s and men’s workplace authority in urban China. Fixed-effects results show that parenthood significantly decreases women’s probability of holding supervisory authority at work. This motherhood penalty in authority is larger for women working in the private sector than those working in the state sector. By contrast, transition to fatherhood does not affect men’s probability of holding supervisory authority at work, regardless of the sector they work in. Overall, the findings reveal that parenthood widens the gender gap in workplace authority. Because access to authority positions is associated with more job benefits and greater control over organizational decisions, the differential effects of parenthood on workplace authority between men and women may well produce and perpetuate gender inequalities in other realms of work and family lives. Furthermore, the transition into parenthood exacerbates the glass ceiling that prevents capable women from reaching leadership at work, which could, in turn, incur a tremendous loss to organizations and society.
  • A Qualitative Exploration of How Fathers’ Wellbeing is Promoted Through Paternal Leave. .....Jessica Hobbs, Birkbeck College, University of London
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  • Men’s mental health and wellbeing is a topical issue. Compelling evidence indicates that fathers’ mental health is more vulnerable during the perinatal period and paternal leave is often proposed as a possible solution to support new fathers. Many countries continue to expand their leave entitlements for new fathers with the aim of increasing paternal involvement at home and gender equality at work. This qualitative longitudinal study explores how a sample of British fathers representing a variety of leave structures and durations experience their own sense of wellbeing during their paternal leave journeys. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 fathers at three timepoints: before, during and after their paternal leave. Fathers were invited to discuss specific aspects of their physical and psychological wellbeing at each timepoint. Framework Analysis was used to understand how each father’s wellbeing developed over time. Their experiences were then compared across the sample to identify patterns of how wellbeing was both challenged and promoted through their paternal leave journeys. Preliminary analysis illuminates that becoming a parent is not a single event that influences an individual’s wellbeing in isolation. Rather, this event is embedded within the individual’s broader life context. Fathers’ wellbeing during their paternal leave journey is experienced as a fluctuating balance of demands and resources across both the family and work domains. Dedicating a period of time to adapt to changes in their family life without the demands of work can therefore promote fathers’ wellbeing during this major life transition.
67. Early Career Network- INVITED SESSION: Navigating the Early Career Stage: Insights From the Early Career Network SIG [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 3.435

Organizers: Mona Zanhour, California State University, Long Beach; Sabrina Speights, Wheaton College;
Presider: Mona Zanhour, California State University, Long Beach
68. Fostering Family Supportive Work Scheduling (Or Not): Links To Family & Work Outcomes [Thematic session of multiple paper presentations]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | MB 3.445

Organizer: Ellen Ernst Kossek, Purdue University
Presider: Ellen Ernst Kossek, Purdue University
  • Exploring the Relationship Between Parental Work Schedules and Their Children’s School Attendance. .....Kess Ballentine, Wayne State University; Sarah Lenhoff, Wayne State University; Jeremy Singer, Michigan State University; and Aeyanna Yett, Wayne State University
  • Overall, the limited research connecting parental labor conditions and child outcomes suggests direct associations. The current study expands this literature by estimating associations between parental work schedules and a previously unstudied outcome: children’s school attendance. Regular school attendance is associated with student academic achievement while chronic absenteeism (missing >10% of enrolled days) is a growing problem associated with academic and socioemotional outcomes. We link data on work schedules from parent surveys (N=1,390) to their children’s administrative data sourced through Detroit Public Schools Community District. We used linear regression to examine the association between parental schedules and chronic absenteeism and attendance rate. We ran models for all, one-parent, and two-parent families. In the all-family model (reference: two-parents both standard), children in two-parent households where both parents worked a nonstandard shift were 20% more likely to be chronically absent while households with one nonstandard and one unemployed parent were 19% less likely to be chronically absent. Children in one-parent families with a nonstandard schedule attended an average of 8 fewer days of school. The one-parent model revealed null associations. The two-parent model showed that both parents working a nonstandard schedule was associated with significantly more chronic absence. Meanwhile, one standard schedule and one employed parent was associated with significantly less chronic absence. These findings add to our understanding of the distal impact of job inflexibility in the interconnected lives of working parents and their children. This research suggests a promising area for future investigation into how job quality may impact child outcomes.
  • Are Parental Nonstandard Work Schedules A Barrier to Their School Involvement?. .....Kess Ballentine, Wayne State University; and Alejandra Ros Pilarz, University of Wisconsin, Madison
  • Parents’ work schedules shape how families spend their time. Nonstandard and unpredictable schedules have been associated with worse child outcomes. Less is known about the impact of parental work schedules on parental school involvement, a predictor of child academic and socioemotional wellbeing. To address this gap, we estimate associations between mothers’ work schedules and parental school involvement. We use nationally-representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort 2010-11. Our sample includes children whose mothers were employed in the fall of kindergarten (N=6,047). We use regression models with controls for child and family characteristics to estimate associations between mothers’ work schedules and school involvement, including attendance at school events, volunteering, and number of parents with whom they regularly communicate. Our work schedule measure captures regular daytime and nonstandard schedules (evening and night) as well as flexible variable and employer-set variable schedules. We also examine—but find limited evidence of—heterogeneity by maternal education, race, and family structure. We find that working a flexible variable schedule facilitates parental school involvement—including volunteering, attending school events, and communicating with other parents—relative to working a regular daytime schedule. Working a regular nonstandard schedule or employer-set variable schedule is not associated with school involvement, except that working a night schedule is associated with attending fewer school events. These findings highlight the importance of work schedule flexibility for parents’ ability to balance work and family demands and provide additional evidence of the potential harmful effects of night schedules for family wellbeing.
  • Leaders and Leaves: Validating and Evaluating a New Measure of Paid Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors for Family and Sick Leave. .....Ellen Ernst Kossek, Purdue University; Katie Lawson, Ball State University; Leslie Hammer, Oregon Health & Science University; Todd Bodner, Portland State University; MacKenna Perry, Pacific Research and Evaluation; Jiayun Xu, Purdue University; and Shalene Allen, Portland State University
  • Despite its cruciality for working caregivers, paid family and sick leave policies are an underused organizational policy. We implemented a randomized controlled trial field experiment to test the effects of an organizational intervention designed to increase employee perceptions of supervisor-supportive family behaviors for leaves. In assessing intervention effectiveness, we developed and validated a new measure of supervisor support for family and sick leave. This measure extends previous research on family supportive supervisory behaviors (Hammer et al.,2009; 2013). Most previous FSSB research captures employee perceptions of a socially supportive work culture, but has been less focused on supervisory support for a specific family policy. We focus this presentation on the development of the new scale, which was based on a review of the family and sick leaves literature, interviews with HRM benefits experts, and longitudinal data collection from 694 employees to validate the measure. Results of multilevel confirmatory factor analyses found six subscales: listening and giving emotional support, role modeling, educating and increasing access, dual agenda, psychological safety for taking leave, and respecting time off. The second-order factor loadings supported the use of a total score, the items were internally consistent (Cronbach’s alpha = .95 and .96),. with evidence of convergent validity with general FSSB: r = .86, .81). Multi-level regression analyses showed evidence of incremental validity: the new leaves scale predicted WFC and FWC and job satisfaction, even when controlling for general FSSB. Findings indicate the need for a new measure and benefits of increasing supervisor support for paid leaves.
  • Examining the Link Between Parental Leave Support and Work Outcomes: Data Insights From the Parental Leave Transition Assessment (PLTA)™. .....Amy Pytlovany, Center for Parental Leave; and Amy Beacom, Center for Parental Leave Leadership
  • The parental leave transition (preparing for, during, returning from) is a pivotal life event characterized by dynamic challenges and adjustments with far-reaching implications for employees, organizations, and communities. The current research is based on data from the Parental Leave Transition Assessment (PLTA)™: a comprehensive self-assessment tool designed to examine six key areas that shape the parental leave experience. It currently includes data from 134 parents collected in 2022, with data collection ongoing. Our research emphasizes the pivotal role of organizational support systems in the parental leave experience, with particular focus on Parental Leave Work Culture (PLWC) and Manager Experience with Leave. Non-supportive PLWC relates to employees feeling rushed before leave, perinatal mental health concerns, and predicts missed opportunities for promotions, training, and return-to-work intentions. Additionally, when managers lack leave-taking experience, employees report negative experiences such as reduced co-worker support, increased negative comments, and missed development opportunities. Interestingly, supervisors in our sample displayed greater knowledge of parental leave information and resources (than non-supervisors), indicating their key role in parental leave communications. Those with experience are likely better equipped to convey this knowledge and support, while supervisors lacking experience may inadvertently create less supportive environments. These findings strongly advocate for the implementation of comprehensive support systems and training programs, particularly focusing on supervisors lacking leave experience. Such measures aim to guarantee that parental leave becomes a positive and healthy experience for both employees and organizations, thereby serving as a critical strategy to mitigate risks, including turnover and potential litigation.
  • The Role of Organisational Support Policies and Leave Entitlements In Mediating the Relationship Between Religion, Breastfeeding and Employment in Qatar. .....Sara Masoud, Qatar University; Patrizia Kokot-Blamey, Queen Mary University of London; Grace James, University of Reading; and Evelyn Fenton, University of Reading
  • There is consistent evidence of the long- and short-term health as well as wider benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and child (Wiciński et al., 2020) following birth and beyond the first year of a child’s life. This makes it a key concern for policy makers and those working in public health. Returning to employment is a primary reason for breastfeeding cessation among new mothers (Al-Katufi et al., 2020). This empirical research shares insights from interview data with fifty employed Qatari mothers with a focus on understanding the role of organisational support policies in supporting breastfeeding mothers within a context that offers only minimal leave entitlements (50 and 60 days leave in private and public sector respectively) on the one hand, yet culturally emphasises the importance of breastfeeding one’s child for at least two years, in accordance with Qur’anic instructions, on the other hand. The findings unpick the dilemmas the women face upon return to work and the role of organisational support polices to either help or complicate meeting the juxtaposed expectations and norms related to what constitutes an ‘ideal worker’ (Acker, 2006; Lee, 2018) and what constitutes a ‘good Muslim mother’. Theoretically, this work is framed O’Reilly’s (2016) matricentric feminism as well as a return to Hays' (1996) original notion of intensive mothering as a cultural paradox, where women are expected to be both full-time workers and yet available mothers, but examined within a new context.
  • Susan Lambert, University of Chicago;
69. Investing in the Aspirations of Lower-Income Families in Urban Singapore [Workshop]
Friday | 10:30 am-12:00 pm | S2.115

Organizer: Adriana Rasip, Empowered Families Initiative

  • Adriana Rasip, Empowered Families Initiative
  • Adriana Rasip, Empowered Families Initiative;
70. Lunch
Friday | 12:00 pm-1:15 pm | MB9
71. Big Ideas Talks [Plenary]
Friday | 1:30 pm-2:30 pm | H 110

Organizer: Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute
72. Awards Ceremony
Friday | 2:30 pm-3:00 pm | H 110

Organizer: Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute
73. Coffee and Poster Session 2
Friday | 3:15 pm-4:00 pm | MB9
  • Unrequited Love? An Intimate Partnership Perspective on The Impact Of Humans on Companion Dogs. .....Tina Sharifi, York University; and Souha Ezzedeen, York University
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  • Decades of research have led humans to realize the profound psychological, biological, and social improvements derived through canine companionship. Nonetheless, the implications of this critical relationship remain largely one-sided, and little is understood about how humans impact the physical, mental and well-being outcomes of their dogs. While research demonstrates that dogs are attuned to human’s emotional states and can form complex attachments to their human companions, the literature lacks a comprehensive examination of these outcomes. This presents a critical paucity in literature given the importance of this long-standing and powerful dynamic. Therefore, in this presentation, we ask—how and what are the implications of humans on their canine companions? As research demonstrates, tens of thousands of years of domestication and socialization have recognized dogs as notable fixtures within human households, shaping how humans live and work. In consideration of the niche role that dogs play within the life course of humans, it is important to extend a critical lens that centers dogs within this understanding. Furthermore, as canine companionship grows increasingly prevalent within households, influencing our futures both at home and work, we must make meaningful attempts to understand their experiences as well as our own.
  • Lessons Learned From the Experiences of Parents With Young Children During the First Year of the Pandemic. .....Ketaki Uma Krishnan, Barnard College - Center for Toddler Development; Sophie Smyke, Barnard College - Center for Toddler Development; Bina Aaronson, Barnard College; Laurel Rosenbaum, Barnard College; Violet Eve Hott, Barnard College; Eleanor Grace Hansen, Barnard College; and Tovah Klein, Barnard College - Center for Toddler Development
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  • The sudden pandemic upheaval forced unexpected changes and adaptations for families. Our study aims to provide detailed description of experiences of parents with young children (under eight) during the first year of the pandemic, to understand changes in work-life and adaptations. This group had unique needs given the overlap of work and childcare. The study involved 109 parents (N=67 mothers; 42 fathers) nationally interviewed March-August 2021, allowing us to explore shifts in work and family life as they took place. Semi-structured Zoom interviews were recorded and verbatim transcripts used for identifying emergent themes including shifts, challenges and accommodations. Blurring of work-home life boundaries was prominent. Parents discussed an increasing lack of separation between work-home; pressures to manage demands of both spheres simultaneously with no boundaries. Parents felt inadequate and guilt-ridden over what they could not do well and stress of the overlapping and competing demands; “ just feels like you're not able to give 100% … to any one thing because you're juggling so many things ...” “It’s easy to feel that isolation, and feel like you're a failure at everything” Parents spoke of space alterations and changing expectations for self and family as they brought work into previously family-only spaces. Setting boundaries, new communications with partners and subsequent shifts in priorities were discussed as well as a range of complicated feelings. The shifts in work and child-rearing for families with young children point to ongoing needs, including for greater support, childcare, work flexibility and help establishing reasonable work-life boundaries.
  • Impact of Maternal Employee Union Membership on Child Diet Quality in Participants of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. .....Kristen Davis, Syracuse University; Kamala Ramadoss, Syracuse University; Ying Xu, Syracuse University; and Sarah Marshall, Syracuse University
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  • Given the concurrent trends of increasing maternal employment and increasing childhood obesity in the US, much research has been devoted to understanding the associations between these two factors. Research on maternal employment and health related behaviors in children has found an overall negative impact of either full- or part-time employment of mothers on the diet quality in children. This study aims to address current gaps in research around more specific characteristics of maternal employment (such as job demand and union membership) and how those characteristics might impact child diet quality. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth gathered by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, a longitudinal sample of 310 employed mothers and their children was gathered from the 2014, 2016, 2018 and 2020 waves. A moderation analysis was conducted to examine the potential moderating effect of union membership/coverage on maternal job demand and the impact on child diet quality across the four waves of data. Results of the moderation analysis showed a positive association between maternal union membership/coverage and child diet quality in 2014, t=2.52, p=.01. The association between mothers’ job demand and child diet quality was not statistically significant. There was no significant moderating effect found between maternal union membership/coverage and job demand on child diet quality. Furthermore, child diet quality in 2014 was significantly correlated with diet quality in 2016, 2018 and 2020. This study makes a significant contribution in understanding the mechanisms through which maternal employment may influence child diet.
  • Work and Psychological Recovery Experiences of Second-Generation Asian American and Pacific Islander Workers. .....Laura Yang, Portland State University; Tori Crain, Portland State University; and Christine Beceril, Portland State University
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  • Individuals of Asian, Asian American, and Pacific Islander (AAPI) descent comprise approximately 6.7% of the general population (United States Census Bureau, 2022). As one of the fastest growing minority groups, they are projected to reach nearly 15% of the population by 2065, with 38% being foreign-born – surpassing all other racial minority groups (e.g., Lee & Zhou, 2017). Despite rapid growth of this population within the U.S. workforce, research on AAPI workers’ work-nonwork experiences has been limited. One key unexplored area is related to how AAPI workers engage in recovery after work, given their cultural differences and racialized experiences. Drawing on literature examining psychological recovery from work (i.e., restorative process of unwinding outside of work following the experience of workplace stressors; Sonnentag et al., 2017), the current study explores how AAPI workers in the U.S. think about their nonwork time, recover from workplace stress, and view culture as playing a role in how and when they take time off work. This investigation is critical and novel, as research examining recovery from work have almost exclusively investigated this phenomenon with homogenous White samples, and primarily from Europe. The current study uses a qualitative approach (i.e., one-hour interviews with AAPI participants). As data collection is underway, with 18 out of 30 interviews completed (or until saturation is reached), possible themes are likely to capture how AAPI workers spend their time off from work, their beliefs and emotions toward engaging in recovery practices, and tensions between their Asian and American values regarding work.
  • HRM in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis: Exploring the Effect of EAPs on Employee Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention. .....Tsung-Ming Chen, National University of Tainan; and Chiung-Wen Tsao, National University of Tainan
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  • People around the world began to face a spreading disease called COVID-19 in early 2020, and the severity of this pandemic made the WHO to declare it as PHEIC (Public Health Emergency of International Concern) . The legal requirements for pandemic control have challenged how employers make decisions to achieve a balance between comply with national policies and business activities. Once the decisions are made to rearrange the work schedule, locations, and processes, it is unavoidable to cause multi-faceted impacts on employees. The employees might have different responses adapting the work rearrangement which may violate their willingness and expectations toward work, which in turn, impact their job satisfaction and intention to leave. To retain and improve employees' job satisfaction, the deployment of the employee assistance programs (EAPs) can be a promised solution, as prior studies found that utilizing EAPs enhanced employee outcomes, specifically improving levels of presenteeism, mental health, and functioning. This study adopts a two-stage approach to collect data, in the first stage, we survey companies on what kind of pandemic control-oriented HR practices and EAPs were deployed in workplaces. In the second stage, in-depth interview was used to understand employees’ perceptions toward those pandemic control-oriented HR practices, and the role of EAPs on HRM in times of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and employee job satisfaction and turnover intention relationships. The results of this study will help policy makers and employers determine the implementation of pandemic control-oriented HRM practices and the adoption of EAPs.
  • The Effect of Role Stressors on Work-Family Conflict via Burnout: A Meta-Analysis and Daily Dairy Study. .....Gargi Sawhney, Auburn University; and Mallory McCord, Old Dominion University
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  • Despite ample empirical evidence that suggests a positive relationship between role stressors (i.e., role overload, role ambiguity, and role conflict) and work-family conflict (WFC), no empirical reviews have examined whether burnout is a mechanism through which role stressors are related to WFC. Additionally, although existing meta-analyses in this area have included studies that utilize between-person designs, research has yet to assess whether these findings generalize to research that utilizes within-person designs. The present study addresses two main questions: a) does burnout mediate the relationship between role stressors and WFC? And if so, b) do these findings replicate across two different methodologies? Drawing on the work-home resources model (ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012), we argue that role stressors can deplete existing resources, resulting in burnout. Furthermore, high levels of burnout impedes individuals from partaking in family activities and responsibilities (Kattenbach et al., 2010), resulting in higher WFC. Study 1 used meta-analytic structural equation modeling (Viswesvaran & Ones, 1995) to explore burnout as a mechanism of the role stressors - WFC relationship. In Study 2, we employed a daily diary design with a sample of 164 employees across two consecutive work weeks (i.e., 10 days) to test the same hypotheses. The results of Study 1 revealed that burnout mediated the role stressor - WFC relationship for all three stressors. While role overload and role ambiguity predicted WFC via burnout in Study 2, burnout did not mediate the role conflict - WFC relationship. Our findings have implications for both theory and practice.
  • Is This Mutual?: Partner Emotional Support, Emotional Exhaustion, and Professional Efficacy. .....Rebecca Cole, University of Georgia; and Malissa Clark, University of Georgia
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  • The theory of work-family enrichment (Greenhaus & Powell, 2006) posits that one’s experiences in one role (for example, psychological resources gained at home) can inform their experience and performance in a second role (for example, performance in one’s work). One such psychological resource is a strong and supportive relationship with one’s romantic partner. Research from the close relationships literature indicates such relationships a strengthened through receiving emotional support provided one’s partner (Reis & Shiver, 1988). While researchers have investigated the role of one’s partner support in buffering job burnout (e.g. Halbesleben, 2006), relatively few studies have investigated the relationship between the congruence of giving and receiving emotional support on burnout. Doing so is important because perceived emotional support received by one’s partner can influence burnout (e.g. Booth-LeDoux et al., 2020) and reciprocity is a determinant of such relationship quality (Thibaut & Kelley, 1959). Further, much of the work thus far has included primarily or exclusively heterosexual couples, which may influence results given gender roles that dictate women perform as emotional caretakers (Eagly, 1987). Given the growing population of same-sex couples, it is important to have research that reflects to the experiences of these families. The current investigation seeks to remedy these issues by examining 170 individuals in same sex-relationships. We utilized polynomial regression and response surface models to investigate the relationship between giving and receiving emotional support on two forms of burnout: emotional exhaustion and decreased professional efficacy.
  • How Telepressure Affects Life Satisfaction and Work Detachment: The Moderating Role of Workaholism. .....Laurel Guffey, University of Georgia; Skylar Oney, University of Georgia; and Malissa Clark, University of Georgia
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  • Technological advancements enable organizations to constantly reach employees, which may make employees feel obligated to remain available after-hours. Prior research shows that workplace telepressure is positively related to negative outcomes like cognitive burnout (Barber et al., 2015), emotional exhaustion (Cheung et al., 2021), and negatively related to psychological detachment (Barber et al., 2015; Gillet et al., 2023). To expand upon this work and understanding of this phenomenon in an increasingly connected work culture, we explored the relationships of workplace telepressure on detachment from work and life satisfaction, and examined workaholism as a moderator. The moderating role of workaholism is grounded in boundary theory, which posits that people place boundaries between different life domains (Ashforth et al., 2000), wherein individuals vary in their boundary preferences. We propose that individuals higher in workaholism are likely to blur boundaries between domains, therefore the negative relationship between telepressure and life satisfaction (H1a) would be weaker since they would not perceive work imposing on their non-work life (H1b). Further, the negative relationship between telepressure and psychological detachment (H2a) is likely stronger for individuals higher in workaholism (H2b), as they are inclined to think about work after-hours (i.e., blurrier boundaries). Hypotheses 1a (b = .12, p = .302) and 1b (b = .19, p = .261) were not supported. Hypothesis 2a also lacked support (b = .12, p = .110). However, Hypothesis 2b was supported (b = -.30, p = .006), such that the negative relationship was stronger for those higher (b = -.07, p = .493) versus lower (b = .30, p = .001) in workaholism.
  • Evaluating the Uptake of CSA B701:17 (R2021) Carer-Inclusive and Accommodating Organizations Standard. .....Brooke Chmiel, McMaster University
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  • The CSA B701:17 Carer-inclusive and Accommodating Organizations Standard and accompanying Implementation Guide B701HB-18 Helping Worker-carers in your organization was published in 2017 via a partnership between McMaster University and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) (Williams et al., 2018). In Canada, 67% of unpaid carers are simultaneously employed (Figure 2); this equals over 5.2 million carer-employees (Magnaye et al., 2023). Although previous intervention research with Canadian workplaces has highlighted the significant health and economic benefits of carer-friendly workplaces (Ding et al., 2020; Ding et al., 2021; Ding et al., 2022), limited uptake of the CSA B701-17 Standard and Guide has occurred. The present study aims to determine the uptake of the CSA B701:17 Carer-Inclusive and Accommodating Organizations Standard and Guide across workplaces in Canada. The objective of the present study is to assess the extent of implementation. The present study uses a mixed-methods approach, beginning with a quantitative survey distributed to all workplaces who have either downloaded the Standard or Guide. A follow-up will be conducted to ensure our response rate is above 50%. This will be followed by a sub-sample (n=30) of qualitative interviews to be conducted virtually. Each interview is anticipated to be approximately 30-45 minutes. Interview data will be transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results will provide insight into the degree to which participating workplaces have implemented the Standard or Guide as well as identification of barriers. This will inform next steps specific to the continued knowledge mobilization (KMb) of the Standard and Guide.
  • Beyond Just Work and Family: Uncovering Profiles of Multiple Role Involvement. .....Molly Schoffel, University of South Florida; and Tammy Allen, University of South Florida
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  • Individuals occupy multiple roles throughout the course of their lives, both work-related (e.g., employee), and nonwork-related (e.g., parent, community member). These roles do not exist independently of each other, but rather interact to contribute to individual’s identity. Most research to date has taken a variable-centered approach to understanding multiple role involvement. The present study takes a person-centered approach to examine patterns of role involvement across the roles of worker, community member, parent, and partner. Using the second wave of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) dataset, we identify four role involvement profiles through latent profile analysis, labelled high involvement (72.41%), work before community (17.14%), family first (8.21%), and work before children (2.24%). Covariate analyses indicated while the family first profile experienced significantly lower job control and higher job stress than other profiles, the high involvement profile tended to experience significantly greater psychological well-being and life satisfaction than other profiles. Supplemental analyses revealed older adults were more likely to belong to the work before children profile and less likely to belong to the family first profile than other profiles; additionally, individuals with more co-residing children were more likely to belong to the family first profile and less likely to belong to the work before children profile. Our findings have notable implications for studying how and when roles co-occur in individuals and strengthen the literature on multiple role engagement by demonstrating how patterns of role involvement may enhance role-specific and role-nonspecific outcomes.
  • Verification of the Relationship Between Well-Being and Promotion Aspirations of Female Employees - An Analysis Using an International Comparative Survey of 18 Countries -. .....Eriko Teramura, Meikai University
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  • This study aims to examine the relationship between the well-being and promotion aspirations of women using microdata collected from men and women in 18 countries across Asia and Western regions. The data used for this analysis come from the Global Employment Reality and Growth Awareness Survey conducted by Persol Comprehensive Research Institute, a Japanese talent introduction company, in 2022. The survey targeted men and women aged 20-69, employed individuals who had lived in the respective countries for three years or more, with 1,000 samples (500 men and 500 women) in each country. The study covered 13 major cities in the APAC region, along with 5 additional countries, totaling 18 countries. The dependent variables in focus are well-being and promotion aspirations, and a Bivariate Probit Model (Greene, 2003), a simultaneous determination model for both variables, was employed. In the verification process, factors such as individual attributes, organizational culture, and variables related to superiors were considered. The analysis results revealed that various factors related to organizational culture, relationships with superiors, and the current state of work had a positive effect on both well-being and promotion aspirations in the Philippines, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Australia, the United States, and Sweden. On the other hand, China, France, Taiwan, Germany, South Korea, Japan, and Malaysia were identified as countries where there is a positive effect on well-being but not on promotion aspirations. For India and Singapore, the results indicated that only the relationship with superiors was not associated with promotion aspirations. The findings suggest heterogeneity in the relationship between organizational culture, superior management, and the well-being and promotion aspirations of female employees across different countries.
  • Balancing Acts: Navigating the Dual Journey of Work and Caregiving. .....Lona Choi-Allum, AARP
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  • A number of older workers experienced a disruption in the workplace in the past five years and caregivers were no exception. A reduction in hours was the most commonly cited reason, primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In a study among 2,000 workers ages 40 and older, results showed that the main driver for working among caregivers was to support other family members, followed by health care coverage, and being eligible for retirement benefits. In fact, caregivers were more likely than non-caregivers to say that the ability to work from home sometimes and paid time off are requirements before accepting a job. Not surprising given that over two in three (68%) working caregivers experienced a number of challenges while caring for an adult family member, including having to work remotely, changing or reducing their hours, maxing out their sick and/or vacation leave, taking temporary leave, or quitting their job. In addition, caregivers were more likely to experience burnout at work than non-caregivers. And for those who took temporary leave or quit their job, over a third said it was difficult to find a job. The COVID-19 pandemic gave caregivers pause to explore ways to reduce their stress at work and reprioritize how their job fits into their life.
  • Navigating Academic Motherhood: Mentorship to Help Promote Healthy Work/Life Balance. .....Elizabeth Bradley, SUNY - Empire State College
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  • Motherhood brings many challenges for women in academia; namely, work/family balance. Despite a focus on work-life balance and “family friendly” policies that some colleges and universities offer, motherhood continues to have a negative impact on the career trajectory of female academics (Ward & Wolf-Wendel, 2006). For pre-tenure women, often their “biological and tenure clocks tick simultaneously” (Dickson, 2018, p.76). A focus on research during the pre-tenure years is imperative for achieving tenure and promotion in research-focused institutions; yet, having young children and being an active researcher pre-tenure simultaneously is difficult to achieve without adequate support. Many mothers experience a dichotomy between fitting in as an acade