generated: 2024-07-22 21:15:07






WFRN Conference Abstracts 2024

MeetingManager

Index to Participants

Aarntzen, Lianne : Utrecht University
Aaronson, Bina : Barnard College
Abendroth, Anja : Bielefeld University
Abouelenin, Mariam : King`s College, Londo
Abraham, Haneen : University of Alberta
Abrefa Busia, Kwaku : Lingnan University
Acar, Taylan : Goethe University Frankfurt
Acosta Rueda, Lia : University of Toronto
Adair, Elizabeth : California State University, Monterey Bay
Adamson, Elizabeth : University of New South Wales
Adrjan, Pawel : Indeed
Adserà, Alicia : Princeton University
Affinito, Salvatore : Harvard University - Business School
Aguilar, Julieta : Purdue University
Ahmad, Waqar : Bacha Khan University Charsadda
Akinduro, Melly : McGill University
Alexandrova, Matilda : University of National and World Economy
Alexis-Garsee, Camille : Middlesex University - Psychology
Allen, Shalene : Portland State University
Allen, Tammy : University of South Florida
Almeida Araújo, Marisa : Lusíada University
Alonso-Perez, Enrique : Charité Berlin
Alook, Angele : York University
Ambast, Shruti : University of California, San Diego
Amerikaner, Layne : University of Maryland, College Park
Amissah, Eunice Fay : University of Cape Coast
Ammons, Samantha : University of Nebraska, Omaha
Amoah, Daniel : Memorial University of Newfoundland
Andrade, Cláudia : Polytechnic of Coimbra
Anttila, Mari : University of Turku
Appietu, Melody Enyonam : Ho Technical University
Arnalds, Ásdís : University of Iceland
Artiawati, Artiawati : Surabaya University
Aruna, Justina : Adekunle Ajasin University
Ashman, Rachel : University of Liverpool
Atalor, Adesuwa : Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria
Audenaert, Bram : KU Leuven
Augustine, Jennifer : University of South Carolina
Austin, Stéphanie : Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Aycan, Zeynep : Koc University
Ayman, Roya : Illinois Institute of Technology
Ayoub, Mark : IU International University of Applied Sciences
Badawy, Philip : University of Alberta
Badmos, Olakitan : Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
Bae, Hanjin : Seoul National University, South Korea
Baierl, Andreas : Austrian Family Research Institute, University of Vienna
Bailey, Sara : The Open University
Bainbridge, Hugh : University of New South Wales
Baird, Marian : University of Sydney - Business School
Ballentine, Kess : Wayne State University
Banerjee, Akarshik : George Washington University
Banister, Emma : University of Manchester - Business School
Bank, Jeanne : Canadian Standards Association
Bankole, Adeyinka : Kings University
Banu, Jasmine : SwaaS Systems Private Limited
Baral, Rupashree : Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Barcala-Delgado, Diego : University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Barone, T Lynne : University of Nebraska, Omaha
Barry, Subha : Seramount
Basile, Kelly : Emmanuel College
Baskurt, Ayse Burcin : University of East London
Bataille, Christine : Ithaca College
Battersby, Jane : University of Cape Town
Bayaz-Ozturk, Gulgun : City University of New York (CUNY)
Bayes, Sara : Edith Cowan University
Beacom, Amy : Center for Parental Leave Leadership
Bear, Libby : York University
Beauregard, Alexandra : Birkbeck, University of London
Beauvais-St-Pierre, Annabelle : Université of du Québec à Montréal
Beceril, Christine : Portland State University
Becker, Maximilian : Goethe University Frankfurt
Beham, Barbara : Berlin School of Economics and Law
Behson, Scott : Fairleigh Dickinson University
Belina, Jeremiah : Other

Berg, Abigail K : University of Nebraska Medical Center
Berghammer, Caroline : University of Vienna
Berke, Melissa : University of Nebraska Omaha
Berkman, Lisa : Harvard University - School of Public Health
BERRETIMA, Abdel-Halim : University A-M of Bejaïa Algeria
Besamusca, Janna : Utrecht University
Beutell, Nicholas : Iona University
Bhakat, Priya : Southeast Regional Service Commission, New Brunswick, Canada
Bhattacharyya, Nandeen : International Institute for Population Sciences
Bhuwania, Pragya : WORLD Policy Analysis Center
Bider, Emma : Carleton University
Bierwiaczonek, Kinga : Universitetet i Oslo
Billing, Tejinder : Rowan University
Bist, Kalawati : A Better Balance
Bjarnadóttir, Valgerður S. : University of Iceland
Blackwell, Ian : Marjon University UK
Blair-Loy, Mary : University of California, San Diego
Bloxsome, Dianne : Edith Cowan University
Bó, Boróka : UC Dublin
Bodner, Todd : Portland State University
Boies, Kathleen : Concordia University
Bonnardel, Dana : Université of du Québec à Montréal
Bonnes, Stephanie : University of new haven
Bosch, Maria José : ESE Business School
Bose, Bijetri : WORLD Policy Analysis Center
Bošković, Branko : University of Donja Gorica
Bosoni, Maria Letizia : Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Mila
Bourdeau, Sarah : Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) - École des Sciences de la Gestion (ESG)
Bowker, Anne : Carleton University
Boyar, Scott : University of Alabama Birmingham
Bradley, Elizabeth : SUNY - Empire State College
Brar, Harry : McGill University
Braun, Matias : ESE Business School - Universidad de los Andes
Brauner-Otto, Sarah : McGill University
Brea Martinez, Gabriel : Lund University
Breitkreuz, Rhonda : University of Alberta
Brennan, Eileen : Portland State University
Brooks, Matthew : Florida State University
Brossoit, Rebecca : Louisiana State University
Brough, Paula : Griffith University
Brougham, David : Massey University
Brouwer, Sandra : Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG
Brouwers, Marissa : University of Pretoria
Brown, Theresa : Georgian Court University
Brumley, Krista : Wayne State University
Bruns, Angela : Gonzaga University
Buber-Ennser, Isabella : Austrian Academy of Sciences
Budworth, Marie-Hélène : York University
Burdman, Emily : Concordia University
Burnett, Amy : Middlesex University - Business School
Butterworth, Peter : Australian National University
C. Neves, Paula : Polytechnic of Coimbra
Cabaj, Chantel : DirectHer Network
Cai, Manlin : University of British Columbia
Calderón, Rodrigo : Universidad de Valparaíso
Callanan, Gerard : West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Campbell, Ami : Boston College
Cano, Tomás : National University of Distance Education Madrid
Canonico, Esther : Imperial College London
Caporicci, Rosa : Psychotherapist in private practice
Cardador, Teresa : University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig
Careau, Juliette : McGill University
Carlson, Daniel : University of Utah
Carreon, Erin : University of Chicago
Carvalho, Vania Sofia : University of Lisbon
Casper, Wendy : University of Texas Arlington
Castonguay, Samantha : Washington State University
Cech, Erin : University of Michigan.
Centeno, Grisselle : Florida Southern College
Cha, Eunho : Columbia University
Chae, Minjin : Harvard University
Chambel, Maria José : University of Lisbon
Chan, Xi Wen (Carys) : Griffith University
Chan-Ahuja, Stephanie : London Business School
Chanda, Trisha : University of Wisconsin, Madiso
Chang, Subin : Goethe University
Chang-qin, Lu : Peking University
Chapman, Sarah : University of Cape Town
Cheang, Michael : University of Hawaii
Chen, Jarvis : Harvard University - School of Public Health
Chen, Tsung-Ming : National University of Tainan
Chen, Yu-Ping : Concordia University
Chen, Zheng : University of South Florida
Chénard Poirier, Léandre : HEC Montréal
Chesser, Stephanie : University of Manitoba
Chmiel, Brooke : McMaster University
Cho, Eunae : National Chengchi University
Cho, Hyojin : University of Chicago
Cho, Soocheol : Indiana University
Choi, Ha Young : University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig
Choi-Allum, Lona : AARP
CHOUHAN, TARA : A Better Balance
Chowdhury, Farzana : Durham University
Christopher, Emily : Aston University
Christopher, Gabriella : University of Toronto
Chu, Charles : Boston University
Chu, Youngmin : University of Minnesota
Chun, Kyehyung : Hannam University
Chung, Heejung : King's College London
Churchill, Brendan : University of Melbourne
Cinli, Dilem : Koc University
Clark, Malissa : University of Georgia
Clark, Shelley : McGill University
Clingan, Lauren : Princeton University
Cobb, Haley : Louisiana State University
Coden de Silva, Bruna : Norton
Colakoglu Kaya, Elif : Freelance
Cole, Rebecca : University of Georgia
Coleman, Charles : University of Calgary
Collins, Mary : Boston University
Cooklin, Amanda : La Trobe University
Cooper, Rae : University of Sydney - Business School
Cortina, Clara : Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Côté, Philippe-Benoît : University of Québec in Montreal
Cote-Hamel, Maryse : Université Laval
Cotter, Brigid : University of Southern California
Coun, Martine : Open Universiteit (Open University of the Netherlands)
Covilla Hernandez, Erick : University of Konstanz
Cox, Marilyn : Queen's University
Craig, Lyn : University of Melbourne
Crain, Tori : Portland State University
Cukrowska-Torzewska, Ewa : University of Warsaw
Culross, Beth A : University of Nebraska Medical Center
Dahm, Patricia : University of Kansas
Dai, Haijing : The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Daiger von Gleichen, Rosa : University of Frankfurt
Daminger, Allison : UW-Madison
Dangar, Kate : University of Melbourne
Daniel, Victoria : York University
Das, Nandini : University of Southampton
Dasgupta, Anindita : Columbia University
Davis, Kristen : Syracuse University
Dawkins, Sarah : University of Tasmania
Dawson, Kate : Australian Catholic University
Day, Elizabeth : University of Oregon
de Jong, Maaike : Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG
De Kerf, Jonas : KU Leuven
de Kort, David : Utrecht University
de Laat, Kim : University of Waterloo
de Melo Santos, Flavia Ivana : Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
de Morais, Mario Cesar Barreto : Santa Catarina State University
de Pierola, Ines : Oregon State University
De Ruiter, Melanie : Nyenrode Business Universiteit
de Vries, Haitze : Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG
Deahan, Daniel : University of Plymouth
Deal, Caroline : University of South Florida
Dean, Liz : University of Melbourne
Deeley, Amanda : University of Toronto
DeHorn, Grace : MIT - Sloan School of Management
Delfabbro, Paul : University of Adelaide
Deming, Sarah : University of Idaho
den Dulk, Laura : Erasmus University Rotterdam
Denier, Nicole : University of Alberta
DeRigne, LeaAnne : Florida Atlantic University
Derks, Belle : Utrecht University
Derks, Daantje : Erasmus University Rotterdam
Desjardins, Camille : Renmin University of China
DeSouza, Mercy : University of Professional Studies
Deustch, Rebecca : University of Alberta
Dey, Tapas : International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai
Dickey, Pamela L : University of Nebraska Medical Center
Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam : Ono Academic College
Dixon, Jeffrey : College of the Holy Cross
Dominguez-Folgueras, Marta : Sciences Po
Donnelly, Rory : University of Liverpool
Dorow, Sara : University of Alberta
Dorry, Jasmin : RWTH Aachen University
Doucet, Andrea : Brock University
Drapier, Carine : University of Lille
Dreger-Smylie, Christina : Carleton University
Dreyer, Lianara : WZB Berlin Social Science Center
Drotning, Kelsey : U.S. Census Bureau
Drouin-Rousseau, Sophie : Université de Moncton
Dudová, Radka : Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences
Dummert, Sandra : Institute for Employment Research
Dupont, Vi : Université of du Québec à Montréal
Duran, Adrian : University of Nebraska Omaha
Duxbury, Linda : Carleton University
Earle, Alison : University of California
Ebrahimi, Nabi : University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Einarsdóttir, Þorgerður : University of Iceland
Einhoff, Jan : DYNAMICS RTG (HU Berlin/Hertie School)
El Graa, Mohamed : University of Lille
El-Bassel, Nabila : Columbia University
Elbaz, Sasha : Université of du Québec à Montréal
Eley, Elizabeth : Concordia University
Ellis, Allison : California Polytechnic State University
Eppel, Amelia : McGill University
Epstein, Sue : SUNY - Empire State College
Erler, Daniel : pme Familienservice
Escribano, Pablo : Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez
Essiaw, Mary Naana : University of Professional Studies
Eve Hott, Violet : Barnard College
Evertsson, Marie : Stockholm University - Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI)
Eze, Matthew : Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria
Ezechukwu, Emmanuel : Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria
Ezisi, Jerome : Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria
Ezzedeen, Souha : York University
Faerman, Sue : SUNY - Albany
Fairbanks, Chandler : University at Buffalo (SUNY)
Faisal, Shah : University of Stirling
Fan, Wen : Boston College
Fan, Wenjun : A Better Balance
Farista, Feranaaz : University of Cape Town
Fasang, Anette : Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli
Fenton, Evelyn : University of Reading
Fieseler, Christian : BI Norwegian Business School
Finn, Zachary : Northeastern University
FitzGerald, Elizabeth : The Open University
Fitzgerald, Margaret : North Dakota State University
Flood, Sarah : University of Minnesota
Foggia, Maria : York University
Foley, Meraiah : University of Sydney - Business School
Forde, Leslie : Mom's Hierarchy of Needs
Foster, Karen : Dalhousie University
Fouquet, Etienne : Université de Sherbrooke
Freiberg, Tracey : St. John's University
Freitas, Jorge : Porto University
Freitas, Vérica : Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Freitas de Paula, Veronica : Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
French, Kimberly : Colorado State University
Fritz, Marni : University of Illinois, Chicago
Froidevaux, Ariane : University of Texas Arlington
Fugiel, Peter : Rutgers University
Fujimoto, Tetsushi : Doshisha University
Fuller, Sylvia : University of British Columbia
Fullerton, Andrew : Oklahoma State University
Gaedecke, Martin : University of Oxford
Galinsky, Ellen : Families and Work Institute
Gallagher, Kaitlyn : Emmanuel College
Gbajumo-Sheriff, Mariam : University of Lagos
Gelbgiser, Dafna : Tel Aviv University
Geraghty, Sadie : University of Notre Dame Australia
Gerson, Kathleen : New York University
Ghimire, Dirgha : University of Michigan
Gibson, Margaret : University of Waterloo
Giunti, Giulia : St Andrews
Glass, Jennifer : University of Texas, Austin
Glomb, Theresa : University of Minnesota
Golden, Lonnie : Penn State University - Abington College
Goli, Srinivas : International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS)
Göltl, Gwen : University of Vienna
Gong, Qiujie : University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig
Gonsalves, Leroy : Boston University
González, M. José : Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Good, Laura : University of Sydney - Business School
Goodman, Julia : OHSU-PSU School of Public Health
Gopalan, Neena : University of Redlands
Gordon, Loa : McMaster University
Görgens, Tristan : Western Cape Government
Gospodarczyk, Marta : University of Warsaw
Goswami, Pankil : McGill University
Gotehus, Aslaug : Work Research Institute, Oslo Metropolitan University
Grabowska, Magdalena : University of Warsaw
Grace Hansen, Eleanor : Barnard College
Graham, Emma : Australian National University
Grau Grau, Marc : Universitat Internacional de Catalunya
Green, Kai Roland : Aarhus University
Greenhaus, Jeffrey : Drexel University
Greer, Tomika : Univ. of Houston
Gregory-Chialton, Joanna : University of Liverpool
Grönlund, Anne : Umea University
Grotto, Angela : Montclair State University
Grunow, Daniela : Goethe University Frankfurt
Gu, Guolin : Boston College
Guarin, Angela : Universidad de Los Andes
Gudell, Svenja : Indeed
Gudeta, Konjit Hailu : Addis Ababa University
Guerrero, Patricia : University of Texas, Arlingto
Guffey, Laurel : University of Georgia
Gul, Pelin : University of Toronto
Gunawansa, Mira : University of Melbourne
Guo, Jing : University of Hawaii
Haar, Jarrod : Massey University
Haines, Jess : University of Guelph
Hakovirta, Mia : University of Turku
Hallgrímsdóttir, Helga Kristín : University of Victoria
Hamilton, Myra : University of Sydney
Hammer, Leslie : Oregon Health & Science University
Han, Wen-Jui : New York University
Hanley, Jill : McGill University
Harel, Tal : The london school of economics and political science
Harkness, Susan : UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL
Hašková, Hana : Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences
Hassan, Mahmudul : McGill University
Haupt, Andreas : Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Haviv-Witman, Rachel : Haifa University
Hawkins, Daniel N : University of Nebraska, Omaha
Hay, Katherine : University of California, San Diego
He, Yaqing : University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig
He, Yimin : University of Georgia
He, Yucheng : University of Manchester - Business School
Hecht, Tracy : Concordia University
Heglum, Mari : Oslo Metropolitan University - OsloMet
Heijstra, Thamar : University of Iceland
Helou, Ann-Marie : McGill University
Henderson-Postner, Marin : Portland State University
Hernández Cordero, Sonia : Universidad Iberoamericana
Hewitt, Belinda : University of Melbourne
Heydari Barardehi, Ilyar : University of Warsaw
Heymann, Jody : UCLA- WORLD Policy Analysis Center
Hicken, Margaret : University of Michiga
Hipp, Lena : WZB - Social Science Research Center Berli
Hjálmsdóttir, Andrea : University of Akureyri
Hobbs, Jessica : Birkbeck College, University of London
Hoekstra, Tialda : Rijksuniversiteit Groningen/UMCG
Hoff Bernstrøm, Vilde : OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University
Hoffmann, Elizabeth A. : Purdue University
Hofmeister, Heather : Goethe University Frankfurt
Hofstätter, Lukas : Carers NSW
Hokke, Stacey : La Trobe University
Hollis, Nicholas : University of South Carolina
Holm, Mari Ingelsrud : Work Research Institute - OsloMet
Hong, Peipei : Zhejiang University
Hoobler, Jenny M. : Nova School of Business & Economics
Hopkins, John : Swinburne University of Technology
Horak, Shaun C : University of Nebraska Medical Center
Hornung, Maria : Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli
Hosomi, Masaki : Kansai University
Hossain, Babul : International Institute for Population Sciences
Hou, Jiahui : Kobe University
Houle, Patricia : Statistics Canada
Houlfort, Nathalie : Université of du Québec à Montréal
Hövermann, Andreas : Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
Hsu, Ting-Wen : University of Florida
Hsu, Yu-Shan : Concordia University
Hu, Yang : Lancaster University
Huang, Grace : St. Lawrence University
Huang, Ting-pang : Soochow University
Huang, Yifei : Brown University
Hughes, Karen D. : University of Alberta
Hughes Miller, Michelle : University of South Florida
Hunt, Mary : Ave Maria University
Hurtado, Constanza : University of Maryland, College Park
Hutt, Tania : Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
Hyde, Shelia : Texas Womans University
Hymer, Christina : University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Ike, Precious : Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria
Iloke, Stephen : American Psychological Association
Imeri, Monika : Carleton University
Isaacs, Nazeema : Stellenbosch University and Human Sciences Research Council
Ito, Yukari : Osaka University
Ivanova, Lily : University of British Columbia
Jaga, Ameeta : University of Cape Town
James, Grace : University of Reading
Jaspers, Eva : Utrecht University
Javadi, Dena : Harvard University - School of Public Health
Javornik, Jana : University of Leeds
Jewell, Eva : Toronto Metropolitan University
Ji, Yingchun : Shanghai University
Jibu, Renge : Tokyo Institute of Technology
Joan Barham, Elizabeth : Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)
Johanna, Rantanen : University of Jyväskylä
Jones, Elise : U.S. Coast Guard Academy
Jónsson, Ari Klængur : University of Iceland
Jozwiak, Andreas : Grinnell College
Ju, Boreum : California State University, Bakersfield
Judd-Lam, Sarah : Carers NSW
Júlíusdóttir, Ólöf : The Social Science Research Institute
Jung, Seohyun : University of Kent
Junker, Nina M. : Universitetet i Oslo
Kabylova, Moldir : University of Nottingham
Kadar, Umay : University of British Columbia
Kadra, Maysa : University of Jordan School of Medicine, Amman, Jordan
Kalmijn, Matthijs : Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute
Kang, Ji Young : Chungnam National University
Kapelle, Nicole : Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli
Kaplan, Amit : The Academic College of Tal-Aviv-Jaffa
Karlidag-Dennis, Ecem : University of Northampton
Kaskie, Brian : University of Iowa
Kasperska, Agnieszka : University of Warsaw
Kaushal, Neeraj : Columbia University
Kayanja, Moses : Multitech Business School
Kayanja, Moses : Multitech Business School
Keh, MinJee : University of California, Berkeley
Keiser, Nathanael : Independent Researcher
Keizer, Renske : Erasmus University Rotterdam
Kelland, Jasmine : University of Plymouth
Kelley, Kristin : WZB - Social Science Research Center Berli
Kelly, Ciara : Sheffield University Management School
Kelly, Erin : MIT - Sloan School of Management
Kelly, Orla : University College Dublin
Khan, Salmaan : Toronto Metropolitan University
Khanal, Ramesh : Saraswati Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University
Kidman, Rachel : Stony Brook University
Kim, Dahye : National University of Singapore
Kim, Eunsook : University of South Florida
Kim, Jaeseung : Sungkyungkwan University
Kim, Stacy : Life Junctions
Kim, Yun-Kyoung “Gail” : Salisbury University
Kincaid, Reilly : Purdue University
King, Michael D. : U.S. Census Bureau
Kizilenis Ulusman, Guler : York University
Klein, Tovah : Barnard College - Center for Toddler Development
Klenke, Alena : University of Oldenburg
Klostermann, Janna : University of Calgary
Kluwer, Esther : Utrecht University
Knoester, Chris : Ohio State University
Ko, Anna : University of Wisconsin, Madison
Koekemoer, Eileen : University of Pretoria
Kokot-Blamey, Patrizia : Queen Mary University of London
Kolpashnikova, Kamila : Western Michigan University
Konnikov, Alla : Concordia University of Edmonton
Kossek, Ellen Ernst : Purdue University
Kost, Dominique : BI Norwegian Business School
Koziol, Morgan : University of South Carolina
Kramer, Amit : University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig
Kramer, Karen : University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig
Kreyenfeld, Michaela : Hertie School
Kriti, Shubhra : International Institute for Population Sciences
Kronberg, Anne-Kathrin : University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Kröner, Lea : Utrecht University
Kubzansky, Laura : Harvard University - School of Public Health
Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes : The Open University
Kure, Tekalign : Wachemo Univeristy
Kurowska, Anna : University of Warsaw
Kuschel, Katherina : Centrum Graduate Business School and pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
Kwok, Cannas : Charles Sturt University
Kwon, Hyunjae : University of Minnesota
L'Heureux, Hugh : University of Nebraska Omaha
Ladge, Jamie : Northeastern University
Lal, Jayati : College of the Holy Cross
Lam, Winnie Wing Yee : Leeds University Business School
Lambert, Danaël : Université de Sherbrooke
Lambert, Susan : University of Chicago
Lammi-Taskula, Johanna : Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
Landertinger, Laura : Ontario Ministry of Education, Canada
Langan, Steve : University of Nebraska Omaha
Langfeldt, Bettina : University of Kassel
Languilaire, Jean-Charles : JCL Coaching
Lapuerta, Irene : Universidad Pública de Navarra (UPNA)
Lara Mejía, Vania : Universidad Iberoamericana
Laughlin, Lynda : U.S. Census Bureau
Lavee, Einat : University of Haifa
Law, Lai Kuen Shirley : University of South Wales
Lawson, Katie : Ball State University
Leach, Liana : Australian National University
Leal, Daniela : Porto University
LeCouteur, Amanda : University of Adelaide
Lee, DongJu : University of Melbourne
Lee, Jae-yeon : Yonsei University
Lee, Jiwan : Columbia University
Lee, Kristen : SUNY - University at Buffalo
Lee, Sang-Hoon : Loyola Marymount University
Lee, Soomi : Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)
Lee, Talara : University of Sydney - Business School
Lee, Yoon : Utah State University
Lefter, Alex : Concordia University
Leite, Ana Luiza : Santa Catarina State University
Lemos, Dannyela da Cunha : Santa Catarina State University
Lenhoff, Sarah : Wayne State University
Leon, Emmanuelle : ESCP Business School
Lepeley, Maria-Teresa : Global Institute for Quality Education
Lero, Donna : University of Guelph
Lescoeur, Kristine : OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University
Leshchenko, Olga : University of Konstanz
Letizia, Medina : Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Mila
Létourneau, Isabelle : Université de Sherbrooke
Levasseur, Jessica : Université de Sherbrooke
Levesque-Côté, Julie : Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Lewin, Alisa : University of Haifa
Lewis, Peter : Western Sydney University
Lewis, Suzan : Middlesex University - Business School
Lezcano, Alyssa : University of South Florida
Li, Tianyuan : The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Li, Xuan : University of Copenhagen
Li, Yunyan : University of Bristol
Li Luen Ching, Yannick : University of Mauritius
Lietzmann, Torsten : FDZ des IAB Nürnberg
Lim, Eunjung : Seoul National University of Science and Technology
Lim-Soh, Jeremy : Duke-NUS Medical School
Lin, Song : Zhejiang University
Lincoln, Alisa : Northeastern University
Lindroos, Eija : University of Turku
Liou, You-Syue : Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Science and Technology Council(Taiwan)
Liu, Meirong : Howard University
Liu, Xing : Wayne State University
Liu, Xuchu : Henan University of Chinese Medicine
Liu, Yifan : London School of Economics and Political Science
Livingston, Beth : University of Iowa
livingstone, bridget : University of Waterloo
Lott, Yvonne : Hans-Böckler-Stiftung
Lu, Xiaoyang : Illinois Institute of Technology
LU, ZHUOFEI : University of Manchester - Business School
Lucchini, Mario : University of Milano-Bicocca
Lukefahr, Jessica : Portland State University
Luo, Liying : Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)
Lup, Daniela : ECSP Business School
Ma, David : University of Guelph
Maas, Lilly : ILAC Consulting
Mabaso, Prudence Bongekile : University of Kwa-Zulu Natal
MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley : Purdue University
Machado, Weverthon : Utrecht University
Maertz, Carl : University of Louisville
Magalhães, Sara : Porto University
Magnusson, Charlotta : Stockholm University - Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI)
Maguire, Katheryn : Wayne State University
Maher, Michael : University of Northampton
Mair, Christine : University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Makoha, Godfrey : McGill University
Maldonado, Laurie : Columbia University
Manor, Shlomit : Western Galilee College
Mantler, Janet : Carleton University
Manu Agyapong, Joan-Ark : University of Cape Coast
Manzi, Francesca : The london school of economics and political science
Margolis, Rachel : Western University
Markwei, Ummu : University of Professional Studies
Marshall, Maria : Purdue University
Marshall, Sarah : Syracuse University
Martin, Alfredo : WORLD Policy Analysis Center
Martin, Angela : Universit of Tasmania
Martin, Paul : A Better Balance
Masood, Huda : Sam Houston State University
Masoud, Sara : Qatar University
Masterson, Courtney : University of San Francisco- School of Management
Mathys, Ruth : Grow Great
Matias, Marisa : Porto University
Matin Koosha, Sanaz : University of Victoria
Matysiak, Anna : University of Warsaw
Matysova, Clare : University of Leeds
Mazrekaj, Deni : Utrecht University
Mazzucchelli, Sara : Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Mila
McAlpine, Kristie : Rutgers University
McCaffrey, Joseph : University of Nebraska Omaha
McCarthy, Julie : University of Toronto
McCord, Mallory : Old Dominion University
McCredie, Kate : La Trobe University
McDougal, Lotus : University of California, San Diego
McErlean, Kimberly : University of Texas, Austin
McNair, Nicole : McMaster University
Mehta, Sakshi : Government of Ontario, Canada
Meister, Lorenz : Free University of Berlin / DIW Berlin
Mejia-Lancheros, Cilia : Institue for Better Health
Menkhoff, Lukas : DIW Berlin / Humboldt University of Berlin
Mercer, Marlee : York University
Mercier, Eric : University of Adelaide
Mesiäislehto, Merita : National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)
Metselaar, Samantha : Erasmus University Rotterdam
Meyer, Daniel : University of Wisconsin, Madiso
Miettinen, Anneli : Social Insurance Institute Finland
Mildner, Erica : University of British Columbia
Milkie, Melissa : University of Toronto
Minnotte, Krista Lynn : University of North Dakota
Misra, Kaumudi : California State University, East Bay
Mita, Takashi : Kyoto Sangyo University
Modestino, Alicia : Northeastern University
Moen, Phyllis : University of Minnesota
Mohamed Dahie, Abdirahman : Somali National University
Molina, Stefania : Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli
Montag-Smit, Tamara : University of Massachusetts, Lowell
Montazer, Shirin : Wayne State University
Morandin, Gabriele : University of Bologna
Moreno, Gonzalo : University of California
Morley, Jillian : Cornell University
Morris, Amy : University of Nebraska Omaha
Morton, Chelsea Ren : Syracuse University
Moskalenko, Oksana : Tarasa Shevchenko national university of Kyiv
Moss Kanter, Rosabeth : Harvard University - Business School
Mukembo, Stephen : University of Missouri
Müller, Jan : University of Zurich
Mutahi, Sussie : Strathmore Law School
Nabi, Shabnoor : University of Toronto
Naboa, Fabrizio : Universidad San Francisco de Quito
Nambiar, Apoorva : International Institute for Population Sciences
Narayanan, Jayanth : National University of Singapore
Narjinary, Glory : International Institute for population Sciences
Närvi, Johanna : Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
Nativ, Onora : McGill University
Ng, Rachel : Ithaca College
Nielsen, Karina : Sheffield University Management School
Nikolić Ivanišević, Matilda : University of Zadar
Nilsen, Wendy : Work Research Institute OsloMet
Nix, Emily : University of Southern California
Nnedum, Obiajulu Anthony : Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria
Nordberg, Tanja : Work Research Institute - OsloMet
Nordset, Ragnhild : University of Liverpool
Norman, Helen : University of Leeds
Nsair, Viva : Western Michigan University
O'Brien, Margaret : Univ of London
O'Sullivan, Kristen : McGill University
Ochoa, Carlos : Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Offer, Shira : Bar-Ilan University
Ogbuagu, Sandra : Carleton University
Ohu, Eugene : Lagos Business School
Okeke, Chinelo : Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria
Okonkwo, Anthony Ejike : Enugu State University of Science and Technology
Okonkwo, Nkiru Veronica : Enugu State College of Education Technical, Nigeria
Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane : Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) - École des Sciences de la Gestion (ESG)
Omar, Laila : Princeton University
Ombla, Jelena : University of Zadar
Oney, Skylar : University of Georgia
Ophir, Ariane : Centre for Demographic Studies (CED)
Opoku Mensah, Abigail : University of Professional Studies
Osae, Erika : University of Professional Studies
Ozden, Gamze : Psikethica Istanbul
Pac, Jessica : University of Wisconsin-Madison
Padrón-Innamorato, Mauricio : Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Paek, Eunjeong : University of Hawaii
Pak, Sunjin : California State University, Bakersfield
Pal, Ipshita : St. John's University
Parent-Rocheleau, Xavier : HEC Montreal
Park, Jisu : Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)
Park, Myungchul : Sungkyunkwan University
Park, So Yun : University of Wisconsin, Madison
Paterson-Young, Claire Lillian Catherine : University of Northampton
Patterson, Anthony : University of Lancaster
Patwardhan, Vedavati : University of California, San Diego
Paul, Pooja : Umea University
Payne, Nicola : Middlesex University - Psychology
Payne, Stephanie : Texas A&M University
Peck, Joe : Urban Institute
Pellerin, Sabrina : Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) - École des Sciences de la Gestion (ESG)
Peng, Ito : University of Toronto
Pepin, Joanna R. : University of Toronto
Perlow, Leslie : Harvard University - Business School
Perrigino, Matthew : CUNY - Baruch College
Perry, MacKenna : Pacific Research and Evaluation
Perry-Jenkins, Maureen : University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Persico, Deanna : Wilfrid Laurier University
Pessin, Léa : ENSAE/CREST
Peters, Amanda : Monash University
Peters, Kaitlin : College of Early Childhood Educators
Peters, Pascale : Nyenrode Business Universiteit
Pettigrew, Rachael : Mount Royal University
Petts, Richard : Ball State University
Pétursdóttir, Gyða Margrét : University of Iceland
Pfau-Effinger, Birgit : University of Hamburg
Phelps, Beth : Oregon State University
Philibert, Mathieu : University of Québec in Montreal
Phillips, Kimberly Martinez : Memorial University
Pilarz, Alejandra Ros : University of Wisconsin, Madison
Pilon, Élie : Université of du Québec à Montréal
Pindek, Shani : Haifa University
Piszczek, Matt : Wayne State University
Pletneva, Lidiia : London School of Economics
Pojman, Elena : Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)
Ponnapalli, Ajay : Wayne State University
Poon, Abner Weng Cheong : University of New South Wales
Poortman, Anne-Rigt : Utrecht University
Porterfield, Shirley : University of Missouri, St. Louis
Postepska, Agnieszka : University of Groningen
Powell, Gary : University of Connecticut
Powosino, Ruth : CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business School and Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú
Premarathne, Priyadarshani : university of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Provost Savard, Yanick : Université of du Québec à Montréal
Pytlovany, Amy : Center for Parental Leave Leadership
Qian, Yue : University of British Columbia
Querin, Federica : University of Bologna
Quirke, Linda : Wilfrid Laurier University
Radcliffe, Laura : University of Liverpool
Radford, Jason : Northeastern University
Rafnsdottir, Gudbjörg Linda : University of Iceland
Ragnarsdóttir, Berglind Hólm : University of Akureyri
Raj, Anita : Tulane University
Rajadhyaksha, Ujvala : Governors State University
Ram, Harchand : International Institute for Population Sciences
Ramadoss, Kamala : Syracuse University
Rammohan, Anu : University of Western Australia
Ramos, Vincent : Hertie School Berlin
Rani, Varsha : International Institute for Population Sciences
Raub, Amy : WORLD Policy Analysis Center
Ravensbergen, Lea : McMaster University
Ražauskienė, Vilma : Lithuanian Centre for Social Sciences
Reed, Megan : Emory University
Reifenscheid, Maximiliane : University of Kassel
Reilly, Rosemary : Concordia University
Reimer, Thordis : University of Hamburg
Remery, Chantal : Utrecht University
Reynolds, Jeremy : Purdue University
Richards, Justine Blaise : Université of du Québec à Montréal
Riederer, Bernhard : Austrian Academy of Sciences
Riederer, Bernhard : University of Vienna
Risman, Barbara J. : University of Illinois, Chicago
Riva, Egidio : University of Milano-Bicocca
Robbenhaar, Madeline : University of Alberta
Roche, Maree : University of Auckland
Roelen, Corné : Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG / Arbo Unie
Rosenbaum, Laurel : Barnard College
Ross, Fiona : University of Cape Town
Rothwell, David : Oregon State University
Rudolph, Cort : Wayne State University
Ruiz-Martínez, Rocío : Universitat Rovira i Virgili - SBRLab - Social & Business Research Laboratory Group
Runge, Jan Malte : Oslo Metropolitan University
Ruppanner, Leah : University of Melbourne
Russo, Marcello : University of Bologna
Ryan, Lauren : University of Melbourne
Saarikallio-Torp, Miia : Social Insurance Institute Finland
sabbah Karkabi, Maha : Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Safi, Fazal E Subhan : Liverpool Hope University
Şahin, Onur : Utrecht University
Salin, Milla : University of Turku
Santos, Clarice : Middlesex University - Business School
Sargent, Amanda : Bentley University
Satish, Varun : Princeton University
Sawhney, Gargi : Auburn University
Sawyer, Katina : University of Arizona
Sayer, Liana : University of Maryland, College Park
Scapini, Valeria : Universidad Central de Chile
Schaap, Pieter : University of Pretoria
Scheibling, Casey : University of Nevada, Reno
Schenck, Samantha : Central Connecticut State University
Schieman, Scott : University of Toronto
Schmitt, Laila : LMU Munich
Schmitz, Lauren : University of Wisconsin, Madiso
Schnettler, Sebastian : Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg
Schoffel, Molly : University of South Florida
Schor, Juliet : Boston College
Schreuder, Jolanda : Schreuderarbo
Schröder, Carsten : DIW Berlin / Free University of Berlin
Schulte, Brigid : Better Life Lab at New America
Schwarz, Antje : Bielefeld University
Seglem, Karoline : Work Research Institute, OsloMet - Norway
Sellmaier, Claudia : University of Washington
Sethi, Bharati : Trent University
Setz, Ingrid : Austrian Academy of Sciences
Shackell, Margaret : Ithaca College
Shaffer, Margaret : University of Oklahoma
Shah, Rahat : Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
Shang, Sudong : Griffith University
Shanock, Linda : University of North Carolina
Sharda, Sukriti : Wayne State University
Sharifi, Tina : York University
Shen, Winny : York University
Sheng, Zitong : Deakin University
Shi, XiaoMeng : University of Manchester - Business School
Shih, Yiping : Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan
Shrivastava, Allison : Indeed
Sibunruang, Hataya : Waikato University
Sikorska, Małgorzata : University of Warsaw
Símonardóttir, Sunna : University of Iceland
Simunic, Ana : University of Zadar
Singer, Jeremy : Michigan State University
Singh, Abhishek : International Institute for Population Sciences
Singh, Ajita : United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Singh, Shreya : International Institute for Population Sciences
Sinzig, Paul : Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Mai
Slopen, Meredith : CUNY - Graduate Center
Smit, Brandon : Bentley University
Smith, Ada : Emmanuel College
Smith, Brad : New Institution Here

Smith, Claire : University of South Florida
Smyke, Sophie : Barnard College - Center for Toddler Development
Snippen, Nicole : Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG
Sockin, Jason : IZA - Institute of Labor Economics
Sohn, Young Woo : Yonsei University
Solaja, Oludele : Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
Song, Haoming : Case Western Reserve University
Song, Xi : University of Pennsylvania
Speights, Sabrina : Wheaton College
Sprague, Aleta : University of California
Squires, Sophie : University of Melbourne
Stanfors, Maria : Lund University
Stark, Stephen : University of South Florida
Starr, Evan : University of Maryland, College Park
Stertz, Anna M. : RWTH Aachen University
Stewart, Lisa : California State University, Monterey Bay
Stier, Haya : Tel Aviv University
Stierle, Bill : Subtext Solutions Inc.

Stoddard-Dare, Patricia : Cleveland State University
Straub, Caroline : Bern University of Applied Sciences
Strazdins, Lyndall : Australian National University
Stride, Christopher : Sheffield University Management School
Stumbitz, Bianca : Middlesex University - Business School
Sun, Kai : Arizona State University
Sun, Yue Yang : The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen
Swanson, Resha : University of Chicago
Swanzy, Erasmus Keli : Maastricht University
Sweet, Stephen : Ithaca College

Talbert, Elizabeth : Drake University
Tamayo, Paola : University of South Carolina
Tammelin, Mia : University of Tampere
Tan, Jolene : Australian National University
Tan, Poh Lin : National University of Singapore
Tanquerel, Sabrina : EM Normandie
Tao, Stacie : Columbia University
Tapsell, Amy : University of Sydney - Business School
Tarbalouti, Essaid : University Cadi Ayyad
Taru, Feldt : University of Jyväskylä
Tendulkar Patil, Anagha : Sophia College for Women
Teramura, Eriko : Meikai University
Thakurata, Indrajit : Indian Institute of Management
Thatcher, Sherry : The University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Thomas, Candice : Saint Louis University
Thompson, Rebecca : N/A
Timonen, Virpi : University of Helsinki
Toh, Soo Min : University of Toronto - Rotman School
Toker, Sharon : Tel Aviv University
Tokić, Andrea : University of Zadar
Treleaven, Emily : University of Michigan
Tremblay, Diane-Gabrielle : TELUQ University
Trombeta Santos, Gabriela : Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)
Trombini, Chiara : Luiss Business School
Trottier, Mélanie : Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) - École des Sciences de la Gestion (ESG)
Tsao, Chiung-Wen : National University of Tainan
Turek, Aurora : Harvard University - Business School
Twamley, Katherine : University College London
Tyabashe-Phume, Babalwa : University of Cape Town
Uhuo, Cosmas : Ebonyi State University Abakaliki
Um, Sejin : New York University
Uma Krishnan, Ketaki : Barnard College - Center for Toddler Development
Utari, Valentina : University of Western Australia
Uysal Irak, Doruk : Mount Allison University
Uzunalioglu, Merve : University of Oxford
Valentim, Grazielle : University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Valentova, Marie : Luxembourg Institute of Socioeconomic Research
Van Bavel, Jan : University of Leuven (KU Leuven)
van der Lippe, Tanja : Utrecht University
van der Meer, Joelle : Erasmus University Rotterdam
van der Vleuten, maaike : Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute
van Engen, Marloes : Radboud University
Van Haren, Ian : McGill University
Van Herreweghe, Lore : KU Leuven
Vander Weerdt, Candice : Cleveland State University
Vanderstukken, Arne : Open University of the Netherlanarne.vanderstukken@ou.nlds
Vargha, Lili : Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli
Varma, Preeti : INSEAD
Venter, Ciara : University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Ventura Sanchez, Guillermo : Concordia University
Vermeeren, Brenda : Erasmus University Rotterdam
Vestuto, Grace : Illinois Institute of Technology
Viitasalo, Katri : University of Helsinki
Vilar Compte, Mireya : Montclair State University
Violi, Dominic : Western Sydney University
Voloshyna, Anastasiia : University of Groningen
Vromen, Ariadne : Australian National University
Waismel-Manor, Ronit : The Open University, Israel
Waldrep, Carolyn E. : University of Texas, Austin
Walther, Anna : University of Wisconsin, Madiso
Wan, Maggie : Texas State
Wang, Julia Shu-Huah : National Taiwan University
Wang, Senhu : National University of Singapore
Wang, Shu-Yung : Chung Cheng University
Wang, Tianying : Australian National University
Wang, Yinan : Harvard University
Ward-Griffin, Catherine : Western University
Watts, Galen : University of Waterloo
Whillans, Ashley : Harvard University - Business School
Whitley, Rob : McGill University
Wiatt, Renee : Purdue University
Widiningtyas, Kartika : Surabaya University
Wiese, Bettina S. : RWTH Aachen University
Wilcox, Annika : Wake Forest University
Williams, Alison : University of Sydney - Business School
Williams, Allison : McMaster University
Williams, Grace : University of Liverpool
Wilson, Nathan : Western Sydney University
Winkler, Anne : University of Missouri, St. Louis
Wisniewski, Megan : University of Pennsylvania
Wolf, Talya : CUNY - Graduate Center
Wong, Jaclyn : University of South Carolina.
Wray, Dana : Statistics Canada
Wu, Lusi : University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Xiang, Xue : University of Toronto - Rotman School
Xu, Jiahui : Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)
Xu, Jiayun : Purdue University
Xu, Mengyi : Cranfield University
Xu, Mengyi : The University of Birmingham
Xu, Ying : Syracuse University
Yang, Laura : Portland State University
Yeo, Shun Yuan : Singapore University of Technology and Design
Yerkes, Mara A. : Utrecht University
Yestrepsky, Joe : Wayne State University
Yett, Aeyanna : Wayne State University
Yeung Pat Wan, Annick : University of Mauritius
Yost, Cali : Flex+Strategy Group
Young, Marisa : McMaster University
Yu, Shuye : University of Oxford
Yuan, Sam : Georgia Institute of Technology
Yuan, Shiyu : University of Kent
Yucel, Deniz : William Paterson University of New Jersey
Zagel, Hannah : WZB - Social Science Research Center Berli
Zanhour, Mona : California State University, Long Beach

Zayim, Meryem Seyda : Koc University
Zelazo, Philip David : University of Minnesota
Zembe, Yanga : University of KwaZulu Nata
Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga : South African Medical Research Council
Zhang, Kejin : University College London
Zhang, Rujun (Ruth) : University of Alberta
Zhao, Meng : Shanghai University
Zhao, Yi : The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Zhou, Haiyan : University of Toronto
Zhou, Nuannuan : Zhejiang University
Zhuang, Wei : University of Manchester - Business School

Author Meets Readers Session


Organizer: Sarah Damaske, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)

Author Meets Reader: "Work in Black and White: Striving for the American Dream"

Author Meets Reader session for Enobong (Anna) Branch and Caroline Hanley's new book "Work in Black and White: Striving for the American Dream"

Author Meets Readers Session


Organizer: Sarah Damaske, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)

Author Meets Reader: Misconceiving Merit: Paradoxes of Excellence and Devotion in Academic Science and Engineering

Author Meets Reader session for Mary Blair Loy and Erin Cech's new book "Misconceiving Merit: Paradoxes of Excellence and Devotion in Academic Science and Engineering" All authors/readers have confirmed their availability.

Author Meets Readers Session


Organizer: Sarah Damaske, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)

Author Meets Reader: The Love Jones Cohort: Single and Living Alone in the Black Middle Class

Author Meets Reader session for Kris Marsh's new book The Love Jones Cohort: Single and Living Alone in the Black Middle Class All authors and presiders are confirmed.

Author Meets Readers Session

Location: Asia


Organizer: Dominique Kost, BI Norwegian Business School

Living with Digital Surveillance in China. Citizens’ Narratives on Technology, Privacy, and Governance (sponsored by the Technology, Work and Family research community)

While work-life research has made great strides investigating the boundaries between work and life, the focus on the interface between these two domains obscures the matter of boundaries between the public or semi-public and private spheres, and the implications for work and life of pervasive phenomena such as surveillance. This session will discuss Ariane Ollier-Malaterre’s recent book, Living with Digital Surveillance in China. Citizens’ Narratives on Technology, Privacy, and Governance (Routledge 2024). The book explores how Chinese citizens make sense of digital surveillance and live with it. Digital surveillance, while pervasive in many countries, is an all-encompassing reality of life in China - think surveillance cameras, facial recognition, real-name registration of phone and social media accounts, traceability of electronic payments and internet searches, social credit systems, and more. Based on in-depth qualitative research interviews conducted in China, detailed diary notes, and extensive documentation, the book asks: to what extent do Chinese citizens notice digital surveillance in their daily lives? How does the Chinese historical, socio-economic, and political context shape their surveillance imaginaries? What are the emotional repercussions of exposure to? The book has important implications beyond China: in an attempt to ‘de-Westernise’ the analysis, it invites readers to a critical examination of the contexts that shape surveillance imaginaries in Western liberal democracies and the Global South. Two key findings emerge. First, participants wove a cohesive system of narratives that cast digital surveillance as an indispensable solution to China’s problems. Three narratives of moral shortcomings produced shame and anguish: the lack of ‘moral quality’ in China which makes rules and punishment necessary, the century of humiliations by foreign powers and the imperative to revive the ancient Chinese civilisation, and a pejorative view of privacy as a suspicious desire to hide shameful behaviours. Two redeeming narratives responded to the shame and anguish: the protective parental figure of the government and technology as a ‘magic bullet’ that can force people to adhere to rules, modernise the country, and uproot secrecy. Second the interviews conveyed great tension between the discursive framing of surveillance as indispensable in China and the mental and emotional weight that participants bear as they cope with it. Support for surveillance coexisted with misgivings, objections, and mental tactics to dissociate oneself from surveillance. The misgivings arose when participants pondered how they felt about surveillance more than how they thought of surveillance. Dislike, resentment, worries, frustration, fear, and anger were expressed. Participants built self-protective rationales, such as othering surveillance targets, and rejected being singled out by surveillance. Moreover, the book reflects on conducting qualitative fieldwork in China as a foreigner. The author shares her efforts to reduce Eurocentric biases and discusses her experience of navigating political speak and sensitive topics.

Author Meets Readers Session

Conceptualizing the work-family-life nexus


Organizer: Casey Scheibling, University of Nevada, Reno

The Gendered Challenges and Compromises of Young Professionals: A Conversation With Dr. Jaclyn S. Wong About “Equal Partners?”

In Equal Partners? How Dual-Professional Couples Make Career, Relationship, and Family Decisions (2023), Jaclyn Wong examines the varied ways in which young, different-gender couples perceive, experience, and account for their work–family arrangements. By taking a longitudinal approach to in-depth interviewing, Wong intricately illustrates aspirations, turning points, and inconsistencies in the career, relationship, and family trajectories of female and male professionals over a six-year period. Narratives reveal notable conflicts between structural policies, cultural expectations, and individual attitudes that often result in the obfuscation or maintenance of gender inequality—even among couples who desire egalitarianism. In this Author Meets Readers session, we will discuss key findings and questions highlighted in Dr. Wong’s book. This conversation will provide novel insight into: how young couples negotiate work and family responsibilities; how childbearing decisions are decided and explained in the face of career plans or precarity; how professional women and men articulate different gendered visions of work–family roles and goals; and, what actions can be taken to better foster gender egalitarianism at structural and cultural levels in a (post)pandemic world. The readers in this session will be Leah Ruppanner (University of Melbourne), Sharon Sassler (Cornell University), and Mia Brantley (North Carolina State University).

Paper Session

A Life Course Perspective on Entry to Parenthood 1


Normative and structural drivers of young adults' reproductive trajectories in Germany.  Hannah Zagel, WZB - Social Science Research Center Berli; and Martin Gaedecke, University of Oxford

This paper investigates what are dominant patterns of young adults’ reproductive trajectories in terms of partnership status, partnered sexual activity, and contraceptive use, and how they are socially stratified by education. Reproductive behaviour beyond childbearing is rarely considered in mainstream stratification, social demography and life course scholarship, but the field is mostly left to public health and sexuality research. This is a crucial shortcoming, because stratification in early reproductive trajectories will affect patterns of family life courses, which are tightly linked with employment and income careers and structured along gender and class dimensions. Understanding how reproductive trajectories are experienced differentially across social groups helps to uncover the extent to which people are locked in to particular life courses from early adulthood. We use sequence analysis and regression models on longitudinal data from the German Family and Relationships Panel survey (pairfam) on partnership status, partnered sex and contraception over twelve years of young people’s (18-27 years) lives (N=1,370). Pathways of partnered sexual activity and contraception appear to differ between education groups already at this life stage, when many move on to initiate family formation – a substantive share of men and women mostly with low education remains single with little experience of partnered sex at age 27.

The Impact of Work-Family Conflict and Child Development: Evidence from South Korea.  Jaeseung Kim, Sungkyungkwan University; and Myungchul Park, Sungkyunkwan University

With the rise of working mothers and growing concerns over the low fertility rate in South Korea, the balance of work and family responsibilities of working mothers and its potential impacts on their child development has become a critical issue in Korea. However, limited research has explored how work-family conflict influences the development of school-aged children and the role of maternal depression and household income in this context. Guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory, the study examines the influence of working mothers’ work-family conflict on internalizing and externalizing behaviors of school-aged children and the mediating role of parental depression. In addition, drawn from Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfoll, 2001), the study examines whether the effect of mothers’ work-life conflict on child behavior problems is moderated by household income. Using two waves of the representative sample of the Panel Study on Korean Children (N=650), the study employed lagged-dependent variable models and Process Macro Model 4 to answer the proposed research questions. Overall, the study found that mothers’ work-family conflict was positively associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors and that maternal depression fully mediated these associations. This finding suggests that mothers’ work-family conflict leads to their elevated depressive symptoms, which in turn increases child behavior problems. Moreover, the positive association between mothers’ work-family conflict and child behavior problems was stronger among mothers from low-income households, confirming the moderating effect of household income. Based on the findings, we discuss work-family policy and interventions to curtail work-family conflict among working mothers in Korea.

Aspiration Versus Reality: Family Transitions and Emerging Adulthood.  Belinda Hewitt, University of Melbourne

Overwhelmingly the extant research on aspirations of emerging adults focusses on education, work, and economic outcomes. We use unique longitudinal panel data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) study to examine whether the importance young people (age 15 – 29) attached to meeting family formation milestones was associated with family outcomes at age 35. In Wave 4 of HILDA participants aged 15 – 29 (n = 3,052) were asked to rate the importance they placed on a range of milestones relating to work and family by the age of 35. We examined the associations between the importance of having children, being married, and living with a partner and participants relationship status and whether they had a child at age 35 (some of the younger participants aged 15 – 17 were not 35). Adjusting for demographic, family, and socioeconomic characteristics, results indicated that a higher importance placed on being married was positively associated with the likelihood of being married and negatively associated with cohabiting or being single at age 35. A higher importance placed on living with a partner was negatively associated with being single, but not significantly associated with being married. A higher importance on having children was significantly associated with having a child. We conclude that, despite the discourses that young people face greater barriers to adulting than in previous generations, many still achieve their goals. We plan to further develop the paper by further examining how this may differ by gender and socioeconomic factors.

Sociological Analysis of Family Size and Education; A Quantitative Mode of Inquiry.  Waqar Ahmad, Bacha Khan University Charsadda

The present study was carried out in District Swabi under quantitative mode of inquiry to explore the relation between education and family size reduction. A sample size of 450 respondents with education level of master was randomly selected through rigorous data analysis and survey. We investigated that how higher education effects individual decision about family size. The study further explored that how dynamics of family planning shading light on the impact of education and fertility choices. However, findings from this empirical work contributed to the broader understanding of socio-economic factor shaping family size.

Paper Session

A Life Course Perspective on Entry to Parenthood 2


Women at Work: What It Means and What It Should Mean.  Anagha Tendulkar Patil, Sophia College for Women

Overarching Concerns The structure and functions of the institution of family are being rapidly revised across the globe. One can observe a concomitant change in the status and image of women and their relationship with the society. The study revolves around the category of domestic women workers in urban pockets in India and their ever-evolving relation with the institution of family. The intersectional ties with the families they come from, families they work in, and families they work for are explored and reviewed. As stated by the International Labor organization, Domestic Workers Convention (NO 189), Article 1, the term ‘Domestic Work” means work performed in or for a household or households. The term ‘Domestic Worker’ means any person engaged in domestic work within an employment relationship. A person who performs domestic work only occasionally or sporadically and not on an occupational basis is not a domestic worker. In addition, domestic workers are workers who perform domestic work for pay and remuneration. In a patriarchal set up women are typically responsible to take care of the domestic front at home. Those women who do not earn living are described as “Women who do not work”. Ironically these are the women who perhaps spent the maximum time working at home. The paper attempts to review the journey of girls to womanhood as they emerge as workers and then of a woman to an older adult as they struggle to refurbish their identity in societal network through their family. The causal processes in this transition could be the process of urbanization or be it of industrialization that impact family functioning and are instrumental in challenging the established algorithm of connection of a woman with her families. It interrogates the participation of women in the work force and studies the wear and tear of ‘not working but busy’ and ‘working but available for housework’ situations from gender lenses. Statement on methods The paper uses a qualitative design to focus on the changing paradigms of gender specific work appropriation which emerge out of the social and cultural guidelines of WORK for women and how women twist, adjust, tweak, engineer their work styles to match it with the then required family commitments and demands. The theoretical base of the paper is of the Life Course perspective, and it uses the technique of unstructured interview to capture the typical trajectories of women and their family life. Extensive library research and review of published material are the additional aid to formulating claims and inferring conclusions. The paper tries to comment on what having a ‘working woman’ implies and what it should imply to the relevant family units. It interrogates the participation of women in the work force and studies the wear and tear of ‘not working but busy’ and ‘working but available for housework’ situations from gender lenses. Important findings Since it is a working paper; though the findings are arrived at using the scientifically sound procedure, these are tentative. The emergent pattern, out of data gathered so far underline the following:  The phenomenon of domestic work is an underrated and undervalued form of work in the heavily populated Indian society.  There is a positive correlation between the demand for and supply of domestic workers in urban pockets of India  There is ‘Feminization’ of domestic work coupled with cultural and social underpinnings.  Domestic Work assumes a complex configuration, if looked at from gender lenses.  Women domestic workers relate with three different types of families. 1. Families they come from: First generation women earners, illiterate, uneducated, violence. 2. Families they work in: Invisible, passive presence, mechanical participation, poor payment, exploitation, insecurity, lack of dignity of work. 3. Families they work for: Bread winners for the family, high wear and tear, burnout, health issues, accelerated ageing process.  Here are three reference points. Families that make domestic workers, families that need domestic workers, families of domestic workers. There exists a curious PULL and PUSH mechanism operational between the domestic workers and the families they belong to; which should be further interrogated. Implications of research, policy and/or practice Domestic work is part of the informal sector. There is a dearth of data, lack of documentation, paucity of official reports. Hence there is no clarity about the problems faced by domestic workers. There is no contract document, and welfare measures are not in place, No national level policy exists for channelization, consolidation of the problems faced by the domestic workers. A systematic and scientific study of the situation of domestic women workers is a need of the hour in a fast-growing Indian economy.

Exploring Parenthood Through the Perspective of The Voluntarily Childfree.  Sunna Símonardóttir, University of Iceland

Fertility has decreased drastically across advanced, industrialized nations. One way to understand this development is to focus on individuals’ and couples’ fertility intentions to understand the decision-making process underlying the choice not to have a child and to explore how gendered parenting ideologies and circumstances affect this decision. The Icelandic context presents an interesting backdrop for this research, with its emphasis on gender equality, diverse family forms, and policies that support both parents’ participation in work and care. In this study I examine modern parenthood through the lens of those who are voluntarily childfree by interviewing 22 individuals, and couples who had decided to be childfree. The findings suggest an important divergence in the identity work performed by men and women as they negotiate their wishes to be childfree. The role of the mother is seen as mentally and emotionally draining, intricate, and requiring great personal sacrifice which suggests that intensive mothering narratives have directly influenced and informed decisions on fertility in the Icelandic context. Although the interviewees recognize flaws in the face of the egalitarian society regarding the unequal responsibilities and duties of mothers and fathers, they do not question the ideology of individualism and intensity that characterizes modern parenthood.

Parental Leave and Social Sustainability: How Can the Design of Parental Leave Meet a Social Sustainability Agenda?.  Thordis Reimer, University of Hamburg; and Margaret O'Brien, Univ of London

According to the Brundtland Report published in 1987, sustainable development is divided into three pillars: ecological, economic and social development. So far, the concept of social sustainability has mostly been used to consider social consequences that arise from the connection with ecological or economic conditions. We would like to expand the existing concepts to include the perspective of parental leave regulations as a matter of the sustainable development of societies. After presenting already developed concepts of social sustainability, parental leave policies are examined for their relevance with regard to sustainable societies based on previous research. The analysis is structured along three design features of parental leave regulations. This includes the length of parental leaves, the level of benefits during parental leaves and access to these entitlements and benefits according to social or employment status. Comparative policy data are drawn from the International Network for Leave Policy and Research 2023 Review, which comprises 2022 data for 49 countries. In our conclusion, we discuss how the design of parental leave policies can meet a social sustainability agenda according to the UN Sustainable Developments Goals. Also, we use the perspective of parental leave policy as a question of the sustainability of societies in order to look at existing concepts of social sustainability, illuminate their strengths or weaknesses and discuss their further development.

Shaping the Future: Insights From a Longitudinal Study on Women's Career Aspirations During Pregnancy and Postpartum.  Vilma Ražauskienė, Lithuanian Centre for Social Sciences

This longitudinal study delves into the meanings of work for women during a transitional life stage. While the topics of opting out and opting in have garnered considerable attention, certain aspects of career development after childbirth remain underexplored. Existing literature often dichotomises women into two primary groups, and some theories propose a three-group classification. However, such divisions may be overly simplistic and not universally applicable to all women. The objective of this study is to enhance the understanding of women's career aspirations. To achieve this objective, two waves of individual semi-structured interviews with ten women at two specific time points were conducted: during pregnancy and four to six months postpartum. Although convenience sampling was employed for data collection, the research participants exhibited variation in marital status, educational level, number of children, breastfeeding practices, and other characteristics. The results of the study demonstrate that the meaning of work for the research participants varied both during pregnancy and after childbirth. Additionally, some participants unexpectedly adjusted their career aspirations after becoming mothers. The salience of the new identity as a mother is discussed as a precursor to temporarily stepping back from a career with aspirations to re-enter the labour market later on. This research enriches the discourse on work-life balance by offering valuable insights into how early motherhood shapes women's career goals, decisions, and expectations.

Paper Session

Challenges and Supports for Working Caregivers


Eldercare Demands and Health and Well-Being of Working Informal Caregivers of Older People: The Role of Unhealthy Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Workplace Resources.  Winnie Wing Yee Lam, Leeds University Business School; Ciara Kelly, Sheffield University Management School; Karina Nielsen, Sheffield University Management School; and Christopher Stride, Sheffield University Management School

Overarching questions/concerns: An increasing proportion of the working population cares for their older loved ones. When informal caregivers struggle to manage the dual responsibilities, there may be greater organisational and societal costs involved, such as high turnover intention and lower labour force participation. This paper looks at the mechanism that contributes to the decreased health and well-being of informal caregivers through the Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory. Statement on methods: Data was collected once a week for three weeks via online surveys from a sample of 395 informal caregivers in the UK, with the aim of examining the relationships between eldercare demands, unhealthy CER, FSSB, work flexibility and various health and well-being outcomes. Specifically, we tested the conditional indirect effects between eldercare demand at time 1 and a series of mental health outcomes (anxiety, depressive symptoms, well-being, or sleep difficulties respectively) at time 3, operating via unhealthy CER at time 2, with the paths between unhealthy CER and each outcome moderated by both FSSB and work flexibility at time 2. Important findings: Results from testing our hypothesised mediation model show that unhealthy CER mediated the relationship between eldercare demands and anxiety, depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties and well-being. When FSSB and work flexibility were included in the model as moderators of the unhealthy CER to outcome paths, the indirect effects between eldercare and anxiety, depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties, and well-being respectively via unhealthy CER were not significantly moderated. As the level of FSSB increases, the stronger the relationship between eldercare and anxiety and depressive symptoms via unhealthy CER respectively. Implications for research, policy and/or practice: By investigating the role of cognitive process in COR theory, this study suggests perhaps other than the demands, the automatic reaction to demands also explains the lowered health and well-being. Future research can further explore the complex interplay between individual and contextual factors. Employers should recognise the impact of workplace resources on different individuals.

Local Gender Contexts and Migrant's Use of Childcare: Evidence from Germany.  Andreas Jozwiak, Grinnell College

How does context influence migrant’s decisions to use public childcare facilities? Previous work has identified several factors contributing to the migrant-native gap in childcare use, but this work has focused on individual or group-specific factors. Work on the effect of context, moreover, has previously made cross-country associations between context and migrant childcare use. These theories suggest that in more egalitarian contexts, migrant native differences shrink. Building on previous work, I assess the role of subnational gendered context on migrant’s use of childcare using a small sample of German migrants who were assigned a county of residence upon arrival to Germany, limiting the potentially competing role of selection. Using German Socio-Econmic Panel Data, I assess the effect of context by leveraging spatially granular information on childcare use. Contrary to previous work, I find that after accounting for individual, migrant, and other contextual factors, more egalitarian contexts are associated with lower levels of childcare use among migrants, amounting to a 36 percentage point difference in childcare use across the range of counties in the sample. Moreover, this also results in the largest migrant-native differences emerging in the most egalitarian contexts. I attribute much of this to the role of congestion of childcare facilities that reduces migrant’s ability to access this public service.

Support for Working Carers Across the Globe: The Development of International Standardized Guidelines for the Work Place.  Allison Williams, McMaster University; and Jeanne Bank, Canadian Standards Association

As the world’s population ages, more unpaid care provision is required by family, friends and neighbors; currently, 349 million people worldwide are estimated to be depending on care, with 101 million of these aged 60 years and older (WHO, 2017). The vast majority of this growing number of unpaid carers are simultaneously employed in the labour market or attending school, and they experience a range of space and time tensions due to the multiple demands of both paid labour and unpaid caregiving. Further, many of these working carers are also caring for young dependents. Research evidence illustrates that unpaid care work negatively impacts paid work, and few employers have adopted carer-friendly workplace (CFWP) policies. Deficiency of workplace or organizational support could lead to a range of negative employee consequences, which increase costs to employers, including mental and physical health problems; reduced productivity; increased absenteeism and presenteeism, and; employees exiting the workforce altogether. For employers to best support these working carers, a set of standardized guidelines has been created for organizations. Working with the International Standards Organization (ISO), ISO 25551:2021, ‘Ageing societies – general requirements and guidelines for carer-inclusive organizations’, was published in December 2021. This presentation outlines the alignment of this tool with the United Nations (UN) Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs) and the International Labour Organization's mandate. It highlights the challenges of implementation, while reflecting on the significance and relevance of the standard globally.

Paper Session

Changes and Challenges in Work for Specific Occupations or Industries


Life Satisfaction in the Modern Economy: The Importance of Conventional Work and Gig Work.  Jeremy Reynolds, Purdue University; Julieta Aguilar, Purdue University; and Reilly Kincaid, Purdue University

• Overarching questions/concerns We focus on two questions: How does satisfaction with gig microtask work compare to satisfaction with conventional employment? To what extent is each type of work related to overall life satisfaction? • Statement on methods To make a clean and meaningful comparison of satisfaction with microtask and conventional work, we study workers on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk platform (MTurk) who also have conventional jobs. This within-person comparison holds individual characteristics constant and focuses on conventional jobs that respondents actually hold. • Important findings o On average, respondents are somewhat less satisfied with microtask work than with conventional work, but roughly one-third find microtask work more satisfying. o Microtask work lowers overall life satisfaction, but only among “platform dependent” respondents (those who rely on platform income). Specifically, “platform dependence” reduces life satisfaction by lowering satisfaction with microtask work while also strengthening the latter’s connection to life satisfaction. • Implications for research, policy and/or practice Microtask work is not an inconsequential “side-hustle.” It can generate extra income, reduce precarity, and increase life satisfaction. Nevertheless, we find that it often fails to provide the flexibility workers desire, and it is associated with lower life satisfaction among workers who depend on it. Scholars and policy makers should identify changes to conventional employment that can reduce dependence on supplementary gig income while also updating labor regulations to maximize the benefits of gig work while protecting workers from risk.

Attraction and Retention of Nurses: The Challenges Related to Work-Family Issues.  Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay, TELUQ University

Over the years there have been many challenges in attracting and retaining various workers, especially in the health sector, and for nurses in particular (Bélanger & Marois, 2015 ; Tremblay, 2014a). Literature has often mentioned the increased difficulties in attracting and retaining young nurses in particular (Côté, 2016; Côté et al. 2014) and this increases labour shortage related to the demographic evolution (Bélanger et Marois, 2015), and also to retirement of many nurses (Farges et Tremblay, 2016). With the aging of population, we see an increase in demand for health services, which makes the labor shortage even more preoccupying. Two main issues have been put forward a few years ago in order to try to explain the difficulty in attracting and retaining nurses: work organization and Lean Management, in particular job control and work-family balance issues. In recent years, in Canada, work-family balance issues and job control or autonomy were often put forward as a main difficulty or resentment for nurses, pushing them to leave the profession early, as soon as 5 years after graduation (Tremblay, 2014a), early retirement remaining a challenge in many occupations and organizations searching for solutions to maintain their workers in employment. (Mansour and Tremblay, 2018a) In some countries, these challenges have led to the adoption of Lean Management, some organizations considering they can find here solutions to increase the work done in the health and especially nursing sector. (Tremblay, 2014 ; Bourbonnais et al., 2000). Also, as in many other countries, aging in Québec (Canada) is important. The Health Department expects that in 2031, 15 % of the population will be 65 and over, and the number of 85 and over will double within 20 years from now. Also, the Health Dept indicates that 48 % of the population aged 15 and over has at least one chronic health issue. Therefore the gap between public income and increase in health costs is increasing, calling for solutions to be found. This is why Lean Management sometimes is introduced in certain organizations (Bouville et Trempe, 2015). In this article, we will address these challenges and try to find the elements on which the Health department and hospitals could act in order to increase the number of nurses, and more specifically to attract and retain more. For this, two main issues are addressed in the literature, that is firstly work-life issues, and second, work organization, (lean) management and job control.

Linking Organizational-Based Self-Esteem with Intention to Quit: The Moderating Role of Work-Family Conflict Experience Among Financial Service Sector Employees in Non-Western Culture.  Stephen Iloke, American Psychological Association; Obiajulu Anthony Nnedum, Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria; Emmanuel Ezechukwu, Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria; Precious Ike, Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria; Chinelo Okeke, Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria; Adesuwa Atalor, Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria; Matthew Eze, Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria; and Jerome Ezisi, Nnamdi Azikiwe University - Awka, Nigeria

Abstract Employee intention to quit is a major problem to employee assistance professionals. There is a dearth of empirical evidence on the role of work-family conflict in the relationship linking organizational-based self-esteem with intention to quit among financial service sector workers. The participants of the study comprised of (393) females and (123) males workers. The measures of intention to quit, work-family conflict, organizational-based self-esteem were deployed. However, organizational based self-esteem correlated with intention to quit (r = -.09), work-family conflict correlated with intention to quit (r = -.14); both were inversely related, at p < .05 and p < .01 respectively. Results of the moderated regression indicated a significant negative interaction of organizational-based self-esteem (OBSE) and work-family conflict in predicting employee’s intention to quit their job (B = -0.77, p < .001), which accounted for additional 8% of the variance in intention to quit (R2 change = 0.08), and this contribution was found to be highly significant; F(1,508) = 44.88, p < .001). The work-family conflict had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between OBSE and IQ. This result explains that employees’ confidence in their esteemed organization will likely reduce their intention to quit their current job only when there is a low work-family conflict experience; whereas when there is a high work-family conflict experience, then there is a propensity for the employees to quit their job irrespective of how they value their esteemed organization. Hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 were supported. Work-family conflict matters most to workers.

Humanizing the Ideal Worker from Within, or Occupational Scope Creep?: Physician Assistant Students’ Acceptance of and Resistance to Arts and Humanities Training.  Samantha Ammons, University of Nebraska, Omaha; T Lynne Barone, University of Nebraska, Omaha; Shaun C Horak, University of Nebraska Medical Center; Pamela L Dickey, University of Nebraska Medical Center; Abigail K Berg, University of Nebraska Medical Center; Hugh L'Heureux, University of Nebraska Omaha; Adrian Duran, University of Nebraska Omaha; Melissa Berke, University of Nebraska Omaha; Beth A Culross, University of Nebraska Medical Center; Daniel N Hawkins, University of Nebraska, Omaha; Steve Langan, University of Nebraska Omaha; Joseph McCaffrey, University of Nebraska Omaha; and Amy Morris, University of Nebraska Omaha

The attributes of the ideal worker norm (long hours, commitment to work, and privileging work above all other domains) is well-documented, as are its negative effects at the individual, family, and team levels. Nevertheless, dislodging this norm within organizations and occupations is challenging. Can intervention during early occupational training shift the norm? In this paper, we discuss findings from a curriculum intervention with a cohort of 64 Physician Assistant (PA) students during their didactic year. They participated in nine arts and humanities modules (e.g. creating poetry, music appreciation, drawing, and acting) intended to cultivate empathy, foster provider-patient communication, and build rapport. The arts and humanities content is designed to be carried into practice, to reduce the likelihood of burnout as working healthcare professionals. After the modules, PA students participated in two rounds of focus groups a year apart before and after clinical rotations. To what extent did PA students accept this new content blurring the line between work and leisure? Our findings indicate that many students saw value in the modules. Moreover, initial hesitancy and resistance transformed later into increased acceptance and appreciation. We discuss students’ struggles to reconcile arts and humanities content into their occupational training and the factors that shifted their perspective (such as modeling of preceptors during their clinical rotation). Our findings highlight short-term tensions that exist when the content of occupational roles shift and suggest that there are merits to undoing the ideal worker norm during occupational socialization.

'Energizing Wind Technicians’: The Relationship Between Age-Related HRM-Policies and Leave Intention Mediated by Work Engagement and the Moderating Role of Age.  Pascale Peters, Nyenrode Business Universiteit; and Arne Vanderstukken, Open University of the Netherlanarne.vanderstukken@ou.nlds

Labour-market shortages in the wind-production sector severely challenge climate objectives. This study contributes to conversations on age-related Human Resource Management (HRM) policies by providing insight into the relationships between perceived (bundles of) age-related HRM-policies and wind technicians’ leave intention and the moderating role of age herein. Building on lifespan and HRM-literatures, we developed hypotheses that were tested using multivariate analysis (PROCESS) on data from 101 wind engineers in the Netherlands. The bundle ‘development’ comprises practices relating to career planning, development on job, promotion, and regular training. ‘Maintenance’ comprises compressed work week, ergonomic adjustment, flexible benefits, flexible working time, performance appraisal, performance pay, and working from home. ‘Utilization’ comprises lateral job movement, participation, from-work-to-work-transition, and task enrichment (knowledge transfer). ‘Accommodative’ comprises additional leave, demotion, early retirement, exemption from working overtime, prolonged career interruptions, reduced workload, and part-time working. In line with expectations, we found negative relationships between ‘development’ and ‘maintenance’ and leave intention, partly mediated by work engagement. In contrast to expectations, we found a positive direct relationship between ‘accommodative’ and leave intention, not being mediated by work engagement. The positive relationship between ‘accommodative’ and leave intention, however, was negatively moderated by age (i.e., leave intention of older workers (45+) was lower). Strikingly, no relationship was found between ‘utilization’ and leave intention. We concluded that specific age-related HRM-practices (i.e., ‘development’ and ‘maintenance’) can contribute to retaining wind technicians, meanwhile enhancing sustainable work, whereas accommodative practices predict leave intention, but less so for older than younger workers.

Paper Session

Changes in Family (Formation) Choices and Reproductive Behavior

Paper Session

Changes in Work in Times of Crisis


Farming Family in Times of Drought: Intra-Household Labour Patterns and Hierarchy.  Marta Gospodarczyk, University of Warsaw

The presentation concerns the intra-farming household relations during a slow-moving violent crisis in the form of drought. Since farming is often a family affair - a statement true especially for the case country for this presentation, Poland - the relations between the family and the household, and the farm, as a workplace, are tight and intersecting. The members of the farming households must take actions and create strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of drought. These strategies are created based on process of negotiations and bargaining between the individual adult members of the farming households, and are influenced by a plethora of factors, both close to home and connected to macroeconomic processes. This research is focused on several questions: - What competing interests between members of the farming households may arise, and are they gender-based? - How are these competing interests negotiated, and how are they recognized in the process of the creation of household coping strategies in times of drought? - How do gendered labour patterns in the farming household change in times of drought? - How are the coping strategies created? - What factors influence the creation of said strategies? The presentation is based on individual, in-depth interviews with adult members of farming households and participant observations in Eastern Poland, in a research location that may be described as conservative in regards to gender roles. The important findings are: - women are likely to self-marginalize their role in the farm, and are not likely to call themselves farmers; - women seldom take up work outside the farm, as their work is necessary for its' survival; - women are likely to bear the brunt of caring labour in the household and manage the emotions connected to drought; - women are included in the household strategy-making efforts, however, their interests are contingent upon the condition of the farm; - the strategies undertaken by farming households range from, paradoxically, lack of visible strategy (apathy), to innovation and investment, to plans to abandon farming whatsoever. This research shows the need to nuance programs directed at households, to recognize their internal hierarchies and tensions between their members. Further gender mainstreaming efforts in drought management programs should be implemented, and those programs could possibly reflect both the differences in gendered experience of drought, as well as the nature of the phenomenon as a slowly violent crisis.

Flexible, Independent, Engaged?.  Lianara Dreyer, WZB Berlin Social Science Center

The consulting industry is expanding, as both private firms and public administrations require consultants' assistance due to the growing complexity of tasks. This is especially evident in the area of digital infrastructure development, where consultants' specialized knowledge is increasingly needed. This article analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the service sector's approach to work, using consulting firms as an example. According to neoinstitutionalist theory, consulting firms that guide clients through change processes can be viewed as models for future widespread organizational forms. Based on ten interviews with consultants and leaders from consulting firms, this study analyses how organizations adapted working practices during the pandemic, including how they organised internal cooperation, provided consulting services, and the potential future implications of these changed working practices for everyday consultancy. The analysis suggests that consulting firms gained advantages by implementing work from home (WFH) for their clients. The cultural shift to a home office setup on the client side created greater flexibility for consultants, which enhanced their well-being and made the job more appealing, especially for employees with children. This facilitated efficient organization and sustainable methods for advisory work. The negative effects pertained to consultants’ everyday work: Working remotely was associated with feelings of isolation and reduced interaction with colleagues. Celebrations of success and other fun aspects of work disappeared. The pandemic led to heightened personal responsibility demands on employees and the need for high levels of self-organization and self-discipline when working from home. The article concludes by discussing the challenges faced by the service sector regarding changes in the work environment. It presents actionable steps that can be taken to improve working conditions for the benefit of employees and further highlights the resulting implications for labor and social policy. The paper fits thematically into the Changes in Work stream by addressing the organization of work, the changes in work, and the future of work in the service sector. Focusing on practical forms of collaboration bridges the divide between academia and practice, and appeals the different stakeholders at the conference.

Does Work from Home Bring More Babies? Homeworking Intensity, Gender Role Attitudes, and Fertility Intentions in Times of Crisis.  Shiyu Yuan, University of Kent; and Heejung Chung, King&#x27;s College London

Unlike previous crises, the COVID-19 pandemic has introduced unique circumstances and dynamics aside from economic uncertainty and health concerns. One of the most unique and long-lasting changes is the broad adoption of working from home (WFH). Beyond the practical changes, many researchers found that the pandemic-driven surge in WFH may have also diminished its associated cultural barriers and stigmas. In light of these changes and developments, our study investigates how the surge in WFH during the pandemic has influenced, and will continue to influence, the fertility intentions of workers. We hypothesize that WFH could influence workers’ fertility through the nexus of individuals’ work-life dynamics. Moreover, its impact is expected to vary across socioeconomic groups, particularly among individuals with diverse gender role attitudes. We use data from Understanding Society COVID-19 survey wave 9, collected in September 2021, a period when all lockdowns ended in the UK. We focus particularly on the potential moderating effect of gender role attitudes, exploring what will the likely fertility effects be of promoting gender-egalitarian norms in a world increasingly embracing home working. Our empirical analysis, utilizing a logistic regression model, underscores the significance of WFH intensity and gender ideology in workers’ homeworking experience and their subsequent fertility intentions. By assessing the effects of both workers’ current homeworking practices and their future expectations of homeworking on fertility, this study will enhance our understanding of childbearing decision-making in a rapidly changing world where remote work is becoming increasingly common.

Paper Session

Childbearing, Fertility, and Paid Leave


Kids, Books & Consumption: A Developing Economy Model.  Indrajit Thakurata, Indian Institute of Management

This study estimates the implicit child-birth related expenditures that parents across income groups may be facing based on their empirically observed fertility rates. Employing a two-generation, multi-period model with endogenous fertility, income risk, borrowing as well as human capital investment constraints, the study numerically simulates intergenerational poverty traps as part of low income households’ optimizing behaviour. It explores the relative strengths of parental incomes, child-bearing related parental expenditures, and its transmission into cognitive ability of the child, in enhancing intergenerational mobility of human capital. Cognitively developed children increase parental human capital investments through reduction of fertility, assets and consumption. A policy like subsidised education improves children’s human capital through lowering of births while greater educational access is seen to improve both quality & quantity of children. Policies that subsidise cognitive ability related investments are extremely powerful in boosting average human capital. The study finds that policy induced trade-offs are substantial when family sizes are small.

Negotiating Work and Family Spheres: The Dyadic Effects of Flexible Work Arrangements on Fertility Among Dual-Earner Heterosexual Couples.  Senhu Wang, National University of Singapore; and Jolene Tan, Australian National University

Abstract Making flexible work arrangements (FWAs) the default in workplaces has been suggested by academics and policymakers to promote a family-friendly workplace culture that is conducive for having and raising children. However, there is limited systematic research investigating how FWAs, as a long-term approach to negotiate work–family spheres, are related to fertility among dual-earner heterosexual couples. Drawing on the linked-lives perspective, this study aims to theorize the relationship between FWAs and fertility among couples and how it may vary depending on the interplay of both spouses’ work and family characteristics. We test our hypotheses using longitudinal couple-level dyadic data in the UK (2010–2022). The results show that while the availability of FWAs alone is not related to fertility, wives’ (rather than husbands’) actual use of FWAs is significantly associated with a higher probability of experiencing a first birth. Moreover, the effect of wives’ use of FWAs is particularly pronounced when both spouses work in professional and managerial occupations, and when husbands contribute a larger proportion of income and equal or more housework. This study reveals a gendered effect of FWAs on fertility across different work–family arrangements, which deepens our understanding of couple-level dynamics in the fertility process.

The Return to Work Crossroads: An Examination of New York State Mothers' Decision Making and the Impact of Paid Family Leave.  Jillian Morley, Cornell University; and Elizabeth Day, University of Oregon

This paper explores the influence of New York State's Paid Family Leave (PFL) policy on mothers' decisions regarding their return to work after childbirth. This research builds on the established relationship between female labor market outcomes and Paid Family Leave policies by interrogating the nuances in mothers' decision-making processes surrounding the return to work across industries. The study utilized open-ended interviews with 15 participants, including 10 PFL users and 5 mothers that were unable to utilize the state’s PFL benefits. Respondents were recruited through purposive snowball sampling and inquiries to maternal online networks. Qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts reveal the interplay between maternal aspirations, workplace conditions, and policy provisions to bridge the gap between mothers' desire to work and their employment decisions. The findings call for holistic policy solutions that address diverse challenges, such as childcare issues and breastfeeding support, while elevating opportunities presented by hybrid work arrangements.

Paper Session

Class, Gender, and Race: Privilege and Stratification in Work-Life Experiences


Work-Life Balance, But For Who: Examining the Construct Through the Lens of Privilege.  Marie-Hélène Budworth, York University; and Huda Masood, Sam Houston State University

Changes to the nature of work have altered how work and family are experienced. A key driver of this shift being the identification of essential and non-essential workers during the COVID-19 pandemic (van Zoonen & Hoeven, 2021). As a result, the early 2020s created a divide between those who have an option to work from home and those who do not. In general, flexibility is available to those who are in a “privileged labour market position” (Felstead, Jewson, Phizacklea, & Walters, 2002, p.214). Although the pandemic has ended, hybrid work arrangements persist, revolutionizing the structure of the workforce globally. This change raises important scholarly questions about who has access to work-life balance. The purpose of this paper is to advance theory by applying a critical lens in understanding the role of “privilege” as it relates to the work-life interface (Shuck et al., 2016). This work examines the following questions: (a) How is the concept of work-life balance experienced differently by those who have choice or flexibility in how the work is organized versus those who do not? (b) How has this concept evolved relative to the context created in recent years? (c) Who is disadvantaged due to the work-from-home arrangements? How? and (d) Who benefits from such an arrangement? How? The aim of this research is to support a critical dialogue on what it means to maintain a balance between work and life domains in today’s world.

Can Workplace Inclusion Close Racial and Ethnic Gaps in Work-Family Spillover?.  Ipshita Pal, St. John&#x27;s University; Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute; and Stacy Kim, Life Junctions

Work-life scholars and practitioners have consistently found organizational practices, formal and informal, are linked to employees’ work-life spillover. However, few studies have examined whether such practices have similar consequences across ethnoracial groups—an important gap—given differences in relevant demands and resources, both work-related (such as, access to benefits, interpersonal relationships, and social exclusion) and nonwork-related (such as household division of labor, caregiving responsibilities and kin support). In this study, using a diverse nationally representative sample of U.S.-based employees from the 2016 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 1489), we examine ethnoracial differences in work-life spillover and its association with workplace inclusion, a set of relational practices that make employees feel accepted, valued, supported, and involved, through workgroup support and belongingness, a culture of respect and trust, participatory decision-making, and a whole-employee approach. Using logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics, we estimate and compare probabilities of spillover between white and non-white employees over the distribution of inclusion scores. We find work-to-family spillover is high for both groups and negatively associated with workplace inclusion, but ethnorcial differences are not significant; however, while family-to-work spillover is also high; it is significantly negatively associated with workplace inclusion only for non-white employees. Overall, the ethnoracial difference in work-family spillover is significantly smaller in more inclusive workplaces. Our findings provide new evidence on the role of employer practices in shaping work-family outcomes and indicate that they may be more consequential for non-white employees.

An (Un)necessary Separation from Families? The Case of Migrant Farmworkers in Canada.  Jill Hanley, McGill University; Guillermo Ventura Sanchez, Concordia University; and Pankil Goswami, McGill University

The experience of migration for temporary foreign workers in Canada provides novel perspectives in understanding critical issues of work and family studies. Focusing on the injured migrant farmworkers in Quebec and Ontario, the research studies throw light on how injured migrant farmworkers survive in alien and challenging conditions in Canada and experience radical changes in living and working without their family. Precarious conditions of work aided by exploitative employers and lack of family care and support in cases of work injury amplifies the need to better respond to challenges that arise for these workers. The initial findings point out the need for family to be accompanied by workers while they venture out on this long treacherous path to work on Canadian farmlands. However, the design of the program for temporary foreign workers working in agriculture makes it more difficult to bring families points out to the larger theme of bordering practices for temporary workers. The current study tries to provide new contributions in the field of work and family studies and the transitions that families experience from the perspective of migrant farmworkers in Canada. The study also brings forward the issue of migration of workers from the global south within the realm of family and work studies.

When Multiple Oppressions Intersect: Breastfeeding and Muslim South African Mothers in the Workplace.  Feranaaz Farista, University of Cape Town; and Ameeta Jaga, University of Cape Town

Overarching questions/concerns 1. What are Muslim mothers' breastfeeding experiences and decisions during maternity leave and in anticipating their return to work? 2. How do their intersecting social identities within interpersonal contexts, organisational practices, and wider societal processes affect these experiences and decisions? Statement on methods Data from 36, one-on-one, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Muslim mothers in Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa were thematically analysed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step guide. Important findings 1. Embodied Motherhood: Navigating Modesty and Taboos, delves into the complexities of maternal identity within societal and religious frameworks, exploring issues such as breastfeeding, Islamic modesty, and the abject maternal body. 2. Maternal Paradox: Tradition and Modern Realities, delves into the dual challenges faced by modern mothers, balancing Islamic-specific motherhood expectations with contemporary pressures such as returning to work amidst economic constraints and family disapproval. It will explore the complexities of fulfilling Islamic duties while navigating the demands of modern life. 3. Maternal Mental Load, explores how workplace support affects mothers' mental health, balancing motherhood with employment, addressing postpartum depression risks, and the challenges and benefits of flexible work arrangements. Implications for research, policy and/or practice Our research offers nuanced contributions to understanding the experiences of Muslim mothers from the global South. By departing from predominantly Eurocentric perspectives, we enrich the literature with empirical insights, challenging universalising narratives that overlook cultural diversity. Additionally, we interrogate epistemological assumptions about maternal subjectivity, highlighting the necessity of considering diverse cultural contexts. Through a feminist, intersectional lens, our study serves as an epistemic intervention, deconstructing existing hegemonic norms and revealing hidden biases. This approach deepens our understanding of maternal experiences and prevents the homogenisation of Muslim mothers. Furthermore, integrating transnational psychology with intersectionality sheds light on the complex identity dilemmas and decisions confronted by Muslim mothers during their maternity leave. Our recommendations emphasise the necessity of culturally sensitive, family-friendly policies to support lactating Muslim mothers, fostering greater inclusivity of diverse women in the workplace.

Paper Session

Considerations for Child Development and Child Care


Time Allocation Depending on Nonmaternal Childcare Usage, Time Pressure, and Life Satisfaction Among Korean Mothers: A Sequence Analysis.  Ha Young Choi, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig; Hanjin Bae, Seoul National University, South Korea; and Karen Kramer, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig

Since 2013, South Korea has progressively provided childcare services to all preschoolers irrespective of household income or maternal employment status. It is now a policy and research priority to evaluate whether nonmaternal childcare provides Korean mothers with additional time resources and better well-being. Based on the concept of contamination in mothers' scheduling (Flood et al., 2020), we conduct a novel sequence analysis with the Korean Time Use Survey (KTUS) of mothers with children aged 0 to 5 in 2009, 2014, and 2019 cohorts. We identify four daily scheduling patterns of working mothers: 1) standard work schedule, 2) leaving work early, 3) midweek day off, and 4) leaving work late. In addition, five scheduling patterns are identified among stay-at-home mothers: 1) daylong intense mothering, 2) daylong mothering after nighttime leisure and morning sleep, 3) daytime housework between morning and evening mothering, 4) daylong housework followed by early bedtime, and 5) daytime leisure between morning and evening mothering. We find that working mothers in the midweek day off group (having the most uncontaminated daytime) exhibit the highest life satisfaction, with this relationship being fully mediated by lower time pressure. We also observe that among stay-at-home mothers, those who utilize nonmaternal childcare for scheduling uncontaminated housework or leisure (absence of children) show higher life satisfaction, and this effect is fully mediated by reduced time pressure when compared to those engaging in daylong intense mothering. We provide theoretical and policy implications of how to better support nonmaternal childcare for both working and non-working mothers.

Raising the Professional Class: Childcare Selection in an Era of Rising Inequality.  Talya Wolf, CUNY - Graduate Center

While it is established that childcare is a site of class reproduction, there is little research on early childcare specifically. This is a glaring gap in the literature given the relevance to American families: Limited publicly subsidized childcare or paid parental leave in the United States means that childcare is largely contingent upon the availability of family resources. Furthermore, high inequality results in disparate parenting practices and childcare experiences based on families’ financial status (Lareau 2011; Stahl et al. 2018). This creates an early childcare landscape in which those with more personal resources are able to access high-quality care and prepare their children to reproduce societal inequalities in the long run. Additionally, given the high levels of inequality in the United States, parents’ own standards of care and ability to attain their preferred childcare are greatly influenced by their class status. This provides the foundation for an early childcare landscape that mirrors and maintains current inequalities. Through in-depth interviews with mothers of young children (ages 0-3) based in New York City, this work begins uncover what professional-class women value most in their early childcare arrangements. Uncovering which childcare scenarios professional-class parents consider valuable reveals more than simply their care preferences. It offers a window into the resources, education, and experiences they believe very young children need to maintain their class advantage in the long run. Uncovering these values can help elucidate some of the pathways by which intergenerational transmission of inequality is maintained at early stages of the life course.

Exploring Predictors of Children's Socioemotional Development: A Machine Learning Analysis of Two Longitudinal Datasets.  Qiujie Gong, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig; Karen Kramer, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig; and Xiaoyang Lu, Illinois Institute of Technology

Early childhood has been identified as a vital stage for children’s socioemotional development. While numerous environmental factors contribute to this development, the relative influence of each remains inadequately understood. This study employs advanced machine learning techniques (i.e., LASSO regression, gradient boosting, and random forest) to explore the primary predictors of children's early socioemotional development using two longitudinal datasets, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS). Our findings revealed that mothers’ literacy involvement consistently emerged as a significant predictor of children’s socioemotional skills across both datasets, with higher literacy involvement linked to better socioemotional skills. Additionally, parental working hours serve as another significant predictor common to both datasets. Longer working hours are associated with children's lower socioemotional skills, suggesting that parental stress from work may overflow and impact family dynamics. Further, father-related variables, including caregiving, literacy involvement, work-family balance stress, and parenting stress, also consistently played vital roles in both datasets, underscoring the significance of fathers in children's development. Finally, while mothers’ literacy involvement was the most important predictor in ECLS-B, in the FFCWS dataset, mothers' parenting stress emerged as the most important determinant, highlighting that various predictors might hold different levels of importance for socioemotional development across distinct family contexts. This research supports the ecological system theory, emphasizing diverse factors shaping early socioemotional development. These insights hold significant implications for educational initiatives, clinical practices, and family-centered policies, aimed at fostering holistic socioemotional growth in children.

Paper Session

Contemporary Work-Family Challenges and Policy Implications


Generational Change in “Ideal Worker” Norms Among Postdocs in the Life Sciences.  Heather Hofmeister, Goethe University Frankfurt; and Anne-Kathrin Kronberg, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Overarching Questions Half a century after second-wave feminism, one main focus of inquiry still is the persistent underrepresentation of women in higher level academic science. The persistence of the “ideal worker” norm (Williams 2000) and the inability of the primary caregiver in a household to fulfil it has been offered as one explanation for the underrepresentation of women in many fields. We examine the degree to which resistance to the “ideal worker” model may play a role in strategic career decisions and future expectations for the next generation of top scientists in the life sciences. Do they reject a long-hours work culture? How do their ideals differ from their supervisors' expectations? Methods We use qualitative in-depth interviews with 22 life sciences postdocs (13 men, 9 women) in their final year from the same highly competitive research institution, and follow-up interviews, plus 5 interviews with principal investigators from their supervisors. Findings We found that all nine women and 12 of 13 men in the sample felt internal resistance to imitating the lives of their supervisors. The supervisors, in turn, were critical of the postdocs’ values. Despite these postdocs being among the best and brightest scientists in a cutting-edge industry, and wanting an alternative path, they largely did not see themselves as holding negotiating power for alternative ideal futures. Implications Our research may help predict the likelihood of change or continuation of labor market inequalities in one scientific field along gender lines. Parenthood status, gender, and region of origin played a role and will be discussed.

Post-Pandemic ‘Work From Home Revolution’ Discourses and the Invisibilisation of Women’s Unpaid Care Labour in Australia..  Amanda Peters, Monash University

In Australia, the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns brought changes in work practices marked by a significant rise in the number of employees engaging in remote work arrangements. In the media and other public discoursers this shift in employment patterns has been dubbed ‘the work from home revolution’. This presentation critically analyses these ‘work from home’ discourses using a gendered perspective to understand how they may sustain existing patriarchal economic and social structures. A category analysis of Australian media and industry narratives of a ‘work from home revolution’ will explore how these narratives reinvigorate hegemonic masculine discourses of work. It is well established that the devaluation of unpaid care work, which is predominantly performed by women, is a key driver of gender inequality. This occurs in part via invisibilisation, a process in which unpaid care labour is simultaneously devalued and exploited within capitalism by obscuring the fact that labour has been performed. Invisibilisation of women’s unpaid care labour occurs via patriarchal socio-cultural mechanisms which tie definitions of work exclusively to forms of labour for which someone is paid, such mechanisms exclude women’s unpaid care labour despite it being an essential part of the production system. This presentation will explore how ‘work from home revolution’ discourses invisibilise women’s unpaid care work, and thus reinforce patriarchal economic and cultural structures which drive gender inequality.

Redefining Boundaries: The Evolving Dynamics of Work-Life Interface in the Digital Age.  Moses Kayanja, Multitech Business School; and Moses Kayanja, Multitech Business School

The advent of the digital age and the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic have thrust the global workforce into a reevaluation of traditional work structures. This research examines the new intersections forming between work and family in this era of change. Using a multi-modal approach, we gathered qualitative and quantitative data from professionals across various sectors, regions, and family structures. Our findings suggest a shift in the definition of work and its significance at varying life stages, especially among the younger generation who prioritize flexibility and work-life integration. Concurrently, the dynamics of family experiences are changing, with a noticeable decline in traditional family models in high-income nations, coupled with increased feelings of isolation despite being more digitally connected than ever. Furthermore, the paper investigates how these changes affect transitional stages in the life course, from childhood to old age, emphasizing the evolving challenges and coping mechanisms. Finally, our research highlights innovative solutions and practices from both global north and south that can serve as models for creating a balanced and inclusive work-life paradigm. By understanding these intricate dynamics, stakeholders can better navigate the future of work and family, ensuring resilience, equity, and holistic well-being.

“Now I Have Two Dads and No Mom”: Investigating the Familial Experience of Adults Learning ‘Not Parent Expected’ News From an At-Home Ancestry DNA Test.  Juliette Careau, McGill University; and Rob Whitley, McGill University

According to recent estimates, over 30 million people have taken at-home DNA tests with companies like 23andMe and AncestryDNA. These tests reveal details about a user’s ethnic ancestry, and also match users with biological relations on their database. This process can throw up sudden and surprising news. The most shocking may be a ‘Not Parent Expected’ (NPE) discovery, where a user learns that an assumed father is not a biological father. In this presentation, the authors will report the results of a qualitative study aiming to document the psychosocial experience of people receiving NPE news from an at-home DNA test. This involved 52 semi-structured interviews with affected individuals, analyzed using thematic analysis. Results indicate that learning NPE news revealed unknown truths about a user’s conception such as marital infidelity, sperm donation and other uncommon stories. Most participants reported that the discovery had a profoundly negative impact on family dynamics, especially concerning their mother, leading to ruptured relationships and shattered trust. Participants often used the language of grief, trauma and loss in this regard. In some cases, participants established positive and rewarding relationships with their new biological family, including the biological father and half-siblings. But overall, the discovery typically had negative implications for mental health. Some participants sought help from therapists and psychologists in response to the news, but these were often considered ill-equipped to help. All this suggests the need for tailored training for family therapists and psychologists, as well as targeted interventions that can help the NPE population.

Teaching, Research, Administration and Family: A Comparative Case Study of Professor’s Work-Life Balance in Brazil and Canada.  Ana Luiza Leite, Santa Catarina State University; Linda Duxbury, Carleton University; Dannyela da Cunha Lemos, Santa Catarina State University; and Mario Cesar Barreto de Morais, Santa Catarina State University

The term work-life balance (WLB) came into use in the 1970s concomitant with the influx of women into the workforce. Since then, research in this domain has exploded as academics and practitioners sought a better understanding of the phenomena. Most of this research has focused on the balance between work (defined most often as a unitary construct - work) and family roles. Few studies have examined the challenges faced by employees who job requires them to balance the demands imposed by multiple competing work roles with their roles outside of work. Our study contributes to the WLB literature by looking at how University faculty in two countries (Canada, Brazil) balance the competing demands imposed by three quite different work roles (teacher, researcher, and administrator) and how this impacted their role performance at work and at home. We use Role Theory to theoretically frame our qualitative study which involved interviews with 23 Canadian and 24 Brazilian business school professors. Participants were asked questions pertaining to their work and family demands during COVID. We also administered a short survey designed to collect demographic data as well as data on time spent in work/ non-work roles. Most informants reported high levels of conflict between the teaching and research roles and that this conflict split over into the family domain. Results from this study can be used by universities to design mechanisms to support their professors’ desire to balance having a life with their aspirations as researchers and teachers.

Paper Session

Contextualizing Work-Family Conflict: Considering Class and COVID-19


An Eight-Wave Study of Manager Burnt-Out Risk in New Zealand: Is Covid-19 Impacting Managers Still?.  Jarrod Haar, Massey University; and David Brougham, Massey University

Job burnout refers to a work-related state of exhaustion, characterized by tiredness, lower cognitive and emotional processes, and cynicism. The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) is unique because a high burnt-out risk can be calculated, representing severe burnout levels. The present study focuses on managers due to their importance in the workplace, not only in decision making, but also due to contagion effects on followers. A quasi-natural experiment was achieved due to studying manager burnout immediately before Covid-19 lockdown in New Zealand (February 2020), immediately post-lockdown (May 2020), and then roughly every six months: December 2020, April 2021, November 2021, May 2022, December 2022, and June 2023. These were paid panels (each wave is unique) between n=268-505. Each study included the BAT plus high work demands with odds ratios calculated. The burnt-out risk rate was 19.5% (February 2020), 20.6% (May 2020), 25.2% (December 2020), 32.7% (April 2021), 52.1% (November 2021), 31.4% (May 2022), 25.9% (December 2022), and 27.2% (June 2023). This provides evidence that high burnt-out risk grew steadily and peaked in late 2021 but remain stubbornly high. Currently, around a quarter of managers are working while burnt-out. High work demands are key, with significant odds ratios towards burnt-out risk of 6.7/5.6/7.8/4.6/3.2/4.6/3.7/10.1 times the risk. The findings suggest managers as a group might be suffering a serious impediment to their well-being, through managing massive change not only through COVID-19, but also managing working-from-home expansion. This group needs greater organizational support and attention to their well-being for their personal and organizational futures.

Work-to Family Conflict or Family-to Work Conflict? Variations in Work Family Conflict on Women's Mental Well-Being By Class..  Berglind Hólm Ragnarsdóttir, University of Akureyri; Valgerður S. Bjarnadóttir, University of Iceland; and Andrea Hjálmsdóttir, University of Akureyri

In this presentation we report findings from a study where we estimate the effect of work-family conflict on women’s mental well-being and explore whether that relationship is contingent on class. Prior research finds that high levels of work-family conflict negatively impact women’s well-being. However, most research concentrates on women of high socio-economic status. Variation in the effects of work-family conflict across socio-economic class has been understudied. Moreover, most estimates of work-family conflict do not distinguish between the differing effects of work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict, two directional components of work-family conflict that have different antecedents and consequences. We use data from a cross-sectional phone survey conducted on a sample of Icelandic women in spring 2022. Key findings include: i) work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict both have a direct effect on symptoms of anxiety and depression for all women, ii) when we introduce the interaction term for class we find that work-to-family conflict increases symptoms of anxiety and depression across the class spectrum, but, iii) the effect of family-to-work conflict is contingent on class position. Working-class women are more likely to experience symptoms of depression and anxiety due to family-to-work conflict than women of intermediate or salariat class. These findings underline the importance of including class-structures in research on work-family conflict and not ignoring class disparities in women’s resources and barriers when it comes to juggling work and family. Moreover, these findings demonstrate the need to consider both work-to-family conflict as well as family-to-work conflict in research on work and family.

The Impact of COVID-19 on Childcare and Gender Equity.  Alicia Modestino, Northeastern University; Jamie Ladge, Northeastern University; Alisa Lincoln, Northeastern University; and Zachary Finn, Northeastern University

Overarching questions/concerns The COVID-19 pandemic was labeled by some to be a “She-cession” due to the disproportionate impact on women workers who were more likely to be employed in industries and occupations that suffered large job losses during the subsequent recession. At the same time, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an unprecedented disruption to caregiving as daycares and schools were closed, exposing the critical link between childcare and the labor market. Prior research has tried to disentangle the differential impact of COVID-19 on the labor market outcomes and well-being of mothers due to the disproportionate allocation of childcare responsibilities, using variations in lockdown, school and daycare closures or comparing households with children of different ages as a proxy for caregiving responsibilities. However, these approaches are unable to separately identify the differential impact of the pandemic on female labor outcomes caused by the childcare shock versus the COVID recession due to the endogeneity of household decision making. To address this shortcoming, we use a national panel survey to directly ask working parents if they lost a job or reduced their hours solely due to childcare and then compare the experiences of households that had a greater exposure to the childcare shock based on their pre-pandemic characteristics. We also estimate the degree to which households had access to and utilized employer benefits to alleviate the effects of childcare responsibilities on labor market outcomes. Finally, we examine whether the lack of childcare during the pandemic differentially affected maternal well-being including sleep qualify, job satisfaction, psychological distress, and parental stress. Statement on methods To answer these questions, we conducted a national panel survey of roughly 2,500 working parents Mother’s Day (May 10) and Father’s Day (June 21) of 2020. The survey included various categories of questions, including individual demographic and household characteristics, household time use before and during the pandemic, changes in work status and the causes of such changes, pre-existing and new employer benefit policies and practices, and changes in individual physical and mental well-being. We directly asked respondents whether adverse labor outcomes experienced during the pandemic were caused by the lack of childcare compared to other factors, as well as how childcare decisions were made during this unique moment in time. To separately identify the impacts of the pandemic on labor outcomes due solely to childcare, we create an affected group individuals who are more likely to be exposed to this negative shock that includes single parents and parents with working spouses who have a child under the age of 10 living in the household. Then to test our research questions, we run a series of OLS regressions looking at the joint impact of being in the affected group and female on the likelihood of experiencing adverse labor outcomes, whether employer policies alleviated these outcomes, as well as mental health indicators such as psychological distress or job satisfaction. Throughout, we control for various demographic and labor characteristics, including race, age, income, education, school closure, access to backup childcare, job type, and industry. Important findings During the onset of the pandemic, women significantly increased time spent per week on schoolwork and playing with children as well as cooking and cleaning. Men saw marginal increases in time spent cooking and cleaning. Although moms were more likely to experience both job loss compared and hours reductions to dads, working mothers in the affected group were disproportionately more likely to have only reduced their hours worked due to childcare responsibilities compared to those with less exposure to the childcare shock. Although moms experienced a variety of declines in well-being compared to dads, working mothers in the affected group were only more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs. Although roughly one-quarter of working parents had access to paid family leave, fewer than 4 percent of working parents used this benefit during the early months of the pandemic. Neither standard policies aimed at lessening adverse labor outcomes, such as family or medical leave, nor newer policies such as childcare subsidies or the ability to work from home, were effective in alleviating the adverse labor market outcomes experienced by working mothers in the affected group. Implications for research, policy and/or practice We learn that gender dynamics and childcare responsibilities played a significant role in the gender differences seen in labor outcomes during the pandemic. This can help to inform future policy makers looking to support working parents and women, by better understanding how childcare decisions are made.

Pandemic Shadows: Unmasking Gender Disparities in Academic Productivity and Well-Being.  Marisa Young, McMaster University; Nicole McNair, McMaster University; Gabriella Christopher, University of Toronto; and Loa Gordon, McMaster University

Women academics experience inequalities across multiple facets in the workplace, including research productivity; teaching, advising and mentoring responsibilities; service workload, and cross-over stress between work and family obligations. The recent COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated these gender disparities. Drawing upon 2021 data from 475 research faculty and staff at a lead research university in Canada, we highlight such inequalities. Our data suggest that the impact of the global pandemic has been far-reaching and potentially long-lasting for women in academia. Results initially suggest that men and women experienced similar setbacks in productivity due to COVID-19. However, women experience far greater work-family conflict and mental health problems due to COVID-19; and, both work-family conflict and mental health problems due to COVID-19 are strongly associated with lost productivity during this period. In other words, even though it appears women and men have similar productivity, women were disadvantaged compared to their male counterparts during the pandemic because of unequal exposure to work-family conflict and mental health, which ultimately correlates with lost productivity. We discuss these results and conclude our paper with a discussion about the importance of rethinking the operationalization of “productivity” in post-secondary institutions, given the “un-covering” of differential exposure and vulnerabilities to stressors and mental health during the pandemic.

Navigating the Interplay of Financial Well-Being, Boundary Blurring, and Work-Life Balance: A Theoretical Exploration..  Joan-Ark Manu Agyapong, University of Cape Coast; Abigail Opoku Mensah, University of Professional Studies; Ummu Markwei, University of Professional Studies; Mercy DeSouza, University of Professional Studies; and Mary Naana Essiaw, University of Professional Studies

Abstract Purpose This theoretical exploration aims to investigate the interplay among financial well-being, boundary blurring, and work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted an extensive literature review and analysis of relevant theoretical frameworks to examine the association among financial well-being, boundary blurring, and work-life balance. Findings The findings of this study indicate that financial well-being notably impacts boundary permeability and work-life balance. Individuals with superior financial well-being demonstrated an increased probability of experiencing enhanced work-life balance and lesser extents of boundary blending. Limitation A constraint of the study is its emphasis on theoretical and conceptual expedition as a research paradigm rather than utilizing a descriptive investigational pattern. Implication This paper underscores the crucial connection between financial wellness and achieving a harmonious work-life equilibrium, highlighting that individuals with sound financial stability are more likely to experience improved work-life balance and enhanced overall wellness. Additionally, the study illuminates the adverse consequences of boundary permeability, wherein the boundaries between occupational and personal life become indistinct, negatively impacting both financial well-being and work-life equilibrium. Originality/value This paper contributes to the current corpus of research by investigating the intricate interplay between financial well-being, boundary permeability, and work-life equilibrium. The findings provide valuable perspective for individuals, employers, and policymakers to devise strategies aimed at promoting financial well-being and preserving work-life balance. By exploring the complex dynamics between these factors, the study contributes new insights to help interested parties establish measures conducive to enhanced wellness in both financial and work-life domains. Keywords Financial well-being, boundary blurring, work-life balance

Paper Session

Couples, Spouses, and Others' Perception Within the Work-Family Interface


My Experience or Your Perception? A Meta-Analysis on the Association Between Self- and Other-Reported Work-Life Experiences.  Nina M. Junker, Universitetet i Oslo; Kinga Bierwiaczonek, Universitetet i Oslo; Sharon Toker, Tel Aviv University; and Jenny M. Hoobler, Nova School of Business &amp; Economics

Overarching questions/concerns: Work-life experiences, such as work-life conflict, enrichment, and balance, have important work- and life-related consequences for individuals themselves (e.g., Lapierre et al., 2018; Michel et al., 2010) and their role partners, such as their spouses (e.g., Li et al., 2021; Matei et al., 2021). However, not only do individuals’ experiences at the work-life intersection have such consequences, but also role partners’ perceptions of such experiences come with relevant negative (e.g., Hoobler et al., 2009; Li et al., 2017) and positive consequences (e.g., Filippi et al., 2022). This raises the question as to what extent such perceptions reflect individuals’ realities and which factors affect the association between self- and other-reported work-life experiences. Statement on methods: We conducted a preregistered meta-analysis of N = 35 primary studies that reported at least one correlation between self- and other-reported work-life experiences or perceptions. Important findings: - The congruence in self and other reports is lower than one might expect - There is some contingency of the size of congruence depending on moderating factors, such as who the other report is (e.g., spouse, supervisor) Implications for research, policy and/or practice: Other reported work-life experiences do not properly capture individuals' experiences and should not replace these in research. Rather than relying on perceptions, supervisors (and spouses) should ask about the actual experiences.

A Dyadic Model of Work-Family Enrichment: Job Resources, Capitalization, and Positive Anticipatory Emotions.  Zheng Chen, University of South Florida; and Allison Ellis, California Polytechnic State University

Despite a rich literature investigating the work-family interface at the individual level, emerging work has begun to show that how workers interpret, respond to, and are impacted by work stress is influenced by their immediate social context, particularly, spouses (e.g., Carlson et al., 2019). In our investigation involving 91 dual-career couples, we employed work-family enrichment (WFE) and crossover theories as the foundation for our research. Our primary focus was how job characteristics ( job demands and job variety) shape the WFE process. We examined a serial mediation model, in which job characteristics impact WFE in dual-career couples through two key factors: interpersonal capitalization (the sharing of positive work experiences with one's spouse) and positive anticipatory emotions (i.e., hope, eagerness, and confidence). To analyze our data, we utilized the actor-partner interdependence model, treating the couple as the unit of analysis. This approach allowed us to explore both intrapersonal and interpersonal effects, encompassing how one partner's job characteristics influenced their own outcomes (actor effects) and their partner's outcomes (partner effects). Our main findings demonstrated that in dual-career couples, job variety positively influenced capitalization efforts for both partners. Notably, husbands' capitalization had a positive impact on their own and their wives' positive anticipatory emotions, while wives' capitalization affected only their own. Additionally, wives' positive anticipatory emotions were associated with their own WFE but negatively impacted their husbands' WFE. Conversely, husbands' anticipatory emotions only positively influenced their own WFE. This study also explored other mediation paths within the dyadic model.

Gender Differences in the Impact of Telework on Spousal Time Squeeze in Japan.  Masaki Hosomi, Kansai University; and Tetsushi Fujimoto, Doshisha University

Overarching questions/concerns Teleworking has received much attention globally ever since COVID-19 pandemic set in. In general, teleworking is believed to exert positive effects on individuals and families, but it also has negative effects, such as blurring of boundaries between work and family and increase of family-to-work conflict. Although family time is important for family members’ well-being, few studies have focused on the effect of teleworking on family time, and how gender conditions the relationship. This study focuses on the concept of family time squeeze (Hill et al., 2013; Milkie et al., 2004; Southerton & Tomlinson, 2005). Given the increasing number of childless couples in Japan, we focused on the spousal time squeeze (i.e., STS) as a factor related to marital happiness. We investigated how teleworking affects individual perceptions of time spent with one’s spouse, with a particular focus on how frequency of teleworking affects STS, as well as how job freedom and gender affect these relationships. Drawing on the Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 1989), it is predicted that when teleworking functions as a resource facilitating interactions between family members, couples would spend longer time interacting with each other, but the effect would be stronger when work resources are available simultaneously. In Japan, on the other hand, where gender role orientations are strong, we also expected that these processes are expected to differ by gender in a country like Japan where gender role expectations and sex-based domestic division of labor still remain strong. Statement on methods To test our hypotheses, we analyzed data from an online survey of Japanese regular workers working for private companies. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey for monitors registered with a research firm and selected those who teleworked at least once a week as of October 2020. From among them, we allocated the same number of men and women and conducted the first survey in November, targeting to receive responses from a total of 500 people. A second survey was conducted one month later. The final samples were 353. In the previous study, family time adequacy (i.e., time spent with their children) was used as the measurement variable (DePasquale et al., 2018). Therefore, in this study, spousal time adequacy was used as the independent variable. We used SPSS and PROCESS (SPSS Macro) in the analyses. Important findings 1. Frequent teleworking and job-related freedom were associated with adequate time spent with one’s spouse, but these relationships were different for women and men. 2. For women, job autonomy strengthened the relationship between teleworking frequency and adequate spending of spousal time. 3. For men, regardless of the level of job autonomy, teleworking frequency did not exert a significant effect on adequate spending of spousal time. Implications for research, policy and/or practice First, this study contributes to the understanding of how teleworking impacts families. It has been shown that teleworking has negative as well as positive effects on family life. This study identified a complex mechanism through which telework frequency and gender determine, in an intertwined fashion, whether or not sufficient time is spent with one’s family. In Japan, where there still exists a strong gender norm that stipulates “work for men", Japanese men might not experience a positive impact on family life, even when the frequency of teleworking increases. Our study suggests that a key to successful teleworking, for women in particular, is not only to provide workers with opportunities for working from home but also accessibility to workplace resources from the workplace. Second, this study advances the research on telework and family time; while family time squeeze is a subjective experience and an important way of perception, the relationship with telework has not been studied, and this study offers a new perspective on research on family time. The study brings a new perspective to family time research. One of the significant practical implications of this study is that it shows that gender differences exist in the family life brought about by telework. This will be especially valuable for those in human resource management. Second, this study has important implications, especially for policymakers. In Japan, the birthrate has been declining, and an increasing number of couples choose to be childless. While previous studies of family time squeeze have focused on the time parents spend with children (DePasquale et al., 2018; Hill et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2017), given that birthrates may continue to decline in the near future not only in East Asian countries but also in other countries, we believe focusing on STS is necessary.

Couples' Careers Revisited: The Role of Gender Ideologies.  Daniela Grunow, Goethe University Frankfurt; and Torsten Lietzmann, FDZ des IAB Nürnberg

We assess the role of gender ideologies for couples’ division of paid work in Germany. We use data from the German panel study Labour Market and Social Security (PASS) and sequence analysis to identify and describe distinct typical work trajectories of heterosexual couples age 18-39. We then assess the role of both partners’ individual and joint gender attitudes as well as socio-economic status characteristics to predict the couples’ work trajectories. We identify six typical work trajectories, three of which clearly dominate at present: (1) dual full time earner, accounting for 29% of couple-trajectories (2) marginal secondary earner, with a male full time earner and the female partner marginally employed, and (3) a one-and-a-half earner, with a male full-time earner and the female partner part-time employed, each accounting for about 27%. The less common patterns are (4) dual limited and unstable employment, accounting for 10 % of couple- trajectories, (5) male breadwinning, accounting for 4% and (6) dual precarious employment, accounting for 4% of trajectories. We employ regression models to assess whether gender ideologies account for variation in couples’ careers. Findings indicate that gender ideologies matter in particular for membership in the dual full time earner, as well as the dually limited and unstable employment cluster. The effects are stable across models with and without socio-economic controls. Importantly, men’s but not women’s egalitarian gender ideologies appear to be a precondition for adopting a dual fulltime earner strategy, and avoiding limited and unstable employment.

Household Structure and Time Use Among Indian Adults: Estimates From First Time Use Survey.  Harchand Ram, International Institute for Population Sciences

The dynamics of family structures, gender roles, and societal norms have undergone a significant transformation in recent decades, propelled by a confluence of factors such as changing cultural paradigms, advancements in technology, and shifts in educational landscapes. This global phenomenon has not only redefined the traditional family system but has also influenced individual time allocation in various spheres of life. This transition is particularly evident in India, a nation where societal norms and values have deep roots. The interplay of declining average family size, evolving gender roles, increased access to education, and the pervasive influence of technology collectively shapes the intricate tapestry of how Indian individuals (aged >15 years) from different types of family structures use their time in a day. In this exploration, we delve into the multifaceted aspects of this transition, examining its implications on individual time use patterns and the broader socio-cultural landscape. India’s first nationally representative Time-Use Survey (TUS), conducted by the National Sample Survey Organisation, has been used for the analysis. The Tobit model has been used to examine the correlates of individuals' time allocation for different activities. The study finds that individuals with the 'single-person household' and 'Adult couple with both sexes of children' predominantly spent more time on paid work activities than the family structure, such as 'only female older persons', 'Older couple families'. Furthermore, it also shows that there were not many differences among the individuals with family types, such as 'Adult couple with male children' and 'Adult couple with female children'.

Paper Session

Cross-National Analyses of Work and Family Policies

Paper Session

Cultural Variations in the Work-Family Interface


Working Women on India’s Urban Marriage Market.  Megan Reed, Emory University

Many marriages in India follow a male breadwinner model resulting in India having one of the lowest rates of female labor force participation in the world. Despite this pattern, there is evidence of growing labor force participation among the highest educated women in India’s metros. This study uses data from 46 interviews conducted in New Delhi to examines how the urban middle class makes sense of the competing cultural ideals of male breadwinning and dual earner marriage. Men married to working women frequently report that they were explicitly looking for a working woman on the arranged marriage market. Women’s careers were seen as essential to some families because the second income could help insure against financial instability. Working women, on the other hand, report that they want to work because their careers provide them with autonomy and a sense of accomplishment. Countering narratives which idealize the breadwinning household model, dual earning couples argued that working women make better partners and that shared career experience helps facilitate a companionate marriage. There was less willingness, however, to challenge gender roles in the division of household and care work. Dual earner couples employed patchwork of different strategies to manage household labor including employing domestic workers and relying on the labor of other female household members.

Social Infertility in Japan: Redesigning Social Policies and Future Trajectories.  Takashi Mita, Kyoto Sangyo University; and Yukari Ito, Osaka University

1. Overarching Questions/Concerns Japan's low fertility rate (1.26 in 2022) has led to calls for measures to address this decline. The number of unmarried people intending to marry for life is decreasing, and later marriage is becoming more common. A government survey revealed that reasons for not marrying include not finding a suitable partner, not feeling the need to marry, and focusing on work or studies (Japan Cabinet Office 2016). Despite this, Japan's measures are limited to individual infertility treatments, economic support for child-rearing, and expansion of daycare capacities, lacking understanding of the comprehensive situations and difficulties in family formation. The conventional reasons and factors contributing to the emergence of a childless society encompass various aspects of Japanese modern life are commonly discussed, however, there has been limited consideration of the way young people in contemporary Japan live. Having such a background, this study aims to clarify what realities local assembly members, who are in the position to connect residents with city policies, perceive as factors that cause social infertility. In this study, social infertility refers to situations where economic and social pressures make it difficult to form a family or have children. This study aims to explore policies that can lead to solutions regarding social infertility. The authors offer multiple future visions to aid policymaking in addressing social infertility in Japan. 2. Methods The study uses two primary methods: qualitative research based on interviews to uncover issues identified by local government policymakers, and the "deductive forecasting" method from Futures Studies to determine preferred/alternative future policies. In 2022, interviews were conducted with 19 individuals, including city mayors, municipality administrative staff, and city assembly members from seven mid-sized cities on the outskirts of metropolitan cities in Osaka, Hyogo, Shiga, and Mie Prefectures in western Japan. These areas are expected to be hubs for young families. The interviews explored four main questions: 1) the roles of various municipality stakeholders in family formation policies, 2) challenges recognized in family formation, 3) preferred future directions for family formation, and 4) COVID-19-related issues in family formation. Information from Question 2 was used in this study, focusing on 11 municipality council members among all informants. The study was approved by the Kyoto Sangyo University Ethics Committee (No. 0132). In the second part, the deductive forecasting method of Futures Studies, one of the methods in Futures Studies proposed by Jim Dator (1998), was used. Deductive forecasting is a methodology that uses four predefined models to construct futures images based on past and present trends, deductively forecast scenarios, and use the scenario to formulate measures and policies. The following four models are used in this analysis: -Growth Model: Assumes a stage before problems arise, focusing on policies for economic and national development without specific problem-focused policies. -Collapse Model: Depicts a state where parties face significant difficulties in a particular problem area. -Discipline Model: Shows a state where measures are taken against the problem depicted in the Collapse Model through policies and other interventions. -Transformation Model: Illustrates a state where a new method or paradigm different from previous ones is assumed to solve the problem. Each model identifies not only the state but also the factors enabling that state. Methods, policies, and technologies to advance each model are considered and depicted, providing multiple futures images and scenarios. 3. Important Findings 3-1: From Local Government Qualitative Research The following are contributing factors to contemporary Japanese hesitance to start families or have children, based on interview accounts: (A) Social Factors - Increasing numbers of people struggle with communication and have low self-esteem, making social participation difficult. - The phenomenon of severe social withdrawal (Hikikomori) worsens social disengagement. - Younger generations have low participation rates in local community activities. - The average age of city assembly members in some municipalities is increasing, hindering policies for younger/future generations. (B) Limited Support - Raising a child alone with a partner is difficult without nearby parents. - Childless couples receive no support except for infertility treatment subsidies. - Unlike in previous Japanese society, the presence of community members to help match future spouses as well as arranged marriages has shrunk significantly (due to privacy concerns). (C) Limited Availability of Daycare - Many children are on daycare waiting lists, forcing parents to choose between work and having one more children. (D) Social Intolerance - People are often intolerant of public, workplace, and social media displays of child-rearing. 3-2: From Deductive Forecasting Leveraging the insights gained in Part 1, we have generated the following four future visions using a conceptual four alternative futures model: (a) Growth Model: Easier family formation, increased children, driven by economic stability. -Policy Direction: Promote economic growth. -Similar to Japan's high economic growth period. (b) Collapse Model: Harder family formation, decreased children, due to economic instability and social unwelcomeness. -Policy Direction: Lack of policy to promote economic growth, minimized support for parents, and lack of policy to prevent individualization/isolation of child-rearing. -Similar to Japan and East Asia today. (b) Discipline Model: Improved family formation, child numbers recover, with enhanced welfare and societal support. -Policy Direction: Improved welfare policies, societal welcome for children, promotions for parents returning to work, accessible and affordable childcare, more social venues, and opportunities for meeting others. -Similar to some European nations. (c) Transformation Model: Cooperative child-rearing, with communal mutual aid systems and multi-family cooperatives. -Policy Direction: Establish community/regional mutual aid systems, multi-family cooperatives, and a foster parent system. -Similar to some traditional Pacific Islands societies. 4. Implications for Research and Policy Community and citizen efforts in marriage and child-rearing are declining, with insufficient systemic support and social unwelcomeness. Local government officials recognize these factors as contributing to social infertility. Tailored social policies based on the scenarios, except the Collapse Model, are essential for multi-directional social change. Without adaptation, Japan's social infertility problem will persist, hindering demographic balance. Interviews highlight Japan's "Collapse Model" and suggest examining the "Discipline Model" to enhance family formation quality and dignity of individuals. The "Transformational Model" envisions policies that strengthen social capital and collective child-rearing. Collaboration with policymakers is crucial to implement these visions.

The Role of Culture for Work-Family Policies – Theoretical Approach and Comparative Analysis.  Birgit Pfau-Effinger, University of Hamburg

There is so far relatively little research about the ways in which cultural ideas influence the development of work-family policies. The paper aims to contribute to the scientific debate in that it theorizes and analyses the role of cultural ideas for change in work-family policies. The paper offers a theoretical framework that theorizes causal mechanisms and processes by which cultural ideas can contribute to institutional change in work-family policies. It evaluates these theoretical assumptions on the basis of a comparative historical analysis in four European societies which represent different types of welfare state traditions, Germany, Denmark, Spain, and the Czech Republic. The focus is on of selected time periods in which work-family policies were changed, between the 1990s and 2022. The study is based on process tracing, using document analysis, analysis of statistical data, and analysis of data of national surveys and of international surveys like ISSP, European Values Survey (EVS) and Eurobarometer. The findings show how, and under which conditions cultural ideas can influence institutional change in work-family policy, regarding the dynamics between social and political actors and different types of cultural and institutional processes, and why specific cultural ideas can be more relevant than others in the reforms in a country. The paper makes an innovative contribution to the theoretical debate and research about the relationship between culture and work-family policy, and about the reasons why work-family policies can differ across countries.

Religiosity and the Work-Family Interface Across Cultures.  Barbara Beham, Berlin School of Economics and Law; Tammy Allen, University of South Florida; Ariane Ollier-Malaterre, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) - École des Sciences de la Gestion (ESG); Andreas Baierl, Austrian Family Research Institute, University of Vienna; Matilda Alexandrova, University of National and World Economy; Artiawati Artiawati, Surabaya University; Alexandra Beauregard, Birkbeck, University of London; Vania Sofia Carvalho, University of Lisbon; Maria José Chambel, University of Lisbon; Bruna Coden de Silva, Norton; Eunae Cho, National Chengchi University; Sarah Dawkins, University of Tasmania; Pablo Escribano, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez; Konjit Hailu Gudeta, Addis Ababa University; Ting-pang Huang, Soochow University; Ameeta Jaga, University of Cape Town; Dominique Kost, BI Norwegian Business School; Anna Kurowska, University of Warsaw; Emmanuelle Leon, ESCP Business School; Suzan Lewis, Middlesex University - Business School; Lu Chang-qin, Peking University; Angela Martin, Universit of Tasmania; Gabriele Morandin, University of Bologna; Fabrizio Naboa, Universidad San Francisco de Quito; Shira Offer, Bar-Ilan University; Eugene Ohu, Lagos Business School; Pascale Peters, Nyenrode Business Universiteit; Ujvala Rajadhyaksha, Governors State University; Marcello Russo, University of Bologna; Young Woo Sohn, Yonsei University; Caroline Straub, Bern University of Applied Sciences; Mia Tammelin, University of Tampere; Marloes van Engen, Radboud University; and Ronit Waismel-Manor, The Open University, Israel

Religiosity has not been a focus of cross-cultural/national comparative research on the work-family interface thus far (Allen et al., 2020), even though it may play a major role in shaping beliefs about work and family roles and responsibilities in social groups (Rogers & Franzen, 2014). Including religiosity into our studies may advance our understanding of work-family relationships across cultures (Allen et al., 2020). Using data from the International Study of Work and Family (ISWAF), this paper examines the impact of religiosity at the individual and country levels on both directions of work-family conflict and positive spillover among 9,985 employees in 29 countries/territories. We draw on conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) to predict individual-level relationships between religiosity and work-family conflict and positive spillover, and on person environment/culture fit theory (Edwards, 2008; Fry, 1987) to explore the impact of religiosity at the country level on those relationships. Contrary to predictions, we find a positive relationship between individual religiosity and family-to-work conflict (but not work-to-family conflict), indicating that religious employees report stronger interference of family into work. However, in more religious countries/territories religious employees report less conflict in both directions than less religious employees. In more secular countries/territories, we find reversed effects. As for positive spillover, we observe the hypothesized significant positive effects of religiosity on both directions of spillover but no significant country or cross-level interaction effects. Hence, religiosity seems to be both a demand and a resource and its effect is partially dependent on the religious country-level context.

Paper Session

Diverse Experiences in Employment Across the Lifecourse


Intentions to Engage in Bridge Employment Among Public Sector Employees in Mauritius.  Annick Yeung Pat Wan, University of Mauritius

The transition from traditional retirement to bridge employment is a significant life stage for mature workers. Improved health, increased longevity, insufficient financial resources and volatile economic conditions amongst others have redefined the concept of retirement. To unravel the complex antecedents of bridge employment intentions among public sector employees in Mauritius, this study follows a two-phase process; a qualitative study followed by a quantitative investigation. In the initial qualitative phase, semi-structured interviews and content analysis were carried out to delve into the experiences and perspectives of 17 individuals across different job categories in the public sector approaching mandatory retirement age of 65. Preliminary findings revealed multifaceted determinants, at the individual and institutional level. Building upon the qualitative groundwork, a quantitative pilot study was designed to refine research instruments and data collection procedures. The use of two theoretical frameworks namely Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Neo-Institutional Theory (IT) shape the study. This study presents the design of the survey instrument, data collection procedures, sample size and elaborates on the challenges encountered. The pilot survey targets a diverse sample of public sector professionals across various occupations including nurses, firefighters, educators. Preliminary results and findings will be shared. Plans for the next stages of the research will be elaborated.This research addresses a critical gap in the literature by adopting a sequential mixed-methods approach. By elucidating the determinants of retirement intentions, valuable insights for policymakers and organizations can be developed for targeted interventions, such as retention strategies and retirement planning programs.

Evolving Work Dynamics: Knowledge Sharing Practices in the Public Sector of Mauritius..  Yannick Li Luen Ching, University of Mauritius

The global aging workforce presents a significant challenge for public sector organizations. The departure of experienced employees not only leads to the loss of invaluable knowledge but also underscores the evolving dynamics of knowledge sharing. In this context, where multiple generations coexist, inherent intergenerational tensions emerge, necessitating a better understanding of the factors that facilitate knowledge sharing to bridge the gap. This mixed-method doctoral research, conducted in the public sector of Mauritius, started with a qualitative phase comprising 22 semi-structured interviews utilizing content analysis. It uncovered the challenges, motivations, and barriers related to knowledge sharing in the context of evolving work dynamics. In the subsequent quantitative phase, a pilot survey study was administered to 69 mature workers across diverse public sector occupations, applying the theory of planned behavior and the Neo-institutional theory. This phase aimed to (1) validate and refine the survey instrument, (2) assess the current state of knowledge sharing practices among aging employees, and (3) provide initial insights into the factors influencing knowledge sharing. The findings from this pilot study provide a foundation for a comprehensive investigation involving a refined scale, a larger sample and promising invaluable insights for public sector organizations. This study carries significance for policymakers and organizations. For policymakers, it offers guidance to facilitate knowledge exchange, collaboration, and information access. In the corporate sphere, it encourages effective knowledge management, a culture of sharing, and collaborative platforms. Ultimately, the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative methodologies contributes to research methodology advancement, demonstrating their synergy in exploring complex subjects.

The Role of Housing Throughout Late Working Life and Retirement. A Comparative Causal Analysis of Germany and the UK..  Jan Einhoff, DYNAMICS RTG (HU Berlin/Hertie School)

Despite its crucial role in generating and consolidating social inequalities, little is known about the role of housing for demographic outcomes across the life course. To address this research gap, this article provides evidence on the causal effect of home ownership on the risk of retirement from age 50 to 70 in two distinct welfare and housing regimes. Data are drawn from the German SOEP (n = 12,510) and the British BHPS/UKHLS (n = 11,350). The parametric g-formula is employed to account for the dynamic selection of individuals into and out of homeownership throughout their late working lives. The results show that British homeowners have a up to 22.4% higher risk of being retired than their renting counterparts but that this effect ceases at the statutory retirement age. In Germany, where renting is far more common, differences in the retirement risks of homeowners and renters appear to be fully driven by confounding factors. These findings suggest that institutional context conditions critically moderate how housing affects key life course transitions.

Supporting Immigrant Identities and Choice in Labour Market Integration: The One-on-One Mentorship Model of Her Mentors.  Monika Imeri, Carleton University; Lily Ivanova, University of British Columbia; and Erica Mildner, University of British Columbia

Canada is a high immigrant-receiving nation, with well-known programs like the points-based system for middle-class families, the business investor stream, the refugee-class, and temporary migrant worker streams. What Canada is also known for, however, is the difficulties that immigrants face with labour market integration, including barriers to credential and experience recognition, discrimination against racialized minorities, and seclusion into low-skilled positions. In response, over 90 mentorship programs have been created to help immigrants overcome these obstacles. Most of these initiatives focus on supporting immigrants’ employment journey, including the job application process, networking, and education about finding work in Canada. Noticing a gap in services that provide comprehensive support for the immigrant experience, the Women’s Economic Council (WEC), supported by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC), created a six-month one-on-one mentorship program for racialized newcomer women (RNW). The program, called Her Mentors, pairs RNW with a mentor based on their preferences about field-specific knowledge, cultural background, and other identity and experience-based factors. In studying Her Mentors, we interviewed 30 mentees and 15 mentors, as well as providers of 19 other mentorship programs across Canada. Our findings show that mentees and mentors had different needs, preferences, and abilities in receiving and providing social, emotional, and field-specific support. Rather than enhancing employment programming alone, our findings highlight the importance of tailored mentorship programs that consider the holistic experiences of RNW as the key to their success in labour market integration.

The Role of Leadership Style and Organizational Climate on Immigrant vs Non-Immigrant Workers' Perceived Discrimination, Inclusion and Work-Life Balance.  Guler Kizilenis Ulusman, York University; Marlee Mercer, York University; and Marie-Hélène Budworth, York University

According to recent reports, immigrants comprise 27.7 percent of the Canadian workforce aged between 25 and 54. Immigrants play a crucial role in fostering the economic and social progress of Canada, contributing to the nation’s prosperity. They actively facilitate the diversification of human capital. Nevertheless, current research offers limited insights into practical strategies for integrating immigrants beyond their initial entry into local institutions. In particular, there is a lack of understanding about how immigrants, in contrast to their non-immigrant counterparts, exhibit distinct responses to various leadership styles. This exploration is critical given that it has the potential to offer insights into developing effective leadership approaches and more inclusive workplaces. The current study investigates how leadership styles and organizational climate impact the workplace perceptions and well-being of immigrant workers. Drawing on the JD-R model, this quantitative study will investigate how leadership style and organizational climate affect the perceptions of discrimination and subsequent work-life balance of immigrant employees relative to their non-immigrant counterparts. Participants (N=400) will be randomly assigned to participate in one of three leadership styles’ vignettes (i.e., inclusive, abusive, and neutral) and two of the organizational climate conditions (i.e., inclusive and non-inclusive). In the present study, it is hypothesized that participants in the inclusive leadership style and inclusive organizational climate conditions will report higher levels of work-life balance and inclusion and lower levels of perceived discrimination than the participants in the other leadership styles and non-inclusive climate conditions. Moreover, immigrant workers in the inclusive leadership style and inclusive organizational climate are hypothesized to report higher levels of work-life balance and inclusion and lower levels of discrimination than the non-immigrant participants. This study contributes to the scarce literature that compares immigrant and non-immigrant workers, thereby offering valuable insights into the unique challenges and opportunities faced by immigrant employees within organizational contexts. The key implications of the study are discussed.

Paper Session

Economic Empowerment in a Global Perspective


The Challenge of Gender Equality in Brazil.  Flavia Ivana de Melo Santos, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; Vérica Freitas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia; and Veronica Freitas de Paula, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia

Gender equality is a worldwide challenge, with the countries of the Global South usually ranking among the countries with the worst rates, and it is well known that increasing gender equality contributes to entrepreneurship, innovation, and consequently, economic, and social development. One of the main factors identified as inhibiting gender equality is related to motherhood and family configurations, through social constructions that assign responsibility for care in general, with children, the elderly, family members, and the sick, to women - in Brazil, women devote almost double the time of men to caring for people and household chores. This context affects the lives of Brazilian women, as well as women's participation in the labor market where, despite having more schooling, there is: less participation in the formal labor market (53% vs. 72.4% in 2022); more women working reduced or part-time hours (28% vs. 14% in 2018); an average income of 78% of that received by men in 2022; fewer women in management and leadership positions (37.8% in 2016) and as political representatives (15% of parliamentarians in 2022). The discrepancy is even greater if other criteria are considered, such as social class, color, race, place of residence (national or regional), or areas and sectors of activity. In this context, public policies and organizational actions are needed so that social precepts are rethought, and discriminatory stigmas are condemned, contributing to promoting equality and protecting human rights.

Jobs, Jobs, Jobs: Is Economic Empowerment Good For Women?.  Rhonda Breitkreuz, University of Alberta; and Marian Baird, University of Sydney - Business School

Globally, women’s economic empowerment has been touted as a game changer and the next frontier for social transformation. The UN’s former Secretary General, Ban Ki-Moon, wrote that “gender equality remains the greatest human rights challenge of our time. Economic empowerment is a uniquely potent way for women to achieve greater control over their own lives” (UN, 2017). National governments and other international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization have identified women’s economic empowerment as a key priority. While improving women’s economic security globally is certainly an important and laudable goal, the means by which this is to be achieved is debated. Although governments and major NGOs are investing in initiatives such as employment activation programs, entrepreneurship, business development, and other market-based solutions, feminist scholars point to the reality of many women’s lives including poor employment conditions, the predominance of informal work, the gender pay gap, violence against women, and the disproportionate unpaid care and household work that women perform worldwide. In this presentation, we provide a conceptual analysis of women’s economic empowerment globally, situating this concept within social, economic, policy and geographic environments, and ask: is women’s economic empowerment good for women? Identifying the major themes central to a discussion of women’s economic empowerment, we discuss the opportunities and risks for women amidst this international policy trend.

Gender Ideology and Health Status Among Individuals: A Global Perspective.  Glory Narjinary, International Institute for population Sciences

Amid the global shift in gender ideology from traditional to modernization, it becomes increasingly essential to understand how ideological change and self-actualization influence different spheres of society. While the literature addressing these changes has been burgeoning, the health status of the individual with gender ideology has been not well-researched despite health being the most important aspect of human life. Thus, this study tends to investigate the association between gender ideology and health status. To study this we used data from the ISSP 2012 module, and we employed ordered logistic regression and marginal effects to observe the level of association. Additionally, using multiple robustness checks the propounded result is reaffirmed. We find that individual with egalitarian belief is associated with good health level, suggesting the construction of more gender-equal societies where every individual can achieve their optimal health status.

Multi Level Factors Associated with Husbands’ No Opposition to Wives’ Economic Activity Among Married Syrian Refugee Women Living in Non-Camp Settings in Jordan.  Nabila El-Bassel, Columbia University; Anindita Dasgupta, Columbia University; Ajita Singh, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); Maysa Kadra, University of Jordan School of Medicine, Amman, Jordan; and Neeraj Kaushal, Columbia University

We examine the relationship between IPV, women’s agency, and husbands’ no opposition to wives’ economic activity using Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological framework. We hypothesize that married Syrian refugee women who report no lifetime physical and sexual IPV as well as also report themselves as head of households will be more likely to report husbands’ no opposition to wives’ economic activity compared to married Syrian refugee women who report lifetime physical and sexual IPV and who do not report themselves as head of households. We recruited 344 married Syrian refugee women for project ASPIRE study using time and venue-based random sampling from health clinics in Jordan in 2018. We asked if their husbands would have a negative reaction towards their learning of a vocation in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regressions to examine the hypothesis. In both the unadjusted odds ratio (OR=3.44 95% confidence interval, CI=1.80-6.54) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR=2.65, 95% CI=1.33-5.29) models, women who reported themselves as head of the households were associated with increased odds of husbands’ no opposition to wives’ economic activity. Likewise, in both the unadjusted odds ratio (OR=7.97 95% confidence interval, CI=2.40-26.40) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR=5.82, 95% CI=1.66-20.40) models, women who reported no IPV experiences as well as who reported themselves as head of the households were associated with increased odds of husbands’ no opposition to wives’ economic activity relative to women who reported lifetime IPV experiences and who did not report themselves as the head of the households.

Paper Session

Eldercare: Family Complexity, Dynamics, and Wellbeing


Caregiving Trajectories and the Well-Being of Caregivers.  Bram Audenaert, KU Leuven; and Lore Van Herreweghe, KU Leuven

Population ageing puts pressure on the fiscal sustainability of most European Welfare states, in particular on the funding of pensions, health and long-term care (LTC). Over the past decades, policymakers across Europe have been aiming to reduce the fiscal strain by increasing the retirement age or increasing employment, in particular among older working-age adults and by restructuring the use of public funds to provide LTC services. Despite substantial differences in care policies across European welfare states, a general shift occurred towards ‘active citizenship’ of older people including policies to promote home-based familial care provision (Eggers, 2022). This however increases the burden on adult children or partners of elderly in need of care. Not only are older adults increasingly expected to be engaged in paid employment, which limits their availability for familial care provision, the provision of informal care might also have adverse effects on the well-being of caregivers. Consequently, a focus on safeguarding the economic sustainability of welfare states may come at the expense of the social sustainability of informal care provision. However, the impact of informal care on the well-being of caregivers is not clear yet. In the literature there seems to be a prima facie consensus that informal caregivers experience lower levels of well-being compared with non-caregivers. Despite this extensive body of literature, there are many ambiguities impeding us from drawing a firm conclusion. Two major issues arise. Firstly, research on the well-being of informal caregivers usually neglects the fact that caregiving careers are dynamic and transitional in nature. Research on informal care mostly has a cross-sectional design which limits its potential to answer socially relevant questions. The cross-sectional design struggles to capture caregiving trajectories over time and the trade-offs people make in terms of paid work and providing care over the life-course. Secondly, the literature has a limited view on caregiving trajectories by focusing on only one characteristic of these trajectories at the same time. For this paper we chose the life-course perspective as our analytical framework. The life-course perspective regards individual lives and caregiving trajectories as long-term sequences and transitions that form distinctive trajectories. Caregiving trajectories can be defined by four distinct elements: (1) the sequencing of caregiving episodes, (2) the duration of caregiving episodes, (3) the timing of caregiving episodes and (4) the density or the speed at which caregiving episodes alternate. Because of this clear lack of information on caregiving trajectories, two research questions arise. First we want to know how caregiving trajectories occur based on the four distinct elements of trajectories (RQ1). Secondly, we want to know how different caregiving trajectories are distributed across our society (RQ2). To answer our research questions, this paper is devoted to empirically map the dynamics of informal caregiving trajectories. We will do this by using the longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we will conduct a sequence analysis of care trajectories over the life-course. Caregiving trajectories will be defined for caregivers over the period 2004-2020 based on the four distinct elements of caregiving trajectories: sequencing, duration, timing and density. Subsequently, we will perform a cluster analysis to identify patterns in these career trajectories. Only participants of countries that have participated in at least four waves will be used (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Spain, France, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, Israel, Czech Republic, Poland, Estonia and Slovenia). Only participants that have reported to have cared for someone in at least one wave are included in the study. Both care inside the household as care outside the household are taken account of.

Perceived Support and Job Search Barriers Among Unemployed Carers of Elderly or Disabled Relatives.  Hugh Bainbridge, University of New South Wales; Lukas Hofstätter, Carers NSW; and Sarah Judd-Lam, Carers NSW

Many people of working age are also unpaid caregivers for an elderly or disabled relative. Extensive research has linked this caregiving role to withdrawal from the workforce. Caregiving demands may lessen over time though and returning to paid work is often a desirable individual, organisational, and policy goal. However, while job search is challenging for caregivers, little consideration has been given to the re-employment process. The current study moves to address this gap by examining the extent to which job seeker beliefs about societal recognition of a role that is central to their identity (caregiving) affect perceived barriers to employment. We then extend this by exploring how this effect occurs (whether the effect is mediated by social connections), and when this occurs (whether the effect is moderated by three forms of support). In a survey of job seekers with caregiving responsibilities, greater societal recognition of caregiving was associated with lower perceived job search barriers. This effect was mediated by social connectedness and moderated by support in the form of coaching and planned respite from caregiving. Job seekers who reported lower societal recognition of caregiving benefited most from coaching and planned respite from caregiving.

The Role of Culture in Senior Caregiving: Preliminary Analysis of Canadian National Surveys of the Care Economies in Context Project.  Ito Peng, University of Toronto; and Pelin Gul, University of Toronto

It is now widely acknowledged that Canadian population is ageing, and it will continue to age over the next several decades. Today, people over the age of 65 make up 19% of the total population, up from 11% in 2000. This population is projected to increase to 26% by 2068, with those aged 85+ ageing faster than other 65+ subgroups. What is less well known is that today over 30% of Canadian seniors are foreign-born, as compared to 21% in the total population. As these seniors begin requiring care, the number and proportion of 1st and 2nd generation caregivers will also grow. Public support for long-term care is never more important now; yet families remain the main source of caregiving for Canadian seniors. Our surveys of unpaid family caregiving in Canada show families continue to provide much of senior care. Amongst 1st and 2nd generation caregivers, culture plays an important role in shaping their understanding of and perceptions about their caregiving roles, and who and how care should be provided to older people. Culture is used to justify the familial division of caregiving responsibilities. More specifically, men are more likely to justify the allocation of caregiving responsibilities based on cultural norms—and thus perpetuating the unequal roles of men and women in senior caregiving—while women frequently shoulder much of caregiving responsibilities, regardless of the need for such justification.

Household Headship, Filial Expectations and Mortality in Older Widows: Evidence from Panel Survey of India..  Babul Hossain, International Institute for Population Sciences

The presence of older widows is always symbolic of power for families in India. An older widow is in India correctly cared for and respected by their family, which implies the widow represents a good family. If a widow is left to manage independently, is not taken care of properly and is treated less respectfully, in other words, experiences a lack of filial responsibility, the older widow represents a bad family. Thus, in Indian culture, the household dynamics and familial aspects can be more relevant when discussing the well-being of older widows. In this context, this study investigates the relationship between household headship and mortality experiences for widowed women aged 45 and above in India. The study used the India Human Development Survey, a nationally representative panel survey. The results indicate that no excess mortality risk was observed for widows compared to married women, where widows or their sons were household heads. On the other hand, when the widows in households are headed by others (viz. brothers, sons-in-law, grandsons and extended family members), they experience heightened mortality risk than married women. Subsample analysis suggests that widow-heading households if they were expecting financial support from sons, had higher mortality than widows who did not expect financial support from sons. By adjusting for the endogeneity between household headship and economic status using an instrument variable regression model, the study confirms that older widows in households headed by others have double the mortality risk compared to widows heading households themselves.

Paper Session

Employees Transition to Parenthood


Promoting Male Parental Leave in Japanese Organizations: Strong Gender Norm Can Be Broken?.  Renge Jibu, Tokyo Institute of Technology

In this study I analyzed qualitatively the latest activities of Japanese companies in promoting male parental leave using the framework of institutional theory. Japan is known as a country with the largest gender gap among global north, because of few female leaders in political and economic fields and a large gap in unpaid care work hours between men and women. From the perspective of gender equality, it is important to promote male participation towards unpaid care work at home. Male parental leave is an important life event that provides an opportunity for men to become actively involved in housework and childcare. Japan's legal system for male parental leave is generous by global standards. However, the take-up rate is low, at less than 20% for Japan as a whole, and workplace culture has been pointed out as a factor. In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with people involved in human resources management, marketing, and public relations at two major Japanese companies, asking what they did to promote male parental leave and what strategies they used to promote it. Both of the two companies surveyed have publicly announced that they have a 100% male parental leave rate. Analysis of the interviews and related materials revealed that a push related to all three pillars of institutional theory-regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive-has occurred in the last five years. In particular, the role of CEOs, corporate executives and managers at work places created significant effect while their work place culture had been changed.

Accommodations for Lactating Workers: Combining Breastfeeding and Employment.  Elizabeth A. Hoffmann, Purdue University

In countries without maternity or parental leave beyond 6-8 weeks, such as the United States, workplace accommodations for lactating workers are essential. Without breast milk expression accommodations, women employees must choose between breastfeeding their children and full employment. Recognizing that many health organizations recommend nursing for at least 12-24 months (Mohrbacher 2014, World-Health-Organization 2002), various laws have been passed to enable combining working and continued breastfeeding. Some organizations’ policies comply with the letter of the law, but do not ameliorate the struggles of lactating women employees, creating lactation accommodations that satisfy the law but are purely symbolic. Other organizations focus less on the law itself and, instead, reinterpret legal compliance through the lens of managerial goals, finding ways to comply that directly help what objectives management already supports, yet also creating possible solutions for their lactating workers. Other organizations went beyond policies that furthered managerial goals to create successful accommodations for lactating workers. Often, these organizations have individual human resource specialists and supervising managers with personal or close second-hand experience with expressing breast milk. These allies push for organizational policies to directly aid lactating workers’ efforts, usually before any law or policy is even in place. Other organizations with successful lactation accommodations have supervising managers who initially were only perfunctorily supportive, but eventually became staunch advocates. These managers shifted away from either the legal directive or the managerial objectives. Over time, these managers embraced health-related reasons for supporting the pro-lactation policies and becoming strong advocates for effective lactation-at-work accommodations.

Gender, Transition to Parenthood, and Workplace Authority in Urban China.  Manlin Cai, University of British Columbia

Prior research has documented that parenthood typically leads to lower wages for women but higher wages for men. However, do motherhood penalty and fatherhood premium go beyond money and extend to other labor market outcomes? Drawing on six waves of nationally representative, longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (2010–2020), the current study examines how transition to parenthood affects women’s and men’s workplace authority in urban China. Fixed-effects results show that parenthood significantly decreases women’s probability of holding supervisory authority at work. This motherhood penalty in authority is larger for women working in the private sector than those working in the state sector. By contrast, transition to fatherhood does not affect men’s probability of holding supervisory authority at work, regardless of the sector they work in. Overall, the findings reveal that parenthood widens the gender gap in workplace authority. Because access to authority positions is associated with more job benefits and greater control over organizational decisions, the differential effects of parenthood on workplace authority between men and women may well produce and perpetuate gender inequalities in other realms of work and family lives. Furthermore, the transition into parenthood exacerbates the glass ceiling that prevents capable women from reaching leadership at work, which could, in turn, incur a tremendous loss to organizations and society.

Paper Session

Employer Supportive Behaviors


Fathers’ Intentions and Use of Paternity Leave in the Netherlands.  Onur Şahin, Utrecht University; Mara A. Yerkes, Utrecht University; Lianne Aarntzen, Utrecht University; Esther Kluwer, Utrecht University; Chantal Remery, Utrecht University; and Belle Derks, Utrecht University

Fathers’ involvement in childcare is crucial for multiple work-family outcomes, including children’s development and relationship quality. Improving their involvement is also crucial for reducing persistent gender inequality in household divisions of care. A key resource to increase father involvement is the availability of father-specific paid leave. Recognizing the importance of such paid leave, the European Work-Life Balance Directive in 2019 required European Union Member States to provide a minimum of 10 days of paid leave for fathers, reimbursed at least at the level of sick pay. While such paid leave can be an important resource for fathers, the availability of leave does not guarantee equal capabilities to use this resource. We analyse two potential factors – biological essentialist beliefs and family-supportive line managers – shaping fathers’ capabilities to make use of this new resource, focusing on the Netherlands. The Netherlands responded to the EU directive by providing fathers (and same-sex partners) one week of fully paid leave from 2019 onwards and access to an additional five weeks of leave paid at 70 per cent of the daily wage from 2020 onwards. Using couple-based longitudinal data collected among expectant parents pre- and post-birth in 2023, we analyse fathers’ intentions to use leave pre-birth in relation to leave-taking behaviour post-birth. We expect that fathers with stronger essentialist beliefs will have reduced intentions to take leave pre-birth, which in turn predicts a lower post-birth leave uptake. Additionally, we expect that family-supportive line managers diminish the intention-behavior gap in leave uptake among fathers.

Seeking for Help: Leader Workaholism and Subordinate Appraisals of Leaders.  Sang-Hoon Lee, Loyola Marymount University; Sunjin Pak, California State University, Bakersfield; Yaqing He, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig; and Amit Kramer, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig

Grounded on the challenge-hindrance stressor framework, this study examines how subordinates appraise their work context, particularly in relation to their leaders, and hence how this shapes their behavior within the organization. We argue that leader workaholism has a dual-edged impact for employees, such that they may appraise their leaders as both a source of challenge and hindrance. Consequently, such appraisals are linked to distinct behaviors: on the one hand, challenge appraisals will be positively associated with autonomous help-seeking behaviors, while on the other, hindrance appraisals will be positively associated with both dependent and avoidance help-seeking behaviors of subordinates. We further contend that subordinates’ workaholism moderates the positive relationship between leader workaholism and subordinate challenge appraisal, while moderating the positive association between leader workaholism and subordinate hindrance appraisal. Our findings suggest the positive impact of leader workaholism, such that leader workaholism has a positive indirect association with subordinate autonomous help-seeking via subordinate challenge appraisal. This positive indirect relationship was further pronounced when subordinate workaholism was high. In addition, the respective indirect relationships between leader workaholism and subordinate dependent help-seeking, as well as avoidance help-seeking via hindrance appraisals, depend on subordinate workaholism levels. Specifically, leader workaholism had a positive effect on dependent and avoidance help-seeking when subordinate workaholism was low. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of concurrently considering both leader and subordinate workaholism.

Uncovering the Behaviors Underlying Family-Supportive Supervision: Validation of a Behavioral Typology.  Victoria Daniel, York University; Amanda Sargent, Bentley University; and Linda Shanock, University of North Carolina

Recognized as one of the most promising solutions for helping employees effectively navigate the work-family interface, a pressing challenge to be resolved in research and practice is understanding how supervisors actually 'do' family-supportive supervision (“FSS”). Despite the demonstrable value of employee-rated FSS shown for both individual and organizational outcomes, the literature has largely examined employees’ evaluations of FSS—leaving questions about the concrete behaviors supervisors engage in to provide this targeted family support. To address this limitation, we previously conducted a mixed methods study to generate a comprehensive inventory of FSS behaviors and organize these into a preliminary typological structure. In the current study, we build upon this by empirically validating our behavioral typology with a sample of 294 employees who were asked to rate where each behavior fell on the continuum of six different attributes. As expected, this evidenced two significant dimensions distinguishing supervisor actions by family orientation and effort. When taken together, this broadens the spectrum of known supportive and unsupportive behaviors that are relevant to contemporary employees and underlies the refined conceptual definition of FSS we propose. Further, the behavioral index and resultant typology are a foundational step in mitigating substantive conceptual (e.g., ambiguity; range restriction) and operationalization issues (e.g., confounded items) that have stemmed from the lack of clarity and parsimony in the extant study of FSS. These novel insights also lay the groundwork for advancing FSS research and its practical applications, such as serving as an important tool for managers and the development of training programs.

Leader Behavior and Employee Work-Family Interface: A Review, Integration and Meta-Analytical Examination.  Sudong Shang, Griffith University; Zitong Sheng, Deakin University; Yimin He, University of Georgia; Paula Brough, Griffith University; Xi Wen (Carys) Chan, Griffith University; and Xuchu Liu, Henan University of Chinese Medicine

Research has widely recognized the important role of leaders in assisting subordinates with managing work and family responsibilities. Although considerable research attention has been devoted to uncovering how different types of leader behavior facilitate or hinder employees’ work and family interfaces, research evidence in this field is quite scattered. A systematic quantitative review is highly needed to synthesize the ample research evidence and clarify the relationships between leadership and employees' work-family experiences. Such research endeavor will provide practitioners with evidence-based prescriptions to improve their employees’ work-family experiences. Drawing upon DeRue et al.’s (2011) taxonomy of leader behavior, this meta-analysis examines the associations between five categories of general leader behaviors (i.e., relational-oriented, task-oriented, change-oriented, ethics-oriented, and destructive leadership) and employee work-family conflict and enrichment. In addition, Using meta-analytic evidence, we then explore the relative importance of general leadership behaviors as well as their incremental validity over work-family-specific leader behaviors. Furthermore, we take into account cultural contingencies and methodological moderators in shaping the relationships between leader behavior and employee work-family interface outcomes. Through analysing 335 independent samples from 301 studies, we found that the patterns between leadership-WFC and leadership-WFE relationships are different; ethics-oriented leadership emerged as the most influential contributor for both WFC and WFE constructs. This synthesis and empirical integration broaden the nomological network of the relationship between leadership behaviors and work-family interface, providing greater insight into the impact of diverse leadership styles on employees' work-family management and offer evidence-based practical advice for organizational leaders.

Parenting Stress Across the Transition to Parenthood: The Case for Job Autonomy, Job Urgency, Coworker Support and Supervisor Support.  Diego Barcala-Delgado, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Ciara Venter, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; and Maureen Perry-Jenkins, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Overarching Question: While existing literature explores the consequences of structural aspects of parents’ work on parenting stress, limited attention has focused on how parents’ experiences on the job are related to parenting stress during the transition to parenthood. This study investigates associations between job autonomy, job urgency, coworker and supervisor support as they relate to levels of and changes in parenting stress among new parents employed in low-wage occupations. Statement on Methods: The sample included 127 dual-earner couples, and 82 single mothers interviewed five times during the transition to parenthood. Using Multilevel Modeling, we examined whether parents’ prenatal work conditions influenced their levels and change in parenting stress across five time points during the first year of parenthood. Important Findings: • Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting stress changed quadratically across the first year of parenthood. Specifically, parenting stress initially declines until leveling off at later time points. • No significant findings were found for the association between mothers’ work conditions and their levels and change of parenting stress. • For fathers, jog urgency was related to levels and change of parenting stress; fathers who experienced higher urgency increased in their parenting stress, whereas fathers who experienced less urgency showed a slight decline in parenting stress. Job autonomy was negatively related to mean levels of parenting stress 3-months post-partum. Implications: Stressful experiences in the workplace can increase fathers’ stress about parenting and their children, supporting a spillover model of stress. The workplace may be a suitable intervention site for fathers’ stress and parenting. Workplace policies should focus on supporting parents' wellbeing.

Paper Session

Employment Issues and Inequalities Across Contexts


The Work-Family Dilemma in the Post-COVID Labor Market in China.  Haijing Dai, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

The COVID pandemic has brought family caregivers all over the globe new challenges to balance work and family needs. This study sets out to examine how employers evaluate and treat family caregivers of different categories in the post-COVID labor market in China. Respondent-driven sampling was adopted to recruit 206 company directors and HR managers in Guangdong Province for a CV-based survey. The respondents came from two major industries in Guangdong: the traditional retail and accommodation industry and the new information technology and logistics industry. They were offered six different CVs (representing men/women without family care duties, fathers/mothers of young children, and son/daughter of ageing and needy parents) for a hypothetical opening in their companies, and were asked to evaluate the candidates on competence, commitment, potentials of promotion, and hiring decision. Twenty (20) in-depth interviews were also conducted with selected respondents for them to articulate their rationales and views. Compared with men without family care duties, all four types of family caregivers were rated lower in competence, commitment to work, and promotion potentials. For hiring decisions, mothers of young children and adult sons taking care of ageing parents are significantly less likely to obtain job offers. There is little difference between the traditional and the new industries in the province. In their articulation and justification of the evaluations and decisions, the respondents mobilized discourses of gender norms, individual choices, and personal responsibilities. They believed that such practices in the labor market are natural, normal, and highly justifiable from the employers’ perspective.

Labor Market Inequalities and Black Women’s Birth Outcomes.  Angela Bruns, Gonzaga University; Lauren Schmitz, University of Wisconsin, Madiso; and Margaret Hicken, University of Michiga

It is well-documented that Black mothers have the worst childbirth outcomes in the United States (US), but the underlying causes are poorly understood. Employment and the workplace context are critically underexamined aspects of women’s lives that have the potential to impact birth outcomes. Research suggests that when pregnant women involuntarily work part-time hours, physically demanding jobs, and night-time shifts, they are at greater risk of low birthweight and pre-term births. Most studies focus on the work environment while pregnant. In this paper, we consider whether Black women’s collective experience of labor market inequalities (i.e., structural racism) is a key driver of Black mothers’ birth outcomes. Specifically, we examine associations between unequal working conditions in local labor markets and pre-term, low-weight births for Black mothers using linked data from the US Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network (O*NET), the American Community Survey (2009-2013), and live birth records (2014-2016). We find that living in a local labor market where Black women are well-represented (relative to White women) in jobs with high levels of job control reduces Black mothers’ risk of adverse birth outcomes. These results are concentrated among mothers without bachelor’s degrees. For mothers with bachelor’s degrees, it is Black women’s representation in low stress jobs that reduces Black mothers’ risk of adverse birth outcomes. Understanding racial inequities in the employment context in which women live and work clarifies where we might direct effective, efficient intervention efforts.

Gender Differences in Job Application Requirements: Do Women Demand More of Themselves Than Men? A Survey-Based Study of Job-Seeking Behaviour in Spain.  Carlos Ochoa, Universitat Pompeu Fabra; Clara Cortina, Universitat Pompeu Fabra; and M. José González, Universitat Pompeu Fabra

This study analyses gender differences in the propensity to apply for a job above one's qualification level. The research aims to test two main hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that women have less confidence in their own abilities, which may lead them to be more pessimistic about their chances of getting the job. The second hypothesis is that women are more likely to follow the rules, which may lead them to believe that the selection process will be exactly as advertised (i.e. that failure to meet an explicit requirement will disqualify their application). According to the two hypotheses, women are less likely than men to take the risk of not meeting the requirements when applying for a job, which could lead to a loss of job opportunities compared to men. This research is based on data collected from a sample of panellists who agreed to participate in our research project using their mobile phones. Acceptance of the project involved equipping their phones with a device that allowed us to track their activity on the internet. In this way, we were able to identify the job applications completed by the panellists and the extent to which their profile matched the requirements of the job they were applying for. Participants also provided personal and subjective information by completing an open-ended questionnaire. This is a unique study in Spain that identifies the role of gender bias in dimensions such as overconfidence and conformity in job search patterns. The results of the study have multiple implications for the design of gender equality policies and the promotion of women's employment. This research is easily replicable in other European countries.

From Home, to Being a Stranger: Understanding the Work Experiences of Professionals Relocating Abroad.  Mariam Gbajumo-Sheriff, University of Lagos

In recent times, the quest for greener pastures has led to the mass relocation of professionals from emerging countries to western economies. The reasons for relocation have centred around push (insecurity and harsh economic conditions) and pull (bigger opportunities, better terms and conditions of employment and better family life) factors. The reality however is that sometimes, there is a gap between the mind picture and realities faced by these professionals when they finally arrive at their destination. The work structure, pay and their quality of life change, especially coupled with the fact that Western countries are mostly individualistic in orientation while their home countries are collectivist. The aim of this study is to investigate the work experiences of professionals who relocated from one country to another, from a non-Western to a Western one. The main question for respondents was “How does your home country and new work location compare in terms of work experiences? Data was collected via questionnaires that were administered via google form. Questions were structured to test work experiences like job type, conditions of employment, hours of work, pay, skills, knowledge, and competencies required. Research is still at the preliminary stage however initial findings suggest that some of the professionals had to take lower-level jobs requiring lower skills, thereby offering lower rewards and career prospects. Many of the participants benefitted from social amenities however their quality of life wasn’t better than when they were in their home country.

Fulfillment at the Work-Life Interface: New Insights on Conflict, Balance, and Energy Among US Fulfillment Center Workers.  Dena Javadi, Harvard University - School of Public Health; Grace DeHorn, MIT - Sloan School of Management; Jarvis Chen, Harvard University - School of Public Health; Laura Kubzansky, Harvard University - School of Public Health; Lisa Berkman, Harvard University - School of Public Health; and Erin Kelly, MIT - Sloan School of Management

The work-life field has increasingly shifted attention beyond white-collar workers and professionals, but there is more to learn about the experiences of lower-wage workers. This study investigates the work-life interface of 480 hourly workers surveyed over one year in U.S. fulfillment centers. The rapidly growing warehouse sector involves challenging conditions, including shiftwork, schedule unpredictability, time pressures, physically tiring and repetitive work, increasing algorithmic management, and isolation. Given this context, we investigate the outcome of wellbeing at the work-life interface (WWLI) – encompassing work-life conflict, balance, and energy (“After I leave work, I have enough energy to do the things I want or need to do”). We draw on the job demands-resources model, interpersonal justice, and social capital theories to investigate informal supports, including schedule supports and workplace social capital, as potential predictors of WWLI at 12 months of follow-up. We then consider burnout and work engagement as potential mediators. Finally, we complement our theory-driven approach with a data-driven random forest approach to confirm workplace social capital and schedule supports as important predictors. We find that workplace social capital has a sustained positive effect on WWLI at 12 months of follow-up and that work engagement (focus, sense of purpose, low monotony) and burnout are joint mediators of this relationship (~0.76 proportion mediated). Our study concludes that workplace social capital can play an important role in supporting WWLI via work engagement and decreased burnout. We discuss implications for policy and practice.

Paper Session

Events Disrupting the Life Course: COVID-19


Telework, Time Use, and Well-Being: Evidence from the 2022 Canadian Time Use Survey.  Dana Wray, Statistics Canada

Overarching Questions How is telework associated with time use and well-being? Using the first time use data collected in Canada since the pandemic, this study examines the association between teleworking and time use in activities such as sleep, paid work, unpaid work, and free time. The study also explores how work-life balance and time pressure are associated with teleworking. Statement on Methods Data from the 2022 Canadian Time Use Survey are used to examine time use and well-being. Survey questions about teleworking in the last week are combined with the location of paid work on the time diary to look at “WFH” teleworkers, “on-site” teleworkers (who teleworked last week, but worked on-site on the diary day), and non-teleworkers. Regression models are estimated that adjust for sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, marital status, etc.) and job characteristics (e.g., industry, occupation, usual work hours). The predicted adjusted minutes per day in different time use activities are presented, as well as the predicted probabilities for well-being outcomes. Important Findings -Teleworking from home was associated with over an hour saved in commute time to and from work. -Teleworkers who worked from home did not differ in paid work time compared to on-site teleworkers and non-teleworkers, once adjusting for socioeconomic and job characteristics. -WFH teleworking was associated with more time on ‘self-care’ activities such as sleeping and eating, but did less personal care. -Compared to those who worked on-site, WFH teleworkers spent more time in both active leisure – such as exercise or sports – and passive leisure – such as TV-watching. -Teleworking at home was associated with more unpaid housework – for both men and women. -Parents who teleworked at home spent more time with and caring for their children. Both mothers and fathers increased their total time with children, with gendered differences in whether that time was co-present with children or in active childcare activities. -WFH teleworkers were more likely to be satisfied with their work-life balance compared to on-site and non-teleworkers. -Unexpectedly, on-site teleworkers had the highest levels of time pressure, with no differences between WFH and non-teleworkers. Implications for Research, Policy, or Practice This study contributes new Canadian evidence on telework and time use after the dramatic change in work arrangements spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. The patterns of time use for teleworkers complement prior research done in other national contexts. This study helps us better understand how telework might affect Canadian workers and Canadian society more broadly.

Future Childbearing Choices and Life Course Decisions in Childless Families in Japan: Comparison Between Pre- and Post COVID-19 Pandemic Perspectives.  Yukari Ito, Osaka University; and Takashi Mita, Kyoto Sangyo University

1. Overarching questions/concerns Previous literature has extensively demonstrated that fertility decisions are influenced by individuals past life experiences and current socioeconomic status. Economic uncertainty and financial pressures can create obstacles for young couples who wish to have children. Excessive costs related to education, housing, and child-rearing can impose financial burdens and serve as reasons to delay the decision to start a family. Many in younger generations aspire to invest time in building their careers and pursuing professional success. Having children demands time and effort, which can be challenging to balance with a career. However, these circumstances can vary significantly among individuals and regions, especially under uncertain conditions, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Japan has not taken a strict lockdown policy, however, the impact of the pandemic have been prolonged. 2. Statement on methods 2.1.Objective The aim of our study is to examine the impact of COVID-19 on fertility decisions and the future life course of childless families in Japan. We empirically test our arguments by leveraging the exogenous uncertainty shock caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analysis aims to examine the impact of COVID-19 on how women are choosing their life course concerning having children and continuing their careers. We examine economic uncertainty and financial pressures caused by COVID-19 pandemic would damage couples who wish to have children and continuing their careers. 2.2. Design and Setting We present evidence of a causal impact of the pandemic on fertility intentions and the choice of future life course for childless families. We employ a two-group, two-period Difference-in-Difference analysis, using participants living in a prefecture subject to an emergency declaration due to COVID-19 as the treatment group and others as the control group. We assess the impact of the pandemic on future fertility intentions and continuing their careers by comparing pre- and post-pandemic data. 2.3. Participants We conducted online surveys in Japan using a private research company twice: once in February 2020, before the COVID-19 pandemic, and once in February 2022, during the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected data from 20–49-year-old anonymous married and childless participants in Japan. The valid samples totaled 1,531 (764 in 2020 and 767 in 2022). Our survey samples are women from 20–49-year-old anonymous married and childless participants. We got consent from them to participate prior to the survey. Ethics approval and permission were obtained from Ethical Review Board Osaka University Hospital (2020-TH19371) and (2022-TO19371). 2.4. Method We apply Multinominal logit model for our estimation since there is a single decision based on two or more alternatives. The simplest model is Multinominal logit model because computation is simple and parameter estimates are easier to interpret than in some other multinominal model according to Cameron and Trivedi (2022, pp.908-914). We understand that categorial data based on individual choice are naturally ordered or groups in some cases, however we apply Multinominal logit model in our study for its convenience. Furthermore, we apply 2-group 2-period Difference-in-Difference analysis for analyzing the impact of COVID-19. Differences-in-Differences is a popular quasi-experimental methodology used to estimate causal effects from longitudinal observational data. We evaluate the impact of a COVID-19 by using Differences-in-Differences under a simple pre-post and control-treatment environment. We set our average treatment effect = (Average difference of 2-period in Treatment group) - (Average difference of 2-period in Control group). We calculate average treatment effect from average marginal effects of intersection term: Y2022 (year 2022 dummy variable) x S_area (1 = treatment group who live in severe COVID-19 area, 0 = Control croup). We calculate average treatment effect from average marginal effects with this intersection term. By using average marginal effects, we can use the estimated model to make predictions so that we can better interpret the model. In this study, we regress life course choice as a dependent variable by Multinominal logit model. The life course choice is the five options consist of combinations of having a child and continuing working. The options are: 1 = Have a child and continue working, 2 = Have a child and adjust work, 3 = Have a child and not work, 4 = Do not have a child and continue working, 5 = Do not have a child and not work. Our independent variables (or explanatory variables) are household income, participant’s employment status (Regular employees, non-regular employees, unemployed), age category (20s, 30s, 40s), health status, partner’s age, and Difference-in-Differences related variables. 3. Important findings -Regarding the COVID-19 interaction term, the probability of choosing option 3 decreased by approximately 6.8%. On the other hand, no statistically significant results were obtained for other options of life course choice. -As household income increases, the probability of choosing option 1 decreases by approximately 3.9%, while the probability of choosing option 3 increases by approximately 2.5%. -As age increases from the 20s to the 30s and 40s, it was found that the probability of choosing option 3 decreases, while the probability of choosing childless options such as 4 and 5 increases. -The increase in the partner's age was found to have minor impact on the selection of life course choice. -Compared to regular employees, non-regular employees have a probability of choosing option 1 that is approximately 23.3% lower, while the probability of choosing option 2 increases by approximately 14.4%, and option 4 by approximately 6.5%. 4. Implications for research, policy and/or practice Our analysis aims to examine the impact of COVID-19 on how women are choosing their life course concerning having children and continuing their careers. Our results show that COVID-19 pandemic has an impact on individual’s life course choice in severe COVID-19 area. Our findings highlight the complex and varied impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on fertility intentions and behaviors.

American Parents’ Imaginings of Post-pandemic Future(s) for the Work-family Nexus: Dramatic Shifts in Fathers' Perspectives?.  Shabnoor Nabi, University of Toronto; and Amanda Deeley, University of Toronto

Social resources (i.e., social support) and personal resources (mastery and self-esteem) remain mechanisms that differentially moderate the social and psychological wellbeing of mothers and fathers, especially in face of uncertainties. Ample research has shown how each of these mechanisms serve as a regulating resource for parents’ wellbeing. However, the ways these moderators are implicitly and/or explicitly combined, as well as their potentially varying efficacy as interlocking mechanisms for both mothers and fathers remain key questions. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly altered parents’ daily work and family routines. Parents’ unanticipated extra time with children came with limited access to social and institutional support for time needed to raise children. The salience of financial, social, and institutional support for familial well-being was highlighted during this period of unprecedented uncertainty. Overarching Questions: Our present project investigates the effect of the disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic on shifting the ways American fathers a) construct and exercise a dynamic matrix of social and personal resources as buffer amidst the macro-level stressor of the pandemic, and b) subsequently use it in their renewed sense-making and imaginings of post-pandemic parental relationship and work-family arrangements. Methods: Data come from a larger multi-country, qualitative study (PACT) based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2020-2021 with mothers and fathers with co-residential child(ren) under 18 in Canada, Australia, and the United States. The preliminary analysis we present here examines key emerging themes from the in-depth interviews conducted with 20 American fathers residing in urban, suburban, and rural regions of the United States. Findings: Our investigation suggests three broad themes: 1) Work-Family Nexus: flex time, schedule control, and workplace/remote work flexibility constructed by fathers as significant positive resources shaping their involvement in familial life; 2) Job Flexibility and Fathering Practices: fathers differentially value and mobilize flexibility during the pandemic based on gendered perceptions of this additional familial time; and 3) Pandemic-driven Shifts in Fathers’ Perspectives and Behavior around Work and Fathering: fathers developing new understandings about family life and their role in the family, driven by pandemic-instigated changes. Many fathers report being able to align their actions and practices/behavior with their desires for a more directly involved/ hands-on fathering and/or express their intention to reconsider and negotiate their future work roles in ways that would prioritize family life over work. Implications: Our present research focuses on the interconnectedness between pandemic-driven changes to workplace flexibility and schedule control available to fathers (and their partners) and American fathers’ changing sense-making around fatherhood and their parenting practices. Our study documents fathers’ dramatically changed visions of post-pandemic work-family balance, stemming from their altered sense of the importance of the fatherhood role within their respective families. We suggest that these fathers’ visions for a family-first approach to work has implications for future post-pandemic era research into the work-family nexus, particularly given that previous research has shown how fathering remains relatively more susceptible to context and situational factors. It thus remains vital to examine these interconnections in future research to determine how contextual factors shape American fatherhood practices, with implications for parental and familial wellbeing.

Paper Session

Family Insecurity and Strategies to Reduce Hardships


Work Hardship and Family Life: Harmony or Discord in Marital Life.  Abdel-Halim BERRETIMA, University A-M of Bejaïa Algeria

The relationship between work and family prompts us to define the interdependence and functioning of two different spheres, with the aim of understanding the treatment of the multidimensional equences of work hardship and all that it can trigger as professional or social risks among individuals. Exploring the connection between these two fields also means comprehending the determinants of the relationships of the actors, interpreted differently in each sphere. In this context, how is work hardship experienced within a working-class family, particularly an immigrant one? Work hardship serves to define the functioning of the family group. This family needs to confront the suffering and physical toll of the father's work to determine the functions, roles, and responsibilities of the actors involved in the psychological, social, and financial support and care for the suffering individual. Thus, the analysis of the strategies employed by the members of this institution (family) reveals the nature of the initiatives undertaken by each member to mitigate the financial, material, and social repercussions of work hardship and the risks it can entail. Examples can be accidents, illnesses, mental or physical suffering, disability, and precariousness. This is why, in my presentation, I will focus on the mobilisation of the wife and children and the new roles they can undertake in managing the repercussions of this work hardship. This is to understand the factors responsible for precariousness, the socio-cultural transformation of the family, and the different methods of its structuring and restructuring to be able to pinpoint the factors ensuring its societal equilibrium or imbalance. Keywords: professional activity, hardship, marital life, suffering, professional risk, precariousness, family reorganisation, structuring/restructuring, societal balance/imbalance.

Why Are the Needy Still in Need?.  Maria José Bosch, ESE Business School; and Matias Braun, ESE Business School - Universidad de los Andes

The relative income and happiness of different groups of people in need varies between countries. In general, it is assumed that the results presented by needy groups in a society depend on their ability to alleviate their needs. For example, how rich the country in question is, or the effort deployed by the state. However, the level of GDP per capita explains between 0.45% to 40% of their poverty and unhappiness relative to the rest of the population, while the spending as a percentage of GDP explains between 1% and 20% of relative poverty and unhappiness. We quantify the relevance that preferences, and families, have on the level of poverty and happiness of the elderly, the sick and disabled, the unemployed and immigrants in 43 European countries. We show that this variation responds, in part, to differences in the extent to which society is concerned with the wellbeing of these groups and the importance people assign to the family. In particular, the elderly, the sick, and the unemployed (but not the immigrants) exhibit a higher relative income and levels of happiness in more caring countries. Also, the elderly and sick are happier where the family is more important. Public policy and participation in the civil society are important mechanisms to explain the impact of concern. The quality of the state and the degree of trust in a country increase this effect, while the size of the family tends to be associated with the importance assigned to the family.

How is Family Survival Organized During the COVID-19 Pandemic? Strategies for Informal Sector Workers in México.  Mauricio Padrón-Innamorato, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

For decades, the literature has shown that adversity, at least in Mexico, is largely resolved within the home. In a society such as Mexico's, with an absence of support services, with few public spaces to seek care in case of illness, with deficiencies in housing and education, the crisis is resolved within the domestic units (Cortés & Rubalcava, 1991; Rubalcava, 1999; Oliveira, 1999; Padrón & Navarrete, 2023), which seek to restore internal order through their resources (personal and economic). The Covid-19 pandemic disrupted the environment and life. Individuals, as they are not passive recipients, were making decisions seeking to solve the setbacks -of all kinds- arising from the health contingency. The purpose of this text is to learn about the strategies of informal sector workers in the face of the arrival of COVID-19: who got involved, what was more successful, why some managed to solve the problems, and others found it more difficult, are doubts that the work presented here seeks to resolve. To achieve the above, we begin with a bibliographical review and reflection on the importance of domestic units in resolving conflicts. In the second part, we will give rise to the testimonies, which show the different paths implemented in the face of illness and lack of workspaces.

Unsettled: How Homelessness Exacerbates the Problems of Precarious Work for Families with Children in Des Moines, Iowa.  Elizabeth Talbert, Drake University

Over the past decade, homelessness has become an increasingly visible and discussed phenomenon in the United States. In growing, mid-sized cities like Des Moines, Iowa, the economic struggles associated with labor market inequality, an increasingly unaffordable housing market, and personal histories of trauma and health issues have collided, leaving some families with children without permanent homes. This paper seeks to understand how homelessness affects parents’ ability to hold low-paid, precarious jobs and what strategies families use to ameliorate the double-marginalization of low-paid work and homelessness. Using data from interviews with interviews and ethnographic observations of 20 families with experience in Des Moines’ emergency family homeless shelters, we find that most parents are sporadically engaged in some kind of paid work, and some parents even have stable jobs through severe housing instability. However, on the whole, we find that the uncertainty that comes with being homeless makes precarious work—and the organization of life around it—even more unsustainable that it is when families have more stable housing. The daily work that goes into remaking family routines, clashes with the sometimes-strict rules of family shelters, and uncertainty about next housing situation add to the precariousness that already characterizes the balance between work and life for low-income families. We conclude that more centralized resources, homelessness programs targeted specifically to working parents with children of various ages, and better access to information about these resources are necessary to better support unsettled working families.

Paper Session

Fatherhood in Transition: Adapting Paternal Roles and Responsibilities in a Changing World


‘I Am Different’: A Qualitative Analysis of Part-Time Working Fathers’ Constructions of Their Experiences.  Eric Mercier, University of Adelaide; Amanda LeCouteur, University of Adelaide; and Paul Delfabbro, University of Adelaide

Although there has been an increasing interest in the notion of involved fatherhood, few studies have examined how fathers who work part-time and engage in child-rearing make sense of this experience. The present study explores how part-time working fathers positioned themselves in terms of their ‘at home’ and ‘at work’ identities. Thematic analysis was used to examine 30 interviewees’ accounts of their experiences. Three central themes were identified: (1) choosing to work part-time, (2) benefits of working part-time, and (3) contrasts with fathers as ‘breadwinners’. A common feature in all of these themes was interviewees’ flexible transition between traditional and non-traditional types of masculinity. The ways in which part-time working fathers positioned themselves as caring for children while maintaining attachment to more traditional types of masculinity are considered in terms of implications for theory and for fathers’ personal development. At a time where expectations of fathers engaged in child-rearing are increasing, the results of this study could be drawn on in the area of personal development to support men in forming new strategies around fathering practices.

Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior and Father Involvement in Parenting: The Role of Work Family Conflict as a Mediator..  Kartika Widiningtyas, Surabaya University; and Artiawati Artiawati, Surabaya University

The role of father in parenting is as important as the role of father as a breadwinner.The effort to meet the demands of both work and family life simultaneously can lead to work-family conflict among working fathers, which can reduce father involvement in parenting. It is important to study about resource in the work environment that can minimize work family conflict. Family supportive supervisor behavior has the potential to reduce the work family conflict and thus increase father involvement in parenting. This study was aimed at examining the relationship between family supportive supervisor behavior and father involvement as mediated by work family conflict. The total number of 188 working fathers in the state-owned banks in Indonesia participated in this study. The purposive sampling method applied in collecting data. The results showed that work family conflict partially mediated the relationship between family supportive supervisor behavior and father involvement (indirect effect =2.034, p=0.042; total effect =10.265, p=0.001; direct effect=9.504, p=0.001). Some important findings from the research include: • Supervisor support for family life is needed by working fathers in order to reduce work family conflict so that the fathers can better involve in parenting. • Long working hour and stress due to work is one of the obstacle for working fathers to involve in parenting • Gender role orientation has an association with father involvement in parenting. Supervisor as the role model and creative work family management are the most significant aspects in influencing work family conflict and father involvement in parenting. Reducing excessive working hours is also important in reducing work family conflict of working fathers. It is suggested for further research to consider gender role orientation in predicting father involvement in parenting.

Paternity Leave-Taking and U.S. Fathers’ Participation in Housework.  Richard Petts, Ball State University; Daniel Carlson, University of Utah; and Chris Knoester, Ohio State University

Overarching Questions/Concerns: Paternity leave may promote greater gender equality in domestic labor. Though numerous studies show that paternity leave promotes greater father involvement in childcare, less is known about whether paternity leave-taking may facilitate father involvement in other forms of domestic labor such as housework. This study examines the extent to which paternity leave-taking and length of paternity leave are associated with U.S. fathers’ shares of, and time spent in, housework. Statement on Methods: We use repeated cross-sectional data on 1,654 different-gender partnered U.S. parents from the Study on Parents’ Divisions of Labor During COVID-19 (SPDLC), and consider both fathers’ relative shares of housework as well as how many hours per week fathers spend in housework. Important Findings: • Paternity leave-taking is positively associated with fathers’ shares of, and time spent in, housework tasks. • Longer paternity leaves are also associated with fathers performing greater shares of housework. • The associations between paternity leave-taking and fathers’ housework persist for all housework tasks other than grocery shopping. Implications for Research, Policy, and/or Practice: Overall, this study indicates that the benefits of paternity leave likely extend to fathers’ greater participation in housework, providing additional support for the belief that increased use of paternity leave may help to promote gender equality in domestic labor. As such, these findings provide additional evidence that expanding paid parental leave policies in the U.S. would be beneficial for families.

Caregiving Fathers Experiences Post Covid- “It’s a Little Bit of a Kick in the Face”.  Jasmine Kelland, University of Plymouth; and Daniel Deahan, University of Plymouth

The Covid-19 pandemic disrupted traditional patterns of the management of work and caregiving (Andrew et al., 2020) and at that time UK fathers expressed intention to have greater involvement in caregiving after the pandemic (Fatherhood Institute,2022). Perhaps unsurprisingly, the post-covid work context is typified by changes in work patterns (Shirmohammadi et al., 2023) and increases in staff turnover (Cosgrove et al., 2023), however, little qualitative research has been undertaken to explore the experiences of caregiving fathers in this context. Thus, we undertook 27 in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK caregiving fathers in Summer 2023 to explore how they are managing work and care post-covid. We find caregiving fathers report an increase in flexible working and workplace visibility which has positively impacted upon their family life. However, they continue to experience less workplace support than mothers with levels of conditionality existing and support being dependent on line-managers' parental status and the organisational context. Our findings provide evidence for the continuation of elements of ‘fatherhood forfeits’ (Kelland,2022) and expand knowledge on ‘paternal supervisory gatekeeping’ (Hennekam et al, 2022). The provision of workplace flexibility was emphasised as a central retention factor, with many fathers leaving their employment if they did not receive the flexibility they needed, offering a potential explanation for ‘the great resignation’ (Cosgrove et al., 2023). We argue that despite a climate of increased support post-covid, parental gendered differentials remain, which impact upon labour retention, highlighting the ongoing need for organisational and policy action to support caregiving fathers in the workplace.

How Do We Measure Father Involvement? Methodological and Epistemological Issues in a Canadian Mixed Methods Study on Household Tasks and Responsibilities.  Kim de Laat, University of Waterloo; and Andrea Doucet, Brock University

This paper compares fathers’ survey responses to questions about their involvement in childcare and housework, and couple interviews in which the same fathers reflect on their involvement at home. It is based on data from a Canadian qualitative study with diverse Canadian families (the Care/Work Portrait project) and the Canadian Familydemic survey, which is part of a six-country Familydemic comparative project. We highlight two key findings from a sample of twenty fathers from diverse socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds who participated in a national survey and a follow-up up interview with their partners. First, we find evidence of higher levels of agreement between fathers’ individual survey responses and couples’ interview responses on fathers’ involvement in care tasks: discrete interventions into childcare or housework that have a clear beginning, middle, and end, (for example, cooking a meal). Second, there is less agreement between our quantitative and qualitative data about fathers’ involvement in care responsibilities, which is the type of cognitive labour that involves noticing needs and managing, organizing, and planning different spheres of family life (for example, meal planning). We draw on two in-depth case studies to illustrate how and why, in surveys, fathers may overestimate their involvement in forms of care and household work that involve cognitive labour and varied temporal and spatial dimensions. Our mixed methods data provides methodological and epistemological insights into the importance of attending not only to what we measure, but also how, when we make assessments about gender equality in household divisions of labour.

Paper Session

Financial Dynamics in Intimate Relationships


Gender Gaps in Education and Earnings: How Do They Correlate to Divorce in a Patriarchal Society?.  Maha sabbah Karkabi, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

This research examines how couples’ gaps in education and earning, affect the likelihood of divorce in Arab community in Israel. Recent data indicate a pronounced rise in divorce rates among Arab couples in Israel. Simultaneously, there has been a notable surge in educational achievements, especially among women, which exceed those of their male counterparts. However, despite these shifts, the traditional homemaker-breadwinner paradigm persists, prompting an inquiry into the interplay between these evolving socioeconomic dynamics and marital stability. Research on divorce has documented the possible consequences stemming from the expansion of marriage types where the wife possesses a higher education or outearns her husband (hypogamy). Such configurations have been posited to challenge traditional male gender roles as primary breadwinners and reduce the economic interdependence between spouses. Nevertheless, recent research suggests that marriages characterized by hypogamy no longer exhibit a higher divorce risk than other marriage types as gender norms have become more egalitarian. Most research conducted in the Global North highlights the recent cohort transitions from a breadwinner-centric marital paradigm to one that champions marital egalitarianism. However, there remains a need of comprehensive studies centered on societies at the periphery of the Global North, where educational shifts are evident, yet the evolution of gender norms appears to be more stagnant. Given the cultural context, this study utilized a longitudinal dataset, collated by Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics spanning from 1995 to 2019. Through employing a series of discrete-time event-history analysis models for marital dissolution, preliminary findings indicate that educational hypogamy marriages does not singularly jeopardize marital stability. Nevertheless, unions where the established male breadwinner role is not upheld exhibit a heightened susceptibility to divorce.

Gender Inequalities in Married Couples' Earnings Trajectories: A Comparison of the United States and Germany.  Nicole Kapelle, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli; Lili Vargha, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli; Maria Hornung, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli; and Anette Fasang, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli

Wives commonly earn less than their male partners, with substantial consequences for women's subjective and economic wellbeing. The present study aims to identify, compare, and describe diverse patterns of gender inequalities in married couples' earnings trajectories over the first six years of marriage in Germany and the United States. As such, we focus on identifying overlapping as well as unique groups within the two contexts and understanding the factors associated with group memberships. Using group-based multi-trajectory modelling, we simultaneously consider both spouses' earnings trajectories as well as trajectories of women's share of couples' earnings to identify latent patterns of inequalities in married couples' earnings trajectories at different levels of household earnings. Preliminary results for Germany highlight six distinct couple types that are differently associated with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Next, we will include PSID data for the US and use multinomial logistic regressions to formally describe the patterns.

Women’s Financial Independence, Household Money Management and Gender Inequalities Within Couples With Children.  Susan Harkness, UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL

How couples manage their money can give important insights into gender inequalities within the household. Using panel data for the United Kingdom from 2009/10-2019/20, we analyse how women’s financial independence and the couples’ family structure affect the management of household finances. Our focus is on couples with dependent children, among whom gender earnings gaps are large. We show that finances are less likely to be shared in non-traditional households: where women earning contribute towards a higher share of family income, where they cohabit, or where there are stepchildren. Linking information on how couples manage their money to individuals’ perceptions of financial stress and psychological well-being we further show that, when finances are not shared, women are more likely to face financial stress and have poor mental health. We conclude by discussing the implications for the design of tax and benefit systems.

Paper Session

Flexible Work Arrangements: Experiences and Impacts


Remote Work and Gender Inequalities in Paid Work: the Role of Norms.  Olga Leshchenko, University of Konstanz

Flexible working arrangements in terms of work location aim to allow employees to balance work and private domains of life. Nonetheless, there is evidence that flexible working can lead to the expansion of paid labor rather than life beyond work, i.e., a phenomenon named the flexibility paradox (Chung, 2022). Research shows that this pattern might depend on gender identification, with women increasing unpaid work contributions and men increasing their paid work contributions when working flexibly (Lott & Chung, 2016; Chung & Booker, 2023). Some small-N studies show that these findings are not universal but depend on the individual’s work or family devotion (Lott, 2023) and attitudes toward gender roles (Leshchenko & Chung, 2023; Yucel & Chung, 2023). This study goes beyond single-country analysis and examines how contextual gender and work norms moderate the relationship between remote work arrangements and paid working hours for men and women. It uses individual-level data from the European Social Survey (2021) and aggregated country-level data from the European Values Study and World Values Survey on work and gender norms. It applies linear regression with clustered standard errors. The preliminary results indicate that on-site employees work more hours than those working remotely in countries with high work devotion. In countries with higher support for more traditional gender roles, women work fewer hours if they have access to remote work compared to women working on-site, which contributes to the gender gap in work hours.

Remote Socialization: Evidence from a Field Experiment in India.  Stephanie Chan-Ahuja, London Business School

Overarching questions/concerns In the past few years, remote working has proliferated across the labor market. From the demand side, job seekers have strong preferences for remote working arrangements (Woźniak-Jęchorek, 2024). From the supply side, offering remote work enables global talent acquisition and increases the diversity of job applicants (Choudhury, 2022; Hsu & Tambe, 2024). As a result, organizations in general, and startups in particular, have been experimenting with being fully remote, where entire organizations are “location-independent” (Rhymer, 2023). In understanding workers’ experiences in fully remote organizations, the remote working literature offers mixed findings. On the one hand, a large body of work finds that employees who work remotely, compared to those working in an office setting, have higher subjective well-being, and lower work-family conflict, among other psychological benefits (e.g., Gajendran & Harrison, 2007; Kelly et al., 2014; Sherman, 2020). On the other hand, more recent research on remote working has found negative work consequences, such as siloed conversations and lower performance (Atkin et al., 2023; Bloom et al., 2022; Emanuel et al., 2023; Yang et al., 2022). I argue that one potential explanation for these opposing results lies in the socialization process of newcomers. Critically, the existing research has almost exclusively studied employees who have been socialized into the organization in an office setting prior to remote working. For example, in the canonical remote working experiment conducted by Bloom and colleagues (2015), participants were required to have worked in the office for 6-months to be eligible for the study. In my job market paper, I study whether starting a job in the office versus remotely influences the newcomers’ socialization experiences and outcomes. Statement on Methods I created a company called Data Lumina to conduct a field experiment in Pune, India (AEA RCT Pre-registration #12248; https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.12248-1.0; ethical approval by London Business School Committee #REC892). Participants provided consent to participate in an academic study. The decision to create a company for research purposes was to maximize the internal and external validity of the research. By employing real employees, the study achieved high external validity as the study participants were real employees working for wages. Moreover, I had full control over the study design and data collection process, including the ability to randomize employees into experimental conditions, contributing to high internal validity. I hired employees (hereafter, “participants”) for a three-to-four-week period. Employees were recruited online and have recently graduated from college or will soon graduate from college. During their employment, participants engaged in a data annotation task to classify texts from interview transcripts, a task which involved critical thinking, ambiguity, and learning, while having a clear performance measure. Given that participants worked at the company for several weeks, I was able to collect repeated survey measures each week, which allowed for more precise estimations as well as the ability to monitor changes over time. I randomly assigned new hires into Remote or Office conditions with equal probability. For the first three weeks of the study, participants in the Remote condition worked remotely whereas participants in the Office condition worked from the office. For the fourth week, participants in both conditions worked remotely. My final sample composed of 235 participants, with 125 participants in the Remote condition and 110 participants in the Office condition. To assess newcomers’ experiences and outcomes, I measured socialization success, work-life conflict, performance, and retention. To measure socialization success, I surveyed participants each week using a socialization measure, which captured the three key factors of socialization: company, task, and relationship (Cooper-Thomas et al., 2014, 2020). Also on a weekly basis, I surveyed participants on their work-to-family and family-to-work conflict (Netemeyer, Boles, and McMurrian 1996). To measure performance, I collected unobtrusive data on the quantity and quality of participants’ work. Additionally, they completed a self-reported measure of performance each week (Sherman, 2020). To measure retention, after participants had worked for three weeks, they reported their willingness to stay as well as their reservation wage (i.e., the lowest salary they were willing to work for). Finally, I also captured a number of other organizational behavior and demographic measures. Important Findings (Preliminary) - Participants in the Remote condition reported significantly lower levels of socialization for the relationship factor (b = -.335, p < .000) with no statistical difference in participants’ socialization with regards to the company (b = .036, p = .767) and the task (b = .039, p = .627). - There were no statistical differences in family-to-work conflict (b = -.05, p = .632) between conditions but Remote participants experienced significantly lower work-to-family conflict (b = -.36, p = .002). - Remote participants classified 35% fewer passages per day compared to Office participants (p = .000). Interestingly, there were no differences in self-reported performance (b = -0.014, p = 0.869). - Although there was no difference in the binary measure of willingness to stay (b = .049, p = .329), participants from the Remote condition provided a significantly lower reservation wage to work for an additional week (b = -208.66, p = .008). - 182 participants stayed for the fourth week of their employment and worked remotely. I find that Office participants, while completing marginally fewer passages than the prior week (t = 1.92, p = .056), continued to complete a significantly higher number of passages than Remote participants (b = 63.68, p = .020), with no changes in self-rated performance. Implications for future research, policy, and/or practice This study contributes to the work flexibility literature by deepening our understanding of remote working among demographic subgroups such as new hires. Moreover, I also advance the socialization literature by assessing the role of colocation when joining an organization. By running a field experiment, I provided a rigorous empirical test of the research question. Moreover, this study has immediate implications for practice as organizational leaders continue to grapple with designing the optimal remote working policy. This paper suggests that new hires could benefit from socializing in the office and organizations could consider designing a remote working policy that accommodates newcomers.

Dynamic Configurations: How Changing Patterns of Team Members’ Locations Shape Individual and Team Outcomes.  Aurora Turek, Harvard University - Business School; Salvatore Affinito, Harvard University - Business School; Ashley Whillans, Harvard University - Business School; Leslie Perlow, Harvard University - Business School; and Preeti Varma, INSEAD

1. Overarching questions/concerns: Remote work has become more prevalent in recent years due to the COVID-19 pandemic, leading many organizations to adopt hybrid work models that blend in-office and remote work to varying degrees. Yet, prior research has identified both advantages and challenges faced by individuals and teams in remote work settings, suggesting that there are tradeoffs to be considered in different hybrid work arrangements. We explore how the tradeoffs between remote and in-office work are balanced in various hybrid work arrangements by examining where individuals work in relation to one another and how these configurations change over time within each type of arrangement. 2. Statement on methods: We review the virtual work literature, with a specific focus on how existing research addresses team configurations - i.e., where team members work in relation to one another - and their implications for both individuals and teams. 3. Important findings: - The virtual work literature illuminates important tradeoffs between remote and in-office work for both individuals and teams. For remote and in-office individuals, key tradeoffs include balancing work and non-work lives, developing social and professional relationships, and knowledge sharing. These individual-level outcomes have significant implications for teams, affecting coordination, conflict, trust, and innovation. - Hybrid work offers the potential to balance the tradeoffs between remote and in-office work, but due to the wide variety of possible hybrid work arrangements, it's necessary to take a configurational perspective to understand how to achieve this balance. Specifically, we suggest that it is crucial to consider how team configurations vary over time to effectively manage these tradeoffs. - We identify the key dimensions along which hybrid work arrangements can vary and provide examples of how team configurations change over time according to these dimensions. -We suggest that different hybrid work arrangements vary in their ability to balance the tradeoffs of remote and in-office work for individuals and teams, depending on the patterns of how team configurations change over time. 4. Implications for research, policy, and/or practice: Implications for Research: Existing literature on virtual teams often examines team configurations as static. We suggest that future research exploring the implications of remote work in today’s hybrid work environments should consider the dynamic nature of team configurations, as different patterns of configurations over time may yield different outcomes. Implications for Policy and Practice: When developing hybrid work policies, leaders should recognize the wide variety of hybrid work arrangements and how they balance remote and in-office work tradeoffs. Leaders should carefully consider these tradeoffs to select arrangements that best align with their organizational goals and maximize the benefits for both employees and the organization.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Flexible Working Arrangements: Investigating the Role of Ideal Worker Norms.  Antje Schwarz, Bielefeld University

Overarching questions/concerns This research in progress examines the association between flexible working (schedule control and telework) and the willingness to perform organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), as the willingness to take on extra responsibilities in the workplace without being paid, in 30 European countries. The study asks (1) how flexible working is associated with the willingness to perform OCB? And (2) whether the implications of flexible working differ between organizational contexts of expectations of work devotion? Drawing on the social exchange theory, the ideal worker norm theory, and the job demands-resources model (J D-R), the study considers organizational expectations of working overtime and being responsive outside working hours as moderators. Statement on methods A multi-level analysis is conducted using data from the European Social Survey (10). Important findings (bulleted list) The results indicate • a higher willingness to perform OCB for employees who are working flexibly. • that higher perceived expectations of being responsive outside working hours go along with higher OCB. • that higher perceived expectations of working overtime show no significant relationship in the total sample but go along with lower OCB in the subsample of employees in full-time arrangements. • a stronger OCB-enhancing effect of the expectations to be responsive outside working hours for employees without any schedule control compared to employees with schedule control. Implications for research, policy and/or practice The findings support the notion that flexible working arrangements support OCB. Overall, the findings differ by dimensions of ideal worker norms and working hours.

Does Working From Home Lead to Higher Employment of Parents? Evidence From Europe..  Magdalena Grabowska, University of Warsaw; Anna Kurowska, University of Warsaw; and Anna Matysiak, University of Warsaw

Overarching questions The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 caused a tremendous increase in the share of employees working from home (WFH) in all European countries. Many studies have recently investigated how WFH affects workers’ career opportunities, such as promotion or salary increase, showing that even in the post-pandemic context, WFH negatively affects workers’ career outcomes. Little is known, however, whether this mode of work has the potential to increase the presence of parents in paid employment. This is possible as WFH may allow persons with care obligations, particularly mothers, to enter employment even though it is related to lower promotion opportunities or salary than onsite work. This paper aims to fill this research gap. We use data from 11 European countries and proceed in two steps. First, we adopt a macro-level approach and study the relationship between the spread of WFH in a country and parental employment rates. Second, we move to the micro-level and examine whether the availability of WFH at the country level influences the transitions of individuals between non-employment and employment. We stratify both analyses by gender and parenthood status in order to determine whether the availability of WFH in the country differently affects the employment opportunities of mothers, fathers, and childless individuals. Statement on methods We address our research questions using the data from 2006-2019 from the Labor Force Survey for 11 European countries. Our sample consists of countries where the average share of occasional or permanent teleworkers exceeds 10% throughout the study period. This applies to 8 Western countries (i.e., Austria, Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg, Portugal, the UK, and the Netherlands) and 3 CEE countries (i.e., Estonia, Poland, and Slovenia). Our sample choice is based on the assumption that only in countries with relatively widespread access to teleworking might the impact of WFH spread significantly influence the employment rates or individual employment decisions. The analysis uses both macroeconomic and microeconomic perspectives. First, we estimate the fixed-effects panel data model for employment rates of parents and childless individuals using country-aggregated data. Next, we estimate logistic regressions to examine individual transitions between unemployment or being inactive and employment using individual-level data. Our main explanatory variable in both models is the share of workers in a country working from home at least sometimes. Since the increasing availability of WFH is presumably noticed by individuals with a delay and changing employment status requires time, we include a one-year lag of this variable in our models. Apart from that, we control for several contextual variables. These are childcare coverage, unemployment rate, the mean age of the adult population, the share of people with higher education, and proxy for gender role attitudes. The last variable is constructed based on a question from the European Values Survey. In addition, for our microanalysis, we introduce a set of individual variables, including sex, age, having a partner, having higher education, and the age of the youngest child. Both macro- and micro-level analyses are stratified by gender and parenthood status, meaning we run separate models for parents, mothers, fathers, and the childless. Important findings - The employment rates for parents are higher in countries with the higher spread of WFH although this relationship is driven by maternal employment. If we consider only fathers, the relationship is not significant. - The employment rate of childless individuals is also positively related to the spread of WFH although the effect is smaller and almost non-significant. - Parents are more likely to enter employment in countries with higher WFH spread. The effect is similar in size for mothers and fathers while it remains insignificant for childless individuals. - For fathers, increased WFH spread also decreases the probability of transitioning from employment to unemployment or being inactive. We do not observe a similar effect for mothers or childless individuals. Implications for research, policy, and practice In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has undoubtedly accelerated the implementation of various labor market regulations regarding teleworking, studying the potential effects of increased access to WFH is of major importance. Our results shed new light on the advantages of working from home from the workers' perspective. The increased availability of WFH positively influences parental employment in terms of country-level employment rates as well as individual chances of transitioning into employment. Therefore, widening access to telework can potentially enhance parents' employment. This, in turn, would benefit the whole economy as parents form a sizeable proportion of the labor force. However, it is worth noting that the cultural context, including the social attitudes toward gender roles, might moderate the magnitude of the effect of WFH spread. Particularly, we anticipate that in countries with more traditional norms regarding gender division increased availability of WFH might not be as important for maternal employment as in more egalitarian societies. Thus, there is a need for further research in different social contexts and on post-pandemic data.

Paper Session

Future Directions for Work-Family Research: Revisiting Constructs and Exploring New Themes


Gendering Digital Labor: Work and Family Digital Contact in Europe.  Yue Qian, University of British Columbia; and Yang Hu, Lancaster University

With rapid digitalization, people increasingly use digital technologies for contact in their work and family lives. Nevertheless, how digital labor is gendered remains under-researched, particularly in a cross-national context. Analyzing data from the 2020 European Social Survey, this study examines gender differences in digital contact across the domains of work and family. Using latent profile analysis, we identify five distinctive profiles of work-family digital contact—dual medium, dual low, high work-only, high family-only, and dual high digital contact. We find notable gender differences across these profiles. Compared with men, women are less likely to have high work-only digital contact but are more likely to have high family-only and dual high digital contact. Moreover, with an increase in digital literacy and in the frequency of working from home, women are increasingly more likely than men to have dual medium digital contact; as we move from countries with a lower to a higher level of internet coverage, women are increasingly more likely than men to have high family-only and dual high digital contact. These results suggest that as individuals’ digital literacy increases, working from home becomes more prevalent, and internet access expands further in society, women may disproportionately take on family-related digital labor and also suffer from a “digital double burden” in work-family life. The findings call for attention to new forms of gender inequality in the division of labor in the digital era.

Job Search and the Work-Nonwork Interface: A Self-Regulatory Perspective on Job Search Progress and Strategies via Job Search Goal Adjustment.  Alex Lefter, Concordia University; Tracy Hecht, Concordia University; and Emily Burdman, Concordia University

The purpose of this study was to explore the indirect effects of work-to-nonwork and nonwork-to-work conflicts and enrichments on job search outcomes (i.e., job search progress and strategies) via job search goal adjustment. Drawing from a self-regulatory perspective and the conservation of resources model, we hypothesized that conflicts have negative indirect effects on job search outcomes through their positive impacts on downward goal adjustment, and that enrichments have positive indirect effects on job search outcomes through their positive impacts on upward goal adjustment. We recruited employed individuals who were actively looking for new jobs (N = 308) from a Canadian panel service. Using a sequential research design, we surveyed participants three times over three weeks. The hypothesized relations were tested simultaneously using structural equation modelling, accounting for covariances among variables, with 20,000 bootstrap samples to test the indirect effects. Overall, we found that nonwork-to-work conflict had positive indirect effects on job search progress and exploratory job search strategies via upward goal adjustment, and positive indirect effects on haphazard and focused job search strategies via downward goal adjustment. We also found that work-to-nonwork enrichment had positive indirect effects on job search progress and exploratory job search strategies via upward goal adjustment. Some direct effects from conflicts and enrichments to job search outcomes remained significant after controlling for goal adjustment. These findings point to the importance of the work-family interface for understanding the self-regulatory nature of the job search process of employed individuals.

A Paradox Approach To Examine Work-Nonwork Issues.  Sue Epstein, SUNY - Empire State College; and Sue Faerman, SUNY - Albany

Work-nonwork issues have often been presented as dilemmas, i.e., either/or decisions involving mutually exclusive choices where one option must be prioritized over the other. In this paper, we propose using a values-based approach to instead encourage conceptualizing work-nonwork tensions as paradoxes. Thus, rather than assuming work-nonwork issues involve only either/or decisions, we raise the potential for conceptualizing work-nonwork issues through a both/and approach and, as an illustrative case, we explore the popular work-nonwork construct of work-family conflict. This approach to work-nonwork issues provides a framework accommodating of and adaptable to different situational contexts (e.g., different societal cultures) and thus provides an adaptable, inclusive approach to exploring work-nonwork issues. Our goal is to show how using a paradox approach and value dimensions encourage the framing and development of sustainable and beneficial work-nonwork solutions. We conclude by discussing some of the benefits of our values-based paradox approach.

Work-Family Research in the 21st Century and Beyond.  Shelley MacDermid Wadsworth, Purdue University

Defining what is considered work-family research today is no easy task. The phrase ‘work-family balance’ was probably first used in the UK in the late 1970s, and in the US in the mid-1980s. The composition of both work and family spheres has, however, changed significantly since the discipline was first introduced. Modern technology and the “always on” culture common in many countries has blurred the line between work and family domains. The recent pandemic has shifted what is considered possible with respect to both work time and workplace. Over the past few decades there has been an explosion of research on the relationships between work and non-work life. Post-pandemic with many people feeling stressed and not “balanced” and the world of work in flux it is time to look at how we conceptualize and study work-family balance. In this session we present the results of a Delphi study intended to initiate a discussion within the work-family research community on how we as work-family researchers envision work-family research now and into the future. The Delphi methodology is a problem-solving technique where answers to a question are determined by sending multiple rounds of questionnaires to a group of experts – in this case all WFRN members. The Delphi approach facilitates dialogue between geographically separated experts while serving as an effective means for learning. In this session we summarize our informants’ responses to the following questions: What do scholars mean when they say that they are “work-family” researchers? What impact does the researcher’s discipline and nationality have on how they conceptualize work-family research?

Theorizing Through TikTok: How Journalists Amplified a Work Disengagement Narrative Justifying Remote Work Retrenchment.  Leroy Gonsalves, Boston University; and Charles Chu, Boston University

In the aftermath of the pandemic, much of the sensemaking around greater worker autonomy from remote work has been facilitated by business press journalists. But how do abrupt shifts in public discourse occur, and with what consequences for managerial control? We present systematic qualitative analysis of articles on “quiet quitting” (N=170) that dominated the business press between 2022-2023. Our analysis reveals a novel professional practice we identify as ‘theorization by social media’ which blurs the lines between entertainment and news. This involved crafting a narrative conflating online entertainment content with offline historical changes in social behavior, reinforcing the narrative by citing prior media attention and thin evidence validated by non-experts with commercial interests, and extending the narrative by predicting reactions and coining related terms aimed at going viral. We suggest that the resulting ‘work disengagement narrative’ justifies and prescribes managers’ use of rational and coercive control. We present supplementary causal evidence from a survey experiment (N=1,000) where managers exposed to the narrative generalize amotivation onto workers and increase selection of rational and coercive control practices, such as pay-for-performance incentives, returning workers to the office, and digital surveillance. The study illustrates how sudden shifts in media narratives fueled by trending social media content can capture the public imagination with potential consequences for how managers aim to motivate their workforces.

Paper Session

Gender, Identity, and Career Progression


Parents' Experiences of Remote Work: A Photo-Documentary Study.  Jennifer Augustine, University of South Carolina; Nicholas Hollis, University of South Carolina; Paola Tamayo, University of South Carolina; and Morgan Koziol, University of South Carolina

Overall Issue. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly upended norms of work. One of the most profound changes was a shift toward remote work. Today, nearly 16 percent of the U.S. workforce is fully remote. Over 28 percent of workers have a hybrid schedule. This recent rise in remote work has been heralded as providing greater opportunities for parents to balance work and family demands. Yet social scientific research suggests that remote work may carry distinct downsides. For example, studies based on time-diary data reveal that mothers who work from home perform more childcare and domestic work, exacerbating gender disparities in unpaid labor. For fathers, remote work often leads to greater time working, making it more difficult for them to meet their family responsibilities. Several studies have also found that parents who work from home do not experience the promised benefit of remote work—greater work family balance—but rather greater work family conflict. The reasons that parents who work at home experience greater work-family conflict, however, have largely eluded scholars, as prior research has typically employed quantitative methods based on surveys. These surveys provide representative estimates of how parents allocate their time, or how they feel about their remote work schedules. But they do not provide a window into the everyday lived experiences of remote working parents or a textured understanding of the challenges of remote work. Statement on Methods. In this project, we will provide this window by capturing photographic images of the remote workspaces of 28 parents. Our use of photography as a data collection method is rare amongst social scientists, who tend to capture the social world through numbers and words. Yet photography is a valuable method that captures the spaces where remote work is performed. Such spaces contain rich details about the lives of families who are navigating new working norms, and parents’ remote workspaces reflect an increasingly important social place within the home. To date, we have taken over sixty photographs of the remote workspaces of twenty mothers and eight fathers with children aged 13 or younger who work from home two or more days per week, although our data collection is ongoing. We have recruited parents through school PTOs, local gyms, coffee shops, community centers, and libraries, and across urban and suburban neighborhoods in our community. Our data collection also includes a small interview component, in which we ask parents (a) what they like and (b) what they dislike about their remote workspaces, as well as a brief demographic survey. The quotes from the interview provide additional insight into the significance of the pictures. The information from the survey allow us to describe the parents whose spaces are pictured. Important Findings. Key findings of our analysis are as follows. • We identified two key themes in our analysis of the photographs. The first theme we observed is that most spaces were characterized by “blurred physical boundaries.” • Specifically, parents’ workspaces contained materials that not only were used in the performance of their work activities. They were also used to perform other activities, such as caregiving, domestic work, and hobbies. Workspaces also shared functions with other key activities—for example, working and eating—or with other people; for example, parents’ workspaces were also children’s sleeping spaces. • Parents reported that this issue of blurred spaces made remote work challenging, as they presented regular distractions, limited privacy, and made it difficult to cognitively distinguish between working and other activities. • The second theme we identified was that most spaces were “improvised” in various ways. Spaces borrowed materials from other spaces in the home; for example, to create a makeshift desk or serve as a desk chair. They also borrowed space; for example, by occupying a small corner of a room used primarily for another purpose. As a consequence, parents’ workspaces were often disorganized, cramped, and lacking in necessary storage or space for key work materials. Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice. These findings provide a unique window into understanding the challenges of parents who work from home; specifically, because parents lack the space and materials to create an ideal work environment. Employers should thus consider ways to help workers create appropriate work set-ups, beyond providing access to computing and platforms, which tends to be their focus. The results also highlight one way in which remote work—which has been hailed as a potentially democratizing force in the post-COVID era, in which remote work access has widened—may further inequality; specifically, because less advantaged workers may experience blurred physical boundaries and improvised spaces more so that more advantaged workers. At the same time, these results highlight a key set of challenges for remote work that are less amenable to intervention. Many parents refused to designate more space in their home for work, even when such space was available. As such, they reveal how parents are still adapting to their new working norms and unsure how much of they want work to become integrated into their homes.

The Impact of Partners’ Identity Comprehension on Workers’ Outcomes: The Role of Felt Understanding and Gender.  Xing Liu, Wayne State University; Christina Hymer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville; and Sherry Thatcher, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Research examining the work-family interface indicates that work-family conflict contributes to negative individual outcomes, including reduced well-being and job performance. While valuable, this research has traditionally only accounted for the perspective of the worker. In this study, we examine the impact of a partner’s perceptions of a worker’s work-family interface on a focal worker’s work outcomes. Drawing upon identity theory, we anticipate that a partner’s identity comprehension (i.e., the extent to which a partner understands the importance of a focal worker’s work- and family-related identities) positively relates to a worker’s levels of job satisfaction, job engagement, and work-family balance satisfaction. That is, as a partner more correctly assesses the importance of a focal worker’s identities, they are better capable of providing resources to help a focal worker navigate work and family demands. We anticipate that these positive relationships are mediated by a focal worker's perception that their partner understands their work-family conflict. Drawing upon gender role theory, we anticipate that these relationships are strengthened when the focal worker is female given gender differences in role demands that may contribute to greater levels of work-family conflict among women. We test our model using a multi-source, multi-wave cross-lagged design on a sample of 158 couples from Prolific. We find that partners’ identity comprehension enhances focal workers’ job satisfaction, job engagement, and work-family balance satisfaction. However, felt understanding only mediates the relationship between identity comprehension and work-family balance satisfaction for female workers. Our paper carries implications for the identity and work-family literatures.

A New Dimension of the Motherhood Penalty: Perceptions of Future Childbearing Risk.  Tania Hutt, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile

While there is widespread evidence of the motherhood penalty in the U.S. labor market, it remains unclear whether future childbearing risk activates employers’ forward-looking concerns about job applicants. I draw from existing social-psychological research to theorize that future childbearing risk will be associated with forward-looking characteristics, such as future cost, risk, and growth potential. Using an original conjoint survey experiment that disentangles current motherhood status from future childbearing risk, I find that among childless women, future motherhood is penalized in perceptions of cost and risk while among current mothers, future additional childbearing is also penalized in perceptions of growth potential and competency. In addition, by examining how the penalty associated with current motherhood varies across low and high future childbearing risk, I find that when motherhood is signaled in isolation from future childbearing risk (i.e., mothers who are “done” with childbearing), mothers are penalized exclusively in perceptions associated with having current childcare responsibilities. In contrast, when current motherhood is combined with high future childbearing risk, the penalty is larger and impacts nearly all measures of cost, risk, growth potential, and reliability—being more closely aligned with the conventionally studied motherhood penalty. I also find some interesting variations of these penalties across racial and social class groups. I propose a theoretical framework that enables a deeper understanding of the motherhood penalty, showing how perceptions of future cost and risk of childbearing can affect childless women as well as exacerbate and expand the penalties already experienced by mothers of young children.

Paper Session

Gender, Partnerships, and Family Dynamics


Intensive Partnering: Gendered Partnership Aspirations and Household Inequality.  Yinan Wang, Harvard University

Existing scholarship addressing the discrepancy between rising egalitarian gender ideals and persistent household inequalities has either focused on structural/cultural influences on couple dynamics or on couples’ post-hoc justifications. This study identifies an overlooked perceptual mechanism - partnership aspirations - that operates prior to couple dynamics as guidelines that shapes their following interactions, resource distribution, and responsibility allocation. Using 89 interviews with college-educated individuals, I argue that their partnership aspirations can be characterized as “intensive partnering,” a multi-layered support framework emphasizing intertwining support for the partner, relationship, and household. Its maintenance demands intensive and extensive energy, cognitive capacity, and emotional investment; continuous adaptation and incorporation of cultural tools in adjustment to partner’s expectations; and persistent assessment of both parties’ personal and professional lives. Notably, female participants emphasized these demands more frequently than their male counterparts. These insights illuminate the perceptual underpinnings of household gender dynamics, opening new research directions on domestic gender inequality.

The Mental Load: Implications for Work-Family Integration Among Canadian Mothers.  Haneen Abraham, University of Alberta; and Rhonda Breitkreuz, University of Alberta

The mental load is a form of labor that describes cognitive and emotional labor undertaken by women, often in the form of rumination or anticipation about tasks pertaining to the functioning of the family system. Unlike tasks typically associated with reproductive work, such as childcare and housework, the mental load is an invisible form of labor. Characterized by its ambiguous boundaries, the mental load is a critical yet often overlooked factor in the work-family integration of Canadian mothers. Employing a socio-ecological, critical feminist approach, this study examines the ways in which the mental load impacts maternal employment choices. To conduct this analysis, data was collected from six focus groups and individual interviews with 58 mothers of preschool children in the Province of Alberta. The findings of this study highlight the diverse ways in which mental load is experienced, revealing how the mental load intersects with paid work and its impact on maternal employment choices. Specifically, we show how spouses' lack of recognition or awareness of the cognitive aspects of reproductive and household labor perpetuates gender inequality within households and hinders mothers' capacity and desire to engage in full-time employment. Because earned income is the key source of financial well-being for the majority of Canadian households, this research is important to explore pathways to enhancing income security while also contributing to the broader goal of gender equality in Canada.

Gender Ideology and Marital Dissatisfaction in Global Perspective.  Nandeen Bhattacharyya, International Institute for Population Sciences

The worldwide reduction in satisfaction of marital union is guiding traditional marriages to dissolve rapidly. Despite a sharp increase in research on gender norms and marital interface, most of the scholarly papers are concentrated on certain geographical areas having the advantage of quality longitudinal family data. Since gender ideology is transiting worldwide and has a diversified effect on individuals' decision-making and lived experience, this study provides insight into the ways in which gender ideology influences dissatisfaction in marital unions. This study uses the data from the ISSP 2012 module ‘Family and Changing Gender Roles’ to answer the question of whether individuals with varied gender ideologies show dissimilar patterns in marital dissatisfaction. With the help of a multinomial regression model, coefficients of three categories (dissatisfied, neutral, and satisfied) of marital quality are estimated by gender ideology. We find a significant association between marital dissatisfaction and egalitarian gender ideology in a global context. The adjusted percentage of marital dissatisfaction by gender ideology estimated from multinomial regression coefficients converted into Multiple Classification Analysis shows more dissatisfaction in marriage with egalitarian gender ideology rather than traditional ideology and even more among females. The rigid traditional ideologies of society prevent an individual from combining the two spheres of gender roles leading to a higher level of marital dissatisfaction. This global study highlights that individuals specifically females with an egalitarian gender ideology vis-à-vis those with a traditional gender outlook tend to be more dissatisfied in their marriage than their counterparts.

In Search of a Suitable Boy: Tracing Gendered Linkages Between Employment Status and Marriage Market Outcomes.  Shreya Singh, International Institute for Population Sciences; Srinivas Goli, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS); Anu Rammohan, University of Western Australia; and Harchand Ram, International Institute for Population Sciences

The Indian marriage market is characterized by its unique penchant for several requisites and restrictions on entering into a marital union. In recent times, these impositions have been undergoing a marked shift. Marriage as an institution is becoming increasingly sensitive to economic indicators. The erstwhile demands of religious, caste, wealth and educational endogamy have now been supplemented by the requirement of a steady job. Using longitudinal data collected by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, this paper seeks to map the gender differentials in employment status and marital status. The Cox Proportional Hazards Model reveals that employed males have a greater hazard ratio of entering into a marital union as compared to unemployed males, while the opposite is observed in the case of females. We thus conclude that linkages between employment status and marriage market outcome are considerably different for males and females, thereby adversely affecting their age at marriage.

Moving Beyond Family Borders: An Exploration of Work-Life Balance Experiences of Knowledge Workers Differentiated by Relationship and Parenthood Statuses..  Giulia Giunti, St Andrews; Laura Radcliffe, University of Liverpool; Rory Donnelly, University of Liverpool; and Ragnhild Nordset, University of Liverpool

Building on Border theory and Boundary theory, this paper elucidates how physical and non-physical borders between work and life are negotiated by knowledge workers in the profession of academia, a context in which boundaries/borders are highly permeable. In doing so, we move beyond the longstanding focus on work-family balance by examining three groups differentiated by relationship and parenthood statuses: (i) partnered/married academics without children; (ii) partnered/married academics with children; and (iii) academics who are single and without children. Drawing on rich insights from semi-structured interviews aided by photo elicitation, the paper contributes to the work-life literature by identifying similarities and differences in the ways in which boundaries/borders are negotiated by the three groups sampled. The findings provide insight into how to build more inclusive flexible working policies and practices.

Paper Session

Gender: Roles, Contributions, and Responsibilities Across the Life Course 1


Embracing the Non-Normative Roles? An Exploration of Stay-At-Home Fathers' Caregiving Journeys in Pakistan.  Rahat Shah, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; Shah Faisal, University of Stirling; and Fazal E Subhan Safi, Liverpool Hope University

This study aimed to explore the caregiving experiences of stay-at-home fathers (SAHFs) in Pakistan, an area of research that has not been fully explored. The study employed a qualitative approach and used the (un)doing gender as framework. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with a sample of 30 SAHFs in Pakistan. The results indicate that despite being in a SAHF role, most men avoided participation in caregiving responsibilities, citing a lack of caregiving skills, the perception of caregiving as a women's domain, stigmatization, and challenges to their masculinity as reasons. These SAHFs also devalued paternal caregiving compared to maternal, reflecting a widespread sentiment that women, particularly their wives, are naturally more adept at caregiving. However, the data shows that caregiving experiences of SAHFs were not homogeneous and their participation in caregiving roles was greatly influenced by household structure (joint-nuclear), levels of education, and residential background (rural-urban). The findings of this study make a valuable contribution to our understanding of how the powerful cultural narratives continue to reinforce gendered practices and perceptions, making it difficult for SAHFs to fully embrace their roles as primary caregivers in highly patriarchal non-western cultural contexts.

Running On Empty: Gender, Time Allocation, and Daily Stress Experience Across the Life Course.  Maria Stanfors, Lund University

Stress is a public health concern. One of the explanations to why women, more than men, receive stress-related diagnosis in connection to sickness absence is their responsibility for housework and caregiving. We investigate men’s and women’s time allocation and its association with everyday stress across life course stages (25-74 years), using individual time diary data (N=11,880) from the 2000/01 and 2010/11 Swedish Time Use Survey (SWETUS), including self-reported stress on the diary day. Though Sweden is known for gender equality in both the workplace and in the home, time use is still gendered. Women still perform more unpaid work, including housework and caregiving, across the life course, even if they are employed. Women are also more likely to experience daily stress across the life course, irrespective of life course stage. Results from multivariate regression analysis show that daily stress is higher for ages 25-49 than 50-74. Both determinants of stress and stress associations with time use vary between these groups. Paid work is positively related to men’s stress, while caregiving – to own children or other adults – is the primary determinant of women’s stress. Results hold across the life course and are independent of education, occupation, and income. Gender still structures individuals’ daily life and well-being.

Work-Family Balance and Adjustment of First-Time Urban Chinese Fathers During the Transition to Fatherhood.  Kai Sun, Arizona State University; and Xuan Li, University of Copenhagen

Research on the work-family interface typically focuses on mothers. However, men’s participation in the family domain has been increasing around the globe, including in urban China. With little policy support for men’s involvement in family life, it is likely for first-time Chinese fathers to feel squeezed between their two main roles: employee and parent. As such it is necessary to look into their work and family interface around childbirth and understand how today’s Chinese fathers navigate this crucial transition period.   The current study investigates how first-time urban Chinese fathers balance work and family responsibilities, and how their work-family interface relates to their adjustment. Survey data concerning their work-family experiences were collected from 108 first-time Chinese parents (54 couples; mean age=31.5, SD=6.21) living in Shanghai at three time points (3 months before childbirth, 3 months and 9 months after childbirth), among whom 40 couples were also interviewed. Preliminary analyses suggested that fathers’ perceived support in work and family domains played a crucial role in their work-family conflict after childbirth. Moreover, fathers’ psychological well-being after childbirth is influenced by multi-level factors on the individual and family level, including their gender-related traits, marital relationships, and social support. Additionally, interview respondents articulated a tension between the new fatherhood ideals and actual practices and a lack of workplace support for fathers. The finding contributes to the work-family scholarship as it captures paternal experiences during a most challenging transition period and explores multi-level factors related to their work-family balance and adjustment.

Are Attitudes and Behavior Aligned? Cohort Dynamics in Gender Attitudes and The Division of Childcare.  Hyunjae Kwon, University of Minnesota

1. Overarching Questions My paper addresses the following two questions. 1) How do the trends in age, period, and cohort affect work-family practices? 2) Does the trend in gender attitudes explain age, period, and cohort trends in work-family practices? 2. Methods 2.1. Data I use the Work and Family Life Study, which was formerly called the Marital Instability Over the Life Course. The study consists of three cross-sectional waves spanning over 40 years (1980, 2000, and 2022). Only married individuals between the ages of 19 and 55 in the United States were included in the study. I limit my sample to parents with household children and those who do not have missing values in the variables used in the current study. This results in an analytic sample of N = 3,381. 2.2. Variables My dependent variable is work-family practice. Following the approaches used in Pessin 2024 and Kitterød and Lappegård 2012, I perform latent class analysis (LCA) using a group of work-family related measures. These measures are wife's weekly time spent in paid work (in hours), husband’s weekly time spent in paid work (in hours), division of childcare, and division of housework. I compare the LCA results between the following number of classes: two, three, four, five, and six. The AIC and BIC values and my theoretical knowledge point to four as the optimal number. I define the four classes as traditional, egalitarian, his second-shift, and neither full-time. My key independent variable is gender attitudes. A set of seven questions in the survey taps into respondents’ attitudes regarding gender roles. I reverse code responses to some of the questions, so that for all seven questions, higher score indicates more gender egalitarian attitude (1 to 4). For the current iteration of analysis, I simply average responses to the seven questions to create a single index capturing gender attitudes. 2.3. Model I analyze work-family practice using Luo & Hodges’ APC-I model (2022). APC-I is a model that allows users to disentangle age, period, and cohort effects of a social trend. It is an improvement to previous versions in that it does not assume the existence of an independent cohort effect. Instead, it treats cohort effect as an interaction of age and period effects. One way to understand cohort effect is as variation in period that depends on age. 3. Important Findings Findings addressing my first research question: 1) How do the trends in age, period, and cohort affect work-family practices? Age effect As individuals age throughout their life course, the log odds of their work-family practices being egalitarian versus traditional increases. Period Effect The patterns of period effect are unusual at first glance. One would expect the log odds of having traditional work-family practices versus egalitarian to decrease from 1980 to 2022. The log odds decreases from 1980 to 2000 (from -0.426 to -0.856); however, it actually increases from 2000 to 2022 (from -0.856 to 1.226). This set of results highlights the importance of detangling age, period, and cohort effects. When age and cohort effects are accounted for, the probability of individuals implementing traditional over egalitarian work-family practice increases from 2000 to 2022. Cohort Effect Out of the 14 cohort effects (for 14 cohort groups), 12 were statistically significant. The log odds of having traditional versus egalitarian work-family practice decreases slightly from the 1925-1930 to 1956-1960 cohort. And even though the log odds decreases, it remains positive throughout the period, which indicates that the probability of having traditional work-family practice is higher than the probability of having egalitarian work-family practice Deviating from the trend, the direction of the log odds switches for the 1961-1965 cohort. This suggests that the probability of having traditional work-family practice becomes even higher compared to the probability of having egalitarian work-family practice. Then, the direction switches back again for the 1966-1970 cohort. Starting with the 1971-1975 cohort, the log odds is negative. In particular, there is a dramatic decrease in the log odds from the 1971-1975 to 1976-1982 cohort. Then, the log odds actually increases consistently for the subsequent cohorts. This implies that the 1983-1987, 1988-1992, and 1993-1997 cohorts are more likely to have traditional work-family practice than the 1976-1982 cohort. Findings addressing my second research question: 2) Does the trend in gender attitudes explain age, period, and cohort trends in work-family practices? When I add gender attitudes variables to the model, the general cohort patterns remain the same. However, there are two key differences in detail. The positive log odds are higher in value, and the negative log odds are lower in value. This suggests that without the observed trend in gender attitudes, the log odds of having traditional versus egalitarian work-family practice would have been higher for all cohorts. However, statistical tests show that none of the differences in cohort effects between the model without and with gender attitudes are statistically significant. 4. Implications for research, policy and/or practice My findings show that disentangling age, period, and cohort effects is crucial to understanding the trend in individuals’ work-family practices. Contrary to my expectation, the trend in gender attitudes does not explain the cohort differences in work-family practices. References Kitterød, R. H., & Lappegård, T. (2012). A Typology of Work-Family Arrangements Among Dual-Earner Couples in Norway. Family Relations, 61(4), 671–685. Luo, L., & Hodges, J. S. (2022). The Age-Period-Cohort-Interaction Model for Describing and Investigating Inter-cohort Deviations and Intra-cohort Life-course Dynamics. Sociological Methods & Research, 51(3), 1164–1210. Pessin, L. (2024). Gender Equality for Whom? The Changing College Education Gradients of the Division of Paid Work and Housework Among US Couples, 1968–2019. Social Forces, soae028.

Paper Session

Gender: Roles, Contributions, and Responsibilities across the Life Course 2


Economic of Widow Mortality in India.  Babul Hossain, International Institute for Population Sciences

The economic consequence of widowhood on health is well-established, demonstrating that poorer economic status can significantly modify health outcomes, even the risk of mortality. However, empirical evidence is restricted only to developed countries. Thus, this study assesses the roles of economic factors (paid work, pension and household economic status) on the mortality of widows in broad age groups from India. We used two waves of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), a nationally representative prospective dataset in India for 42,009 women (married and widows) aged 25 years and above from IHDS wave 1 whose survival status was observed between two waves. Further, 6,953 widows were considered for sub-sample analysis in this study. Logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM) were applied to understand the association and causality between economic factors and mortality for widows. Poor household status paid regular work, and receiving a widowed pension were significantly associated with lower mortality for young widows, while unpaid and paid regular work was linked considerably with mortality for old widows. The result of causal inference suggests that receiving a widows' pension had no significant impact on mortality for both young and old widows, while engaging in paid regular work significantly reduced the mortality of old widows. These findings suggest that paid employment has a protective impact by reducing mortality among widows in India.

Changing Family Configurations, Non-Resident Father’s Marginalisation Through Lack of Power and Choice.  Dominic Violi, Western Sydney University; Peter Lewis, Western Sydney University; Cannas Kwok, Charles Sturt University; and Nathan Wilson, Western Sydney University

Abstract Background: In 2011 the UN reported non-resident fathers may experience several family configurations over their lifetime resulting in diminished relationships with their children and possible marginalisation. This may result in stress, distress and mental health issues as non-resident fathers’ mental wellbeing is often correlative to child access, and impacted by social and legal structures. Aim: This study aimed to explore non-resident fathers' experience of changing family configurations, the impact of change on themselves and their relationships with children. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used with 19 Australian participants. Topics included: changes to family configuration, desired relationship with children, helps and hindrances to their relationship with children. Critical Thematic Analysis was used for data analysis with data scrutinised and sorted to plot changes and identify basis of power within interactions. Results: Changing family configurations resulted in the deterioration and hindrance of non-resident father’s relationships with their children, lack of agency and decision-making power and difficulties in social and legal forums. Conclusions: The changes in family configurations had serious consequences for non-resident father’s relationships with their children and mental health. Changed family configurations were difficult to resolve resulting in stress, distress, marginalisation and a sense of disempowerment. Outcome: Non-resident father’s relationships with their children and mental health status can be improved by addressing the impacts of change, minimising marginalisation, improving agency in decision-making, minimising conflict and increased involvement in the lives of their children.

The Changing Demography of Single Motherhood: Its Causes and Consequences For Women in Sweden 1905-2015.  Maria Stanfors, Lund University; and Gabriel Brea Martinez, Lund University

Single mothers have fewer resources than partnered mothers with implications for their own well-being and their children’s future. We apply a long-term perspective and study the changing demography of single motherhood in Sweden using individual-level data from the Scanian Economic and Demographic Database (SEDD) 1905-2015. We document routes into single motherhood and study its determinants over the course of the 20th century. Further, we investigate the consequences of single motherhood in terms of economic outcomes (occupation, education, and income) compared to those of married women, exploring differences between the never married, divorced, and widowed. We explore change over time against the backdrop of increasing cohabitation and divorce, particularly after 1970. Determinants of single motherhood include immigrant background, urban residence, and SES, highlighting a longstanding interplay of immigration, social class, and changing marital statuses. Examination of more or less causal relationships (OLS, LPM, PSM) suggests disadvantage for single mothers in terms of higher education, SES, and income. The results show that single motherhood changed in character from the late 1960s and onwards with family demographic change and female independence. However, single mothers’ disadvantage compared to married women increased from the early 1970s and in more recent decades, i.e., when married women made remarkable gains in the labor market, single mothers were left behind, despite active social policy and a comprehensive welfare state targeting inequality in opportunities as well as outcomes. The present study shows that single motherhood is a dynamic concept, changing over time, yet consistently impacting women’s socioeconomic outcomes.

Financial Stability Among Bereaved Women in South Korea: A Focus on Intergenerational Transfers, Income, and Pensions.  Dahye Kim, National University of Singapore; Jeremy Lim-Soh, Duke-NUS Medical School; and Christine Mair, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Despite ongoing debates about the financial challenges faced by older women after bereavement, little is known about their financial stability, especially when considering diverse sources of financial support. These sources encompass the state's welfare provision, support from children driven by filial piety, inheritance, wealth left by their spouse, and labor income. This study utilizes seven waves of exit surveys from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging to explore the financial stability profiles of bereaved women in Korea—a society experiencing shifts in filial norms and transitioning toward a welfare state. We construct a financial stability typology through latent class analysis, with a focus on intergenerational transfers, income, and pensions. Additionally, we employ binary and ordered logistic regression analyses to investigate sociodemographic factors associated with stability types and their impact on subjective well-being. Our results reveal that bereaved women in Korea exhibit varying combinations of economic resources. Only a small fraction exhibit a well-rounded and balanced high level of financial support, while over 40% rely on both universal pension and intergenerational support. In groups with lower levels of financial support, transfers from their children play a significant role. This research paper aims to fill a critical literature gap by examining the financial circumstances of widowed women, shedding light on the challenges they face, and exploring potential solutions to enhance their financial well-being in an evolving societal landscape. Ultimately, this research has the potential to inform policies and strategies that can better support widowed women and promote their financial independence and security.

Changing Demographic Processes and The Gender Revolution in the United States.  Léa Pessin, ENSAE/CREST; and Liying Luo, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)

Have U.S. couples become more egalitarian over time? How should we interpret the persistence of her-second-shift couples across the years? These questions have important implications for our theoretical frameworks of social change, but also in finding practical solutions to reducing gender inequality within partnerships. Yet, answering these questions requires the simultaneous considerations of three distinct dimensions of time: age, period, and cohort. In this paper, we will apply recent methodological advancement in age-period-cohort modeling, namely the Age-Period-Cohort-Interaction model, to historical data from the 1968-2021 Panel of Study of Income Dynamics. We will focus on the three work-family strategies that have received the most theoretical attention within the gender revolution literature: traditional couples, her-second-shift couples, and egalitarian couples. We will examine how age, period, and cohort patterns shape historical changes in how different-sex couples divide paid work and housework in the United States.

Paper Session

Gendered Perceptions and Representations of Work-Family Issues


“It Really Freed Me Up to Work”: Australian Mothers’ Experiences of Living With a Father Who Works Part-Time.  Eric Mercier, University of Adelaide; Amanda LeCouteur, University of Adelaide; and Paul Delfabbro, University of Adelaide

The literature about mothers and engaged fatherhood is expanding; however, current research focuses on breadwinner mothers living with stay-at-home fathers. There is a gap in knowledge about the experiences of mothers who live with part-time working fathers. The current study focuses on Australian breadwinner mothers’ experiences within such a family arrangement. Interviews with 15 mothers were analysed with Reflexive Thematic Analysis. Two themes transpired: (1) a recurrent contrasting by mothers of their experiences at work and home (the arrangement was described as contributing to their career, and disrupting traditional mothering), and (2) a constant comparison by mothers between themselves and partners in relation to work and parenting (career was suggested as more important for participants and fathers were suggested as better fits for child-rearing). A common element in both themes was the overall positive presentation of the family arrangement as well-balanced. Participants balanced the family arrangement’s flaws with its benefits. Furthermore, participants’ positioning suggested an identification to an in-group which aligned to traditional motherhood while deviating from traditional feminine norms. As societal norms shift towards greater gender equality, this study helps increase awareness of the variety of contemporary mothering practices, by reporting experiences of mothers who adopt non-traditional mothering practices.

Understanding Public Perceptions of the Mental Load Through Popular Media Comments.  Liz Dean, University of Melbourne; and Brendan Churchill, University of Melbourne

The mental load involves cognitive labour and emotional labour: the interplay of anticipating, thinking and caring about family needs and feelings. As cognitive labour, it involves the scheduling, planning, and organising required to support the smooth operation and functioning of families, and this points toward the emotional dimension. Cognitive labour involved in supporting families emerges from caring for loved ones and that involves emotional labour. As I and others have previously theorised, the mental load - the combined cognitive, emotional, and affective labour is invisible because much of this work is internal to the body and not visible to others (Dean et al. 2021; Daminger 2019, Offer 2014). Recent scholarship has brought newfound public interest in how mental load can be understood. This is the impetus for this paper, which asks: how does popular media and the public understand and conceptualise the mental load? Drawing on media texts from national newspapers and popular online articles in Australia and elsewhere (n=20) which focus on the mental loud, this paper utilises innovative textual methods to analyse readers comments (n=1200) to examine the publics’ perceptions of the mental load. Preliminary findings from the analyses reveal that many commenters understand the mental load as yet another form of domestic labour, overlooking the emotional and affective elements of this work. This has important repercussions for how to tackle the mental load and suggests that more needs to be done to advance public understanding of this social phenomenon.

“How to Have a Job and Children (and Be Happy)”: Constructing and Marketing Work–Family Issues on Parents Magazine Covers, 1926–2021.  Casey Scheibling, University of Nevada, Reno; Linda Quirke, Wilfrid Laurier University; and Deanna Persico, Wilfrid Laurier University

Throughout the modern age, magazines have played a pivotal role in the popular culture of parenthood. They not only help to define the pressing family concerns of a given era, but they also commercialize those concerns—especially through catchy cultural messaging displayed on magazine covers. In this study, we interrogate how work–family issues are constructed, marketed, and gendered on Parents Magazine covers (n=1,041) over nearly a century (1926–2021). After applying descriptive codes to all cover headlines, we performed a “directed” analysis of all work-related content to track and interpret the development of key work–family issues and terms over time. Although Parents Magazine did not meaningfully feature paid work on covers for the first five decades of publication, we identified two notable shifts in themes about the interrelation of work and family life. Beginning in the 1970s, paid work was constructed as a new, valued identity for mothers, with advice oriented toward finding “success,” “balance,” and “happiness.” Then, in the 1990s and beyond, we find a sharp reduction in work discourse, with tips for “quitting” your job, transitioning to “at-home” work, and dealing with work stress. We also note that men's employment is strongly taken-for-granted since work-related headlines focus almost entirely on whether and how women should manage paid work. We juxtapose these findings against historical waves of feminism to explain a discursive shift from “having it all” to “opting out.” We conclude by discussing socio-cultural implications of this gendered marketing in a leading family publication.

Synergistic or Siloed? The Communicative Practices Involved in Dual-Earner Coupled Parents’ Relational Boundary Navigation and the Implications for Gendered Work-Family Experiences.  Jasmine Kelland, University of Plymouth; Laura Radcliffe, University of Liverpool; Grace Williams, University of Liverpool; and Joanna Gregory-Chialton, University of Liverpool

It is well established that in contemporary Western society work and family (WF) are often navigated by both members of a parenting couple. However, existing understandings regarding the communicative processes by which both parents navigate, and relationally co-construct WF boundaries together remain somewhat of a theoretical blind spot. This study provides insights into the relational communicative practices that coupled, heterosexual parents engage in when navigating WF boundaries. Our couple-level data collected during the UK COVID-19 lockdown period, in which parents simultaneously experienced boundary disruption, explores the communicative practices engaged in relationally navigating boundaries. Utilising a multi-method, qualitative approach constituting initial qualitative surveys (n=134) in-depth interviews (n=56), and daily diaries (n=26) with employed parents in dual-earner couples we make two novel contributions to WF literature. Firstly, we introduce two distinct relational communicative boundary navigation modes; conceptualised as ‘synergistic’ and ‘siloed’, to explain the different ways in which couples communicate to relationally navigate boundaries, moving away from pre-existing non-relational conceptualisations s of individual ‘communicative tactics’. Secondly, we demonstrate a gendered dimension to these relational communicative practices, revealing how this can impact upon prevailing gender inequality between parents. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for both society and organisations.

Exploring the Interplay Among Gender Roles, Well-Being, and Work-Family Conflict Among Female Employees: The African Perspective..  Abigail Opoku Mensah, University of Professional Studies; Joan-Ark Manu Agyapong, University of Cape Coast; Ummu Markwei, University of Professional Studies; and Erika Osae, University of Professional Studies

Abstract Purpose: This study investigates the intricate interplay among gender roles, well-being, and work-family conflict within the Ghanaian context. The study focused on 15 female medical doctors and 15 female junior administrators working in a Ghanaian hospital. The study examines the challenges and coping strategies employed by these women as they navigate the complexities of their roles. Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings: The findings of the study revealed the following key areas: Participants described how standard ideas about gender roles affected their choices about careers and family duties. Work-family conflict was a common challenge, which was because of pressures of their jobs and family expectations. Limitations: This includes the small sample size used and the focus on only female medical doctors and junior administrators. This implies that, it will be difficult to generalize the findings of the study. Implications: The findings reveal the need for policy changes, a look at the accepted cultural values and norms on gender roles, provision of support system both at work and home to empower women in Ghana to balance their gender roles more effectively. Originality/Value: The findings of the study, contributes to the existing literature by offering insights into the complex interplay of the variables from an African perspective. The ways of coping that were found and the experiences of participants can help lawmakers and organisations work towards gender equality and well-being. Keywords: Gender Roles, and Work-Family Conflict, female employees and Africa.

Paper Session

Gendered Realities of Employment


Painful Leadership Evaluations: The Impact of Endometriosis on Women Leaders.  Marlee Mercer, York University; and Tina Sharifi, York University

Endometriosis, characterized by painful periods, infertility risks, and quality of life disruptions, affects approximately ten percent of women of reproductive age. This disease requires attention due to its gendered nature conflicting with organizations’ male-oriented values. These organizational-based barriers paint women as emotional and hysterical. Women with endometriosis are often forced into silence, leading to disparities in performance and perceptions of their effectiveness. However, limited research explores the long-term impact of endometriosis on women’s careers, particularly women in leadership roles. Expectations surrounding leadership, rooted in the patriarchal image of unwavering devotion to the workplace, challenge women leaders with endometriosis who experience daily pain. These experiences can hinder their ability to demonstrate a constant commitment to the organization. This conceptual paper applies the Role Congruity Theory to propose that women leaders with endometriosis are perceived as less capable leaders, diminishing their leadership ratings. This relationship is proposed to be moderated by the women leaders’ access to and adoption of work-life flexibility policies. Gender stereotypes suggest male leaders prioritize work over family. Under pressure to emulate male counterparts, women leaders may neglect these valuable resources. Additionally, this paper introduces social participation as a moderator. Endometriosis negatively impacts women leaders’ social participation due to depression and anxiety symptoms and an inability to attend work events. This isolation may lead women leaders to face backlash for role-incongruent characteristics. Accordingly, this paper highlights the role of endometriosis as an intersecting component within women leaders’ work and family domains. These findings and implications are discussed.

“There’s no Hiding It”: How Legal Obligations to Accommodate Pregnancy Contribute to Discriminatory Job Loss.  Emma Graham, Australian National University

In Australian workplaces, maternity discrimination is pervasive, with at least one in five mothers experiencing job loss during pregnancy, while on parental leave or upon their return to work. Although there is a rich literature in Australia that identifies the limitations of labour laws both to provide redress for discrimination that has occurred and to advance substantive workforce gender equality, there has been very limited empirical analysis of the causes of discrimination resulting in job loss and the possible contributory role of the law. With a particular focus on pregnancy, this presentation considers the effectiveness of the ‘accommodation’ based approach to addressing the intersection of work and care, found in the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth). This research is informed by feminist legal theory and draws on original analysis of 38 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with Australian mothers who have experienced discriminatory job loss. The following findings will be discussed: • Pregnant women risk deviating from masculine workplace norms when they seek accommodations, to which they are legally entitled, such as transfer to a safe job, time off for pregnancy-related illness or requesting parental leave. • The accommodation-based approach reinforces masculine workplace norms by positioning mothers as ‘others’. • For many of the research participants, it was the need to be ‘accommodated’ that resulted in their job loss. These findings problematise calls for law reform that seek to strengthen the scope and enforcement of accommodation obligations under Australian labour laws. The author will argue that any policies seeking to address the prevalence of discriminatory job loss experienced by pregnant women and mothers will also need to challenge the organisation of work around male norms of availability, the cultural schemas of work devotion and compliance, and the gendered nature of parenting and care provision.

“This is Art of Balance”. Gendered Realities of Academics in Iceland and Canada..  Andrea Hjálmsdóttir, University of Akureyri; Laura Landertinger, Ontario Ministry of Education, Canada; Helga Kristín Hallgrímsdóttir, University of Victoria; and Þorgerður Einarsdóttir, University of Iceland

All labour markets are affected by complex systems of gender and gendered relations, the higher education institutions being no exception, and much of social inequality is created and reproduces in organizations. Academia has often been described as a masculine organization steeped in male privilege, exemplified by the underrepresentation of women in academic leadership positions, and among the ranks as full professors. In this presentation we take a closer look at gendered career paths among academics in Iceland and western Canada. The two countries are interesting cases for a comparative discussion because of their similarities and divergences. Iceland is categorized among the Nordic social democratic welfare states and Canada among the liberal countries. The study draws on interviews with academics in the two countries, 13 women and 13 men in heteronormative relationships. The data speaks to struggles -especially among the women- around work-life balance, competing responsibilities between research, teaching, and family commitments, gendered patterns in care and housework, and how these trends emerge and manifest in the lived experiences of the participants in the research. While welfare models and policies differ between the two countries, Iceland has increasingly adopted a traditional Anglo-Saxon career model in higher education, likening it to the Canadian one. The findings contribute to our knowledge of how different welfare policies shape and intersect with higher educational institutional cultures in the two countries and how academics describe their daily lives, career paths, and decision making around family and work in pursuit for work-life balance.

Gender and Work-Family Conflicts: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  Shubhra Kriti, International Institute for Population Sciences; and Srinivas Goli, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS)

Gender norms or ideologies are key drivers of work-family interfaces and related conflicts. In this systematic review and meta analyses, we have two-fold objectives: (1) to assess the prevailing heterogeneity in family-work interfaces (Family-Work-Conflict: FWC) and work-family interfaces (Work-family-conflict: WFC) across the globe using uniform measure; (2) to assess the heterogeneity in reporting of work-family conflict across the gender and their underlying facets. The study systematically selects 19 studies out 4364 articles appeared in search across three databases (i.e. Jstor, Google Scholars and family study journal) for its meta analyses. Results advance that globally female report disproportionately higher FWC and WFC compared to their male counterparts with average score varying between 2.3 to 2.5 in a scale of 0 to 5. The Meta analyses of findings reported in 16 studies reveal that the FWC and WFC is highly heterogeneous (I2=100%) across the globe with women reporting higher work-family conflict than men, ranging from 5% to 108% across the different parts of the globe. This huge gender disparity in the reporting of work family conflicts can be understood as the complex interplay of the socio-cultural, economic and political determinants. In conclusion, we advance that this systematic review and meta analyses of FWC and WFC is a timely effort to understand and summarize their reporting pattern by gender. From a policy and practical perspective, the study advances that gender-egalitarian work-family conciliation policies and the improvement in labour market environments for females are critical to reduce both WFC and FWC across the countries.

Paper Session

Health and Well-Being in the Work-Family Context


"Betwixt and Between": How Liminal Experience Facilitates Work Recovery and Well-Being.  Soo Min Toh, University of Toronto - Rotman School; and Xue Xiang, University of Toronto - Rotman School

The trend toward remote work raises critical questions for work and family researchers. As the boundaries between work and personal life blur, the role of liminal activities comes into the spotlight. With its roots in anthropology, the construct of liminality refers to the suspension of "ordinary social structures" (Johnsen & Sorensen, 2015, p. 321), such as the social roles individuals perform in their work and family lives. Individuals can enter this state of liminality by performing liminal activities that are not part of their social role requirements (e.g., exercising, commuting) to facilitate psychological role transitioning and recovery from work (e.g., McAlpine & Piszczek, 2022). Building on resource theories (Hobfoll, 1998), our ongoing empirical study identifies mechanisms that may hinder individuals from entering this liminal state and reaping associated recovery benefits. Central to our investigation is the role of reflection in liminal experiences (Beech, 2011). We posit that while positive self-reflection can amplify the benefits of liminality, rumination might serve as a deterrent. Additionally, we posit that individuals’ positive and negative affect play a key role in the liminal experience such that entering into the liminal space with high negative affect prevents individuals from realizing the benefits of liminality. Furthermore, we investigate the roles of conformity and varying levels of collectivism in the experience of liminality, determining if they serve as facilitators or barriers. This research advances our understanding of evolving work-life dynamics and resource recovery strategies and has implications for managing work boundaries, especially in the digital age.

Divorce and Mental Health: Analysis at the Intersection of Age, Gender, and Income.  Stefania Molina, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin / Humboldt University of Berli; Enrique Alonso-Perez, Charité Berlin; and Michaela Kreyenfeld, Hertie School

This paper examines how divorce relates to mental health, and how this association is stratified by gender, age, and individual income. Data is drawn from German register data, which includes marital histories of divorcees and diagnosed health outcomes. The analytical sample includes persons aged 30-59 in 2015 (n=23,426,639). We employ a Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity and Discriminatory Accuracy (MAIHDA), a method considered to operationalize intersectionality in quantitative research, to compare the patterns of the newly divorced (divorced for less than four years) to the patterns of the never divorced. The outcome variable is the annual incidence of mental disease diagnosis. With this approach, we aim to identify high-risk populations along the age-gender-income spectrum. Findings: - Compared to the never divorced, we find a very strong age gradient among newly divorced women. - While age seems to be a general risk factor, the small group of women with a very high income face a relatively low risk of receiving a mental disease diagnosis. - Among men, older and low-income males are at particularly high risk of being diagnosed with a mental disease. Divorced low-income men ages 40-59 are an explicitly high-risk group. This group deserves more attention in the analysis of the effects of divorce, given their highly elevated risk profile. Moreover, the findings may suggest that the negative effects of gray divorce on women's mental health may be mitigated as women become more integrated into the labor market.

The influence of demands and resources in work and domestic domains on return to work.  Maaike de Jong, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG; Tialda Hoekstra, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen/UMCG; Nicole Snippen, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG; Haitze de Vries, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG; Jolanda Schreuder, Schreuderarbo; Sandra Brouwer, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG; and Corné Roelen, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen / UMCG / Arbo Unie

Overarching questions/concerns Due to changes in both work and domestic environment within the past decades, employees find themselves struggling to balance the competing demands of work and domestic life more and more. This struggle had adverse effect on workrelated outcomes, such as sickness absence and return to work. To date, research in the field of occupational health mainly focuses on the influence of work demands and resources on work outcomes, showing that higher demanding jobs and lack of social support are associated with unfavorable work outcomes. The influence of domestic demands and resources, (i.e. household tasks and care for elderly) on work outcomes has hardly been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between demands and resources in both the work and domestic domain on return to work. Statement on methods This prospective study with 2-year follow-up used survey and sick-leave registry data from a longitudinal cohort study among sick-listed employees of a large occupational health service in the Netherlands. Participants were asked to fill in the questionnaire in the first 6 weeks of their medical sick leave. A 2-year follow-up was used, because in the Netherlands employers are responsible for return to work for 2 years after an employee reports sick. During this 2 year period employers and employees are advised by an occupational physician. The outcome measure of this study was return to work after 2 years. The validated Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to measure work demands and resources. Work demands were measured by three scales: quantitative demands, emotional demands and cognitive demands. Work resources were measured by two scales: social support at work and influence at work. As no validated questionnaire is available to measure domestic demands and resources, the COPSOQ scales were adjusted to conceptually mirror the original questionnaire to fit the domestic domain. Statistical analyses were conducted by logistic regression analysis. Important findings • A total of 120 employees were included (44% female, mean age 52.4 (SD 10.8)). • Stratified by self-reported diagnosis, 66 participants called in sick because of a somatic cause, 26 participants had a mental cause and 25 participants had a mixed (both somatic and mental) sickness absence cause. • Work resources were significantly associated with return to work, but only in sickness absence due to mental causes. In this group, participants with higher perceives scores for work resources, were less likely to return to work (OR 0.904 [0.831-0.982], p=0.017). • No significant associations were found between work demands, domestic demands and domestic resources and return to work. Implications for research, policy and/or practice In this study, it was shown that work resources negatively influence return to work in participants on sick leave for mental reasons. No other significant findings were found, which might be due to the limited study sample. More research is needed to examine the relationship of demands and resources in the work and domestic domains and work outcomes in larger samples and with validated instruments. In further research it might also be interesting to focus on more longitudinal data, as demands and resources in the work and domestic domain might change over time.

Connecting After Hours: A Multilevel Analysis of How Off-Clock Work Affects Psychological Detachment and Emotional Exhaustion.  Kristine Lescoeur, OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University; Vilde Hoff Bernstrøm, OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University; Jan Malte Runge, Oslo Metropolitan University; and Wendy Nilsen, Work Research Institute OsloMet

This study examines the role of psychological detachment in explaining the relationship between staying connected to work during nonwork time and emotional exhaustion, using a longitudinal approach. Drawing on the stressor-detachment model, we test a mediation model in which after-hour connectivity is positively related to emotional exhaustion via psychological detachment, both within and between persons. We used longitudinal data from an online panel survey with four measurements, separated by six months, between 2021 and 2022. Our analytical sample included 3192 Norwegian employees (49% female, mean age=47 (SD=11.2)). Overall, the results from multilevel analyses supported our hypothesized model. Our findings showed that: • After-hour connectivity was positively related to emotional exhaustion via psychological detachment. • Within persons, periods of higher after-hour connectivity were related to lower psychological detachment and higher emotional exhaustion. • Between persons, respondents who were generally more connected after workhours, had lower psychological detachment and in turn higher emotional exhaustion. • Analyses of emergent effects revealed that the strength of the paths in the model were stronger between persons than within persons. Expanding on previous research, our findings show the importance of detaching from work during nonwork time for employees’ wellbeing. The implications of these findings suggest that employees can benefit from disconnecting at times when it is not strictly necessary to be working after workhours.

Communion Job Demands/Resources and Well-being: Unpacking the Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict Across the Lifespan.  Miriam Dishon-Berkovits, Ono Academic College; Egidio Riva, University of Milano-Bicocca; and Mario Lucchini, University of Milano-Bicocca

In this study, we delve into the fundamental human desire for interpersonal closeness and connection in the workplace, exploring its potential impact on reducing work-family conflict (WFC) and subsequently enhancing overall well-being. Drawing on job demands-resources (J-DR) and self-determination (SDT) theories, we investigate how the influence of communion job resources (specifically, employee involvement and supportive leadership) and job hindrance demands (particularly, surface acting) varies across different stages of the life course. Our focus lies on three critical dimensions of employee well-being: mental health, sleep quality, and work engagement. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to analyze data from the 6th European Working Conditions Survey encompassing 35,377 employees across 35 countries, we uncover noteworthy findings. Communion job resources were found to be linked with reduced WFC, which, in turn, correlates with improved overall well-being. Conversely, communion job hindrance demands are associated with heightened WFC, subsequently leading to diminished well-being outcomes. Notably, these findings hold significance for both men and women across various age groups, with a more pronounced effect observed among women aged 50 and above. The implications of these findings shed light on the importance of fostering interpersonal connections and support in the workplace, not only for reducing work-family conflict but also for promoting employee well-being. This study provides valuable insights for organizations and policymakers seeking to create healthier and more fulfilling work environments for their diverse workforce.

Paper Session

Health Determinants and Outcomes Across Varied Work-Family Arrangements


Performance at Work and at Home: An Exploratory Analysis of the Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Diets of Working Parents.  Soo Min Toh, University of Toronto - Rotman School; Julie McCarthy, University of Toronto; Cilia Mejia-Lancheros, Institue for Better Health; Jess Haines, University of Guelph; and David Ma, University of Guelph

As the world grapples with a cost-of-living crisis and the threat of food insecurity, understanding how workers’ diet affects their health and engagement at work and homes is paramount. Food can be beneficial in promoting well-being and role performance at work and at home. Among dietary nutrients, omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have been shown to reduce depression, anxiety, and stress. The role of omega-3 FA, commonly found in seafood and supplements, in replenishing and building mental and physical resources necessary to engage with work and home responsibilities is poorly understood. This exploratory study examined associations between omega-3 FA in working parents’ diets and their performance, ability to fulfill responsibilities and duties in the workplace and at home, and the mediating role of their mental health status. We examined the 3-day diet records, depressive symptoms, and performance of 146 parents of 82 one- or two-parent families from the Guelph Family Health Study. Pathway analysis was performed using Mplus. Results showed an indirect and positive role of omega-3 FA intake on parents’ working and family performance through diet’s influence on depressive symptoms. Furthermore, this association varied by biological sex and females with greater omega-3 FA intake had lower depressive symptoms. These findings advance work-family research highlighting diet as a potential influence on role performance. Specifically, it highlights the need for adequate omega-3 FA intake so that working parents are equipped to function successfully at home and at work.

Precarious Lives, Precarious Work: Social Determinants of Racialized Immigrant Men’s Mental Health.  Salmaan Khan, Toronto Metropolitan University

A pilot study sought to shed light on the impacts of precarious working conditions (unpredictable work schedules, long hours, low-wages, and unsteady contract work) on the mental health of racialized immigrant men. Interviews and focus groups with a sample of racialized men working in precarious jobs, unearthed the intersectional nexus of social forces related to race and gender roles, in addition to their work arrangement, that negatively impacted their sense of wellbeing and mental health. Many of the men dealt with work related stress through substance use issues which in turn had consequences for their relationships with their spouse and children. The men we spoke with lamented the lack of a relationship they have with their children because of their work situation, but also showed an awareness of dominant notions of masculinity and gender roles that only further exacerbated the situation and which equally contributed to shaping how they dealt with work stress and uncertainty. This study is significant in drawing attention to underlying systemic social and economic issues that need to be addressed when considering policies and practices aimed at fostering more healthy parent-child relationships as well spousal relationships. As it stands these topics, with respect to members from racialized communities, have tended to be discussed and addressed in predominantly culturalist terms; in terms of identifying limitations in existing cultural practices or norms.

Change and Heterogeneity in Women’s and Men’s Experienced Well-Being.  Liana Sayer, University of Maryland, College Park; Kelsey Drotning, U.S. Census Bureau; and Sarah Flood, University of Minnesota

The pandemic has caused sharp disruptions in work and family patterns and exacerbated chronic and life stressors for individuals and families. Women have also experienced greater care burdens and impacts on employment compared with men. How the pandemic has affected women’s and men’s experienced well-being (EWB) during daily activities is unclear, however. This is a critical gap because of the robust influences of EWB across the life course on health. The uneven experience of pandemic-related stress and strain across population sub-groups may be exacerbating pre-pandemic inequities in EWB. We use the 2010-2013 and 2021 American Time Use Survey and Well-Being Module data to investigate how EWB changed during the Pandemic and how change varies by gender, employment, and family status. We assess change in EWB averaged across activities and experienced during episodes of paid work, household and care work, and leisure activities. Our results show that women and men report more fatigue and less meaning in 2021 whereas stress, pain, sadness, and happiness are similar before and during the Pandemic. Employed women report higher fatigue and less happiness and meaning compared with men and unemployed women. Documenting changing patterns of gender differences in EWB across daily activities for employed and not-employed adults contributes by providing richer and more nuanced evidence about the extent and nature of gender inequality in well-being during the pandemic.

Caring for Autism: Exploring the Work-Life Balance of Employed Caregivers.  Esther Canonico, Imperial College London; and Daniela Lup, ECSP Business School

Issues surrounding autism in the workplace affect not only individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but also their carers. Grounded in the work-life interface literature, this qualitative study aims to examine the impact of caring for individuals with ASD on the work domain. While there are some existing studies that have explored the repercussions of caring for individuals with disabilities on work-life balance (Brown & Clark, 2017; Hodgetts et al., 2014), the available research is limited. Prior research has provided evidence of the substantial costs borne by caregivers of individuals with autism, encompassing diminished productivity, missed career opportunities, and reduced income (e.g., Montes & Halterman, 2008; Ganz, 2007). However, little is known about how caring for someone with ASD can affect caregivers' experience at work, their work-life balance, and associated work-related attitudes, such as job engagement, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and organizational commitment (Hurley-Hanson et al., 2020). To address this limitation, we conduct in-depth interviews with working carers, including parents and spouses, of individuals with ASD. The insights gained from this study will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the challenges faced by caregivers of individuals with ASD and the impact on their professional lives.

Paper Session

Impact of Workplace Policies on Domestic Labour, Jobs, and Careers


How Retail Work Scheduling Practices Reproduce Racial Inequities.  Erin Carreon, University of Chicago; Susan Lambert, University of Chicago; and Resha Swanson, University of Chicago

This study draws from Victor Ray’s theory of racialized organizations to reveal mechanisms through which scheduling practices reproduce racial inequities among young adult part-time apparel retail workers. We analyze posted work schedules, timeclock data, and employee surveys from a total of 1326 part-time employees working in 30 stores of a major apparel retailer. Our findings provide evidence of how colorblind scheduling policies and the decoupling of scheduling practices from these policies serve to reproduce racial inequities in the scheduling process. White part-timers reported greater schedule input and had more predictable hours (smaller difference between scheduled and worked hours) when compared to their coworkers of color in the same stores. Moreover, the ramifications of scheduling practices varied by worker race. A larger proportion of Black and Hispanic workers than white workers reported material hardship and weighty financial responsibilities as well as wanting to work more hours to earn more. On average, workers of color reported they had to ask their manager or coworkers for additional hours more frequently than white workers, whereas white workers reported their managers asked them to work additional hours more frequently than workers of color. We discuss how what may appear to be colorblind practices in distributing work hours on formal work schedules can legitimize and conceal racial inequities in the consequences of scheduling practices (including imbalanced schedule input and last-minute changes) for workers and their families.

Can Love Power Explain the Lack of Gender Diversity in Business Leadership?.  Gudbjörg Linda Rafnsdottir, University of Iceland; and Ólöf Júlíusdóttir, The Social Science Research Institute

Iceland is considered the leader in gender equality, as per the Gender Gap Index. The country has held the top spot since 2009 and is often portrayed as a women's paradise. However, there is still a long way to go. Women are not adequately represented in top executive positions, and men tend to have the upper hand regarding their work-life balance and time management. While both men and women in leadership positions face unique challenges in balancing their work and domestic lives, men seem to find it easier to relax and unwind at home. To understand why gender diversity in business leadership is progressing slowly in Iceland, we interviewed 67 top business leaders, thereof 30 CEOs. We analyzed the interaction between parenthood and career advancement using theories of love power in everyday life. Our research suggests that although the law on parental leave provides both mothers and fathers equal rights to leave (four months of non-transferable leave for the father, four months for the mother, and four months they can share), male CEOs often decline their right to parental leave and instead rely on the love power of their partners. This is not the case for their female counterparts. Our data led us to conclude that how intimate relationships are conducted is equally vital for gender equality in business leadership as family policies.

Irregular Work Schedules and Gender Divisions of Domestic Labour.  Sylvia Fuller, University of British Columbia; Manlin Cai, University of British Columbia; Andrea Doucet, Brock University; Anna Kurowska, University of Warsaw; Richard Petts, Ball State University; Thordis Reimer, University of Hamburg; and Donna Lero, University of Guelph

Irregular work schedules dictated by employers can make it difficult for parents to access childcare services and meet family commitments. With inconsistent and unpredictable time availability, divisions of housework and caregiving may also become more fluid within couples, potentially disrupting traditional gendered divisions of labour. Drawing on 2021 cross-national survey data from six countries (Canada, the United States, Poland, Germany, Sweden, and Italy), we compare the association between different configurations of parental work schedules and gender divisions of childcare and housework to better assess whether and how unpredictability at work relates to how parents divide tasks and responsibilities at home. We show that it is not simply one person’s unpredictable schedule that is relevant for family outcomes; instead, the configuration of mothers’ and fathers’ schedules (mother only, father only, or both unpredictable) matters. One partner’s unpredictable schedule tends to shift the work of caring for children (but not housework) towards the partner with a predictable schedule, highlighting the difficulties unpredictability at work poses for meeting children’s needs. When both partners have unpredictable schedules, divisions of both housework and childcare tend to become more even, but only when attitudes about gender and caregiving are egalitarian. Our findings thus highlight the need to expand theoretical understanding of “time availability” in research on domestic labour beyond a simple quantitative assessment of total work hours to other temporal dimensions salient in contemporary workplaces, and to consider the relationship between work time and divisions of domestic labour alongside gender attitudes.

Paper Session

Individual Characteristics and Family/Social Structure Across the Life Course


Dual Parent-Professional Role: The Tensions Associated with Family-Work for Foster Carers.  Claire Lillian Catherine Paterson-Young, University of Northampton; and Michael Maher, University of Northampton

Overview: Foster care combines the role of family and work, commonly examined as two different spheres, creating challenges in identifying clearly defined roles and boundaries. Foster carer is a ‘professional’ role in which foster carers are encouraged to perform a ‘parent’ role by creating a supportive ‘family’ environment to facilitate attachment and belonging in children. Although this ‘parent’ role has endured, the demographic changes in children entering foster care have resulted in a shift from a ‘parental’ role to a ‘professional’ role for foster carers in the United Kingdom. Foster care is founded on the principle of finding a home for a child that is loving and lasting which provides the foundation for a good life and helps children excel in education and work and have good overall mental and physical health (MacAlister, 2022).Understanding the work-family dynamic in foster care is complex, with research (Schofield et al., 2013) identifying challenges for foster carers in balancing the dual ‘professional’ and ‘parent’ role in supporting children. This paper seeks to understand the role of therapeutic support in supporting foster carers to manage the dual ‘professional’ and ‘parent’. It draws on Social Identity Theory and the Job Demands and Resources model to understand the dual role of the foster carer. It seeks to understand the use of resources, in this care funding therapeutic support, in influencing foster carer identity and the impact of this in supporting children in care. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted between August 2021 and May 2022 with a total of 17 participants including foster carers (n=6), and staff members (n=15). The interviews were designed to facilitate an in-depth exploration of the implementation and impact of therapeutic interventions, offering insights into the entire process, from initial development through project execution to final delivery. Semi-structured interviews were chosen due to their inherent flexibility, allowing the researchers to engage with participants in a manner that encouraged open discussion and the sharing of personal experiences (Cohen et al., 2011). A purposeful sampling approach was employed to ensure that participants represented those receiving therapeutic support through Children's Services (Bryman, 2012). Interviews were organised using NVivo 11.4.0 and analysed through a six-phase thematic analysis approach, as outlined by Braun and Clarke. . Through the analytical process, emergent themes were identified including ‘Complex needs and trauma for children in foster care’, ‘Creating space for therapeutic support’, ‘Strengthening foster carer resilience and skills development to overcoming Barriers’. These themes collectively encapsulate the central areas of focus in this study, offering insights into the dynamics and challenges of therapeutic interventions within the context of children's social care. Key findings: • Children and young people entering care have evolving needs and the disruptions they might face in service provision can impact on long-term outcomes. The separation from their families, even when necessary for their safety, can further exacerbate the trauma these children endure, necessitating sensitive and effective therapeutic interventions to help them heal and build resilience. Overcoming the problems created by separation from families, requires foster carers to act as “professionals” in building bridges between families and children. • Transitioning between foster carers can be distressing for children, contributing to feelings of uncertainty and instability. Supportive environment, with minimal placement disruption, are required for effective therapeutic interventions. • Support for building independence and emotional regulation should be an integral part of transition planning, involving both the child and the foster carers. Incorporating this support requires foster carers to balance the professional, defined by specific traits such as specialised skills, formal training, licensing, and recognised qualifications (Wilensky, 1964), and parental aspects of their role. • Foster carers are hesitant to view themselves strictly as professionals, instead adopting for a dual professional-parent identity. Therapeutic support is a more explicit move toward the caring role and was received positively by foster carers. • Accessing support can be difficult for the foster carer, with expectations that the foster carer has “has” the training for the “job”. This can result in role strain and burnout. • Findings collectively encapsulate the central areas of focus in this study, offering insights into the dynamics and challenges of therapeutic interventions within the context of children's social care. • Improving support for foster carers and children can improve levels of foster carer retention, improve placement stability, reduce the number of children in residential due to placement breakdown, and reducing requests for ‘crisis’ support Implications for research, policy and/or practice: Finding a balance between the professional, defined by specific traits such as specialised skills, formal training, licensing, and recognised qualifications (Wilensky, 1964), and parental aspects of foster care is crucial. This research illustrated that foster carers are hesitant to view themselves strictly as professionals, instead adopting for a dual professional-parent identity. The idea of a "dual role" has been recognised in literature (Blythe, Wilkes, and Halcomb, 2014; Farmer and Lippold, 2016), with this research adding to this body of work by illustrating the role of therapeutic care in supporting this “dual role”. This paper is the first of its kind in the UK to investigate the role of therapeutic support in helping foster carers balance dual roles to create secure and stable placements for children. It makes recommendation for developing cohesive approaches to supporting foster carers (and children).

Emotion Regulation as an Individual Resource: Work-Family-Personal Life Conflict and Psychological Well-Being.  Doruk Uysal Irak, Mount Allison University; Elif Colakoglu Kaya, Freelance; and Gamze Ozden, Psikethica Istanbul

It is important to support employees while juggling work and family roles. Not only conflict between work and family roles, but also employees may experience conflict between their work-family roles and personal lives. The current study investigated the role of emotion regulation difficulties on work-family-personal life conflict (WFPC) and psychological well-being (stress and emotional exhaustion at home and work) among employed parents in Turkey. Work-family conflict (WFC) was defined as an inter-role conflict concluded with the pressure between work and family (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985). Aycan et al. (2007) developed the Work-Family-Personal Life Conflict (WFPC) concept. They discussed how work and family are interrelated and how personal life should be evaluated as one part of that picture. Personal life is described in this study with the “personal benefit activities” (Allis & O’Driscoll,2008) such as reading books, watching television, activities such as hobbies, attending religious meetings, and engaging in personal development. According to the Conservation of Resources (COR) Theory, WFC leads to loss of resources such as time and energy, which have a negative influence on PWB (psychological well-being); it also creates difficulty in dealing with the demands of work and family and induces more WFC (Hobfoll, 1989; 2001). In this study, in addition to work and family needs, we also measure life-related needs and how they conflict and predict psychological well-being. How people experience conflict, such as emotional experiences and regulating emotions, would be important when dealing with WFC. Gross (1998) described emotion regulation as “the processes by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions” (p.275). Using different emotion regulation strategies or experiencing emotion regulation difficulties would be related to whether one will be better at handling negative emotional reactions and stressful work demands and can protect their positive affect at the workplace (Matta et al, 2014). Moreover, emotion regulation is important for conducting the roles at home (Erickson, 2005), and it is significant for work and family life. In this study, data was collected from 362 full-time employees (Women N = 175, Men N =187) working in Turkey with at least one child. The mean age of the participants was 39.6. To test the proposed model a path analysis using AMOS 28.0 was used. Model fit was assessed using several fit indices, as Bentler (1990) and Kline (1998) suggested. In the model, emotion regulation was tested as a predictor of work interference with family, family interference with work, work interference with personal life and family interference with personal life. Composite scores for each variable were used in the model. The goodness of fit indices suggested that the data fits the tested model well; χ² was 18.84, χ²/df was 3.14, p was .004, TLI was .95, CFI was .98, and RMSEA was .08. Results of the present study revealed that emotion regulation predicts higher work-family conflict and family-work conflict. It also predicts conflict between work-personal life and family-personal life. Moreover, employees who experience higher conflict with their personal life and work-family demands also reported higher emotional exhaustion at home and family. It is a novel study that examines the impact of emotional regulation on work-family and personal life conflict and the psychological well-being of employees. This study's findings have significant implications for professionals in the field. By understanding the role of individual resources, such as emotion regulation, when people experience work-family conflict, professionals can develop targeted interventions to support employees in managing these conflicts. This not only enhances their well-being but also their productivity, making this research highly relevant and applicable in real-world settings.

Associations Between Parents’ Job Quality, Parenting, and Adolescent Academic Outcomes.  Kate McCredie, La Trobe University; Stacey Hokke, La Trobe University; Liana Leach, Australian National University; and Amanda Cooklin, La Trobe University

Overarching questions/concerns: Recent research has shown that parents’ poor job quality and work-family conflict (WFC) are adversely associated with children’s mental health and socio-emotional wellbeing. However, much less is known about possible impacts on adolescents’ academic outcomes– a family stage heretofore missing from much of the work-family interface literature. We aim to address these gaps by exploring the link between parents’ jobs and academic outcomes for adolescents across two studies. The first study examines concurrent associations between parents’ job quality and their adolescents’ academic achievement at two time points in high school while the second study examines longitudinal associations between parents’ job characteristics, WFC, parenting and academic outcomes. Statement on methods: Both studies used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative cohort study exploring family context and children’s health and development over the life course. First, cross-sectional analyses examined associations between parents’ job quality and academic outcomes in early and middle high school (12-13 and 14-15 years), which flexibility, job security, autonomy, and access to paid family leave used as indicators of job quality. In the second study we then tested a longitudinal model linking parents’ work characteristics, WFC, and parenting warmth and irritability in early high school, and adolescents’ academic achievement in middle high school. In both studies, separate models were run for mothers and fathers and controlled for household income, parent education level, and prior academic achievement. In the second study, parents’ job characteristics included work hours, flexibility, security, and autonomy. Standardized achievement scores were used to measure academic outcomes. Additional models were also run to assess the moderating role of income. Important findings: • Father’s flexibility is protective of adolescent academic achievement in early high school, particularly for low-income families • Mothers’ job security and autonomy were unexpectedly associated with poorer outcomes, possibly driven by other features of the job – low-income secure jobs can be demanding and stressful (e.g., care work) • Parents’ WFC in early high school is associated with increased irritability in the home and in turn leads to poorer academic outcomes for adolescents in middle high school • Household type (e.g., dual income, breadwinner, or single parent) shapes associations between both work hours and academic outcomes, as well as WFC and academic outcomes, likely because trade-offs between income and time are negotiated differently in different household types Implications for research, policy and/or practice: This study is among the first to establish a relationship between parents’ WFC and adolescents’ academic performance and highlights the importance of parents’ job resources in supporting adolescent academic outcomes. We found that the role of income in these relationships is somewhat differentiated depending on household structure and suggest that further research explore the effects of both parents’ WFC on academic outcomes in couple families, and examine separate models for single parent and single earner households to better understand the moderating role of income in each of these cases. Despite such complexities, our results nevertheless suggest that fathers’ flexibility may play a valuable role in minimizing the socio-economic achievement gap in early high school, a key transition point for Australian adolescents.

Former Foster Youth and Post-Secondary Vocational Education: Potential Paths to Stable Employment and Family Life.  Mary Collins, Boston University

Questions/concerns: Work-family research has generally not considered the experiences of transition-age youth who had involvement with state service systems. Yet, concepts of “work” and “family” are particularly salient to this population. They have often struggled to attain sustainable and productive work lives as well as positive family experiences. This presentation focuses on the work and family experiences of young adults with service system experiences who are pursuing vocational education. In some U.S. jurisdictions, young adults with experience in foster care and other state systems can get government assistance to achieve educational and vocational goals. Most research has, however, focused on college attainment. The emphasis on college disregards the circumstances of many young people, including their preference for work rather than college; their struggles with academic, social, and financial demands of college; and the possibility of incurring student loan debt but not receiving a degree. Post-secondary vocational education (PSVE) offers a viable educational path that may lead to employment more quickly (which is often desired by these young people) and the associated positive outcomes of stable employment (which can include supports for family life). There are many reasons to believe that young people might prefer PSVE, and its linkage to employment, but the research is scant on this topic. Methods: This study involved qualitative interviews with 16 young adults who chose a primarily vocational education pathway. Interviews (via Zoom) were conducted with Massachusetts young adults with experience in child welfare, juvenile justice, and/or mental health systems who were currently involved in PSVE. Interviews focused on the reasons for their choice, supports and barriers, and their career goals. Two Likert scales were included in the interview (reasons for choosing the educational program, sources of support). A Qualtrics survey was used to collect demographic data and service system history. This presentation will specifically highlight respondents’ stories of how their educational choices intersected with work and family life. Respondents were interviewed twice, approximately three months apart, to assess any changes in their journey. Additionally, this presentation will provide a brief review of the global scholarly literature regarding this issue in other countries. This review provides information about employment prospects and career pathways in various cultural and policy contexts. Findings: Findings indicated that for many the “career pathways” are often non-linear, interrupted, concurrent, and complex requiring adaptability in supporting these pathways. Family issues were identified when discussing career pathways. Most respondents had little or conflicted support from their family of origin. Some were on their own, some were discouraged from their pathways, and some received emotional support for their goals but family members lacked the experience to help them attain them. Respondents who were mothers reported on how child care impacted, usually through delay, their educational trajectory. Once young children were in school, mothers were able to begin or continue an educational/career path. The importance of work either solely or in combination with post-secondary education program was a common theme. Getting a good job and avoiding debt were primary reasons for choosing their educational pathway. Implications for research, policy and practice: The central implication for research is for greater inclusion of the transition-age population in work-family research. This age group is aiming for success in both domains of work and family (and the integration of the two). Those with experience in state systems have specific challenges to address. Regarding policy, the data speak to the recognition of pathways that “stop and start” or that might be more circuitous than straightforward. This also speaks to the important role that community colleges play in helping people attain their educational goals regardless of their life stage. Thus, an implication of the study is the need to support community colleges which provide a vital educational lifeline to people who have had challenges in starting and completing educational programs. A second implication is related to the role of college affordability, concerns of young adults about financial debt, and the importance of job security and economic stability for this population. Free community college would be an important policy support. Given the continuing impact of child-bearing on delaying career paths, robust child care support is warranted. A final implication for policy and practice is to develop and strengthen a variety of supports for educational and career goals within secondary schools, community colleges and the range of community settings.

Paper Session

Inequality in the Contemporary Labor Market


Can the Gendered Sorting of Occupations Explain Wage Differentials Across Educational Levels in the US?.  Alicia Adserà, Princeton University; Federica Querin, University of Bologna; and Varun Satish, Princeton University

The persistence of gender earnings gaps, despite women having higher levels of education, runs in contrast to predictions from models of human capital accumulation. To address this, we ask whether men and women occupy different types of jobs even with the same education. This may account for gender differentials if women either sort or are discouraged from occupying jobs with characteristics that make them high paying. We are primarily interested in understanding the role of educational attainment in determining gendered occupational sorting. Recent studies highlight the importance of occupation and sector in perpetuating the gender wage gap, but their focus is mostly on the highly educated workers. Using data from the American Community Survey (ACS) along with O*NET occupation information, we focus on five dimensions of occupational characteristics that may reflect sorting by gender and education: contact with others, autonomy, leadership, machine-dependency, and time pressure. Preliminary results confirm gendered prevalence in these occupational characteristics, with women performing jobs with higher contact with others and less machine use. We document educational gradients in the wage returns to these characteristics. Results from Oaxaca-Binder decompositions highlight how our models explain gender differentials more for highly educated workers than for those with less education, underscoring the importance of further research specifically on workers who do not have a college degree.

Can Hybrid Work Help Close the Labor Market Gender Gaps?.  Agnieszka Postepska, University of Groningen; and Anastasiia Voloshyna, University of Groningen

In this project, we will explore a novel pathway toward an equal labor market. Gender inequality remains a hot topic in social sciences and an important item on policy agendas. Even though women have entered all areas of economic activities and face few legal barriers in the labor market, gender inequality in labor market outcomes persists, and new gaps emerge, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Beyond the wage gap, women work fewer hours and do not progress as far in their careers as men, and occupations remain segregated. The vast literature investigating gender inequality in the labor market paints a rather pessimistic picture. In light of the limited effects that existing policies have on closing the remaining gender gaps in the labor market, Claudia Goldin suggested we have exhausted what could be changed through existing policies. To close the remaining gender gaps, the workplace needs to change (Goldin, 2014). Goldin shows that many jobs are “greedy,” paying disproportionately more for long and demanding hours. The path forward involves enhancing the productivity of flexible job arrangements and reducing the prominence of “greedy jobs” that demand 24/7 availability, for example, by encouraging shared responsibilities and making childcare more affordable. The work-from-home experiment, brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the innovation it forced onto the labor market regarding the facilitation of hybrid work creates a natural experiment setting to test this hypothesis. Using the Dutch administrative data, we will empirically test the hypothesis laid out by Goldin (2014) and investigate whether the changes in the workplace brought about by the remote work experience during the COVID-19 pandemic led to a more equal labor market in terms of weekly hours and wages among men and women in the Netherlands.

From Job Descriptions to Occupations: New Natural Language Processing Models for Automated Coding.  Lynda Laughlin, U.S. Census Bureau; Xi Song, University of Pennsylvania; Megan Wisniewski, University of Pennsylvania; and Jiahui Xu, Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)

Occupation is a fundamental concept in social and policy research, but classifying job descriptions into occupational categories can be challenging and susceptible to errors. Traditionally, this involved expert manual coding, translating detailed, often ambiguous job descriptions to standardized categories, a process both laborious and costly. However, recent advances in computational techniques offer efficient automated coding alternatives. Existing autocoding tools, including the O*NET-SOC AutoCoder, the NIOCCS AutoCoder, and the SOCcer AutoCoder, rely on supervised machine learning methods and string matching algorithms. Yet these autocoders are not designed to understand semantic meanings in occupational write-in text. We develop a new autocoder based on Google’s Text-to-Text Transfer Transformer (T5) architecture. Like GPT and other large language models, T5 is pretrained on vast amounts of text data. We develop a T5-OCC model with fine-tuned model parameters and training data from occupation write-ins from the 2019 American Community Survey. By comparing our T5-OCC with existing methods, we show that the autocoding accuracy rate increases from 68.2% to 71.1%. Considering the rapid change in neural language models, we conclude by offering suggestions on how to adapt our method for the development of occupational autocoding models in future research.

Pathways to Parity: Institutional Factors Advancing the Career Trajectories of Women to Leadership in Europe Using QCA.  Paul Sinzig, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Mai

Overarching questions/concerns Women are underrepresented in leadership and management, but this proportion varies vastly among countries in Europe. Diverse social and policy contexts influence life paths and careers, challenging explanations for the underrepresentation obtained through isolated mechanisms. This paper examines cultural and institutional barriers and facilitators that influence women’s and mothers’ career advancement by looking at the interwovenness of cultural, legal, institutional and policy forces in a comparative and innovative way. I ask, under which conditions is gender parity in leadership strongest in Europe? Statement on methods By deploying a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fs-QCA), I translate complex societal contexts into conjunctions of conditions that can account for equifinal configurations, which means that multiple pathways of interwoven conditions can lead to the same outcome. This method enables the conditions to consider all kinds of opportunity structures in women’s family and career trajectories including educational advancement, national industrial and occupational structures, work and family alignment options, legal quotas, and national gender cultures. I account for historical change by calibrating the conditions to consider temporal processes and delayed impacts. The method is accompanied by results of a hierarchical cluster analysis to give a descriptive account for familiar patterns across Europe. Important findings (bulleted list) I compare two methods for assessing gender parity mechanisms. Hierarchical clustering is useful to get a overview over the familiar patterns of isolated factors e.g. the nordic countries in the EU having higher gender parity in leadership. QCA gives various solution terms with the necessary and sufficient configurations of four broad conditions: gender culture, feminisation of institution, generosity of family policies, and leadership quotas, and show the exact causal pathways that clustering and other methods are not able to tease out. Specific results for the QCA analysis will be presented at the conference. Implications for research, policy and/or practice This research aims to demonstrate how and which combination of social policies can effectively foster gender parity in leadership positions; in other words, to show which solutions for advancing equity and social justice work best.

Paper Session

Innovations in Conceptualizing and Measuring Work and Care


Work and Place: Dynamic Relations of Meaning.  Angele Alook, York University; Sara Dorow, University of Alberta; and Karen Foster, Dalhousie University

There are vast literatures on the meanings of place and the meanings of work, but rarely do they explicitly intersect, despite the fact that work always happens in and across places, and most places are sites or products of some kind of work. In this paper, we bring together critical and social constructionist perspectives on place (as “locations with meaning” (Cresswell, 2008)) and work (as an activity with a multitude of meanings and degrees of ‘meaningfulness’), and apply them to an analysis of over 50 multimedia work-life narratives from a diverse range of working people across Canada. They include Indigenous and settler workers (racialized, people of colour, white, new, and multigenerational migrants) who are participating in the five-year study Work-Life in Canada. Our objective is to explore, and seed further discussion around, the question of how meanings of place and meanings of work intersect in the lives of different people in different jobs and locations. For example, in some narratives, work is depicted as an instrumental means of staying in (or returning to) the place to which the narrator is attached by kin, identity, memory and culture, while in others, work is interpreted as a good act that is done for the continuity of a particular, place-based community. Sometimes, these two narratives overlap. On the basis of patterns and tensions in our data, we present a typology of work:place intersections.

Advancing Research on Time Use in the Family Context Using Wearable Devices?.  Alena Klenke, University of Oldenburg; Maximiliane Reifenscheid, University of Kassel; Bettina Langfeldt, University of Kassel; and Sebastian Schnettler, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg

Time use studies are usually based on survey-based time diaries. They have shown a) large differences between men and women living as heterosexual couples together with children concerning the participation in household tasks (Schulz 2021), and b) potential gender-specific over- and under-reporting of household activities (Bonke 2005). In the future, technological advances such as wearables will allow researchers to gain more valid information of the division of tasks, daily routines, and interaction between household members by using devices that automatically record (inter)action. Also, for better understanding the challenges of working from home, wearables are a possible next step in advancing family research, but, different than in health research, little is known to date about the acceptability of using such technology for research on behavior in family life. Overarching questions In our study, we explore the acceptance of wearables for research purposes in households with young children. Methods We apply a mixed-methods design, combining both parallel and sequential elements. First, to better understand the barriers to the adoption of wearables in home environments, we conducted tests with RFID-tags in a sample flat. Equipping homes with these devices necessitate a thorough understanding of the optimal placement of household items. Simultaneously alpha testing of the acceptance and interest in RFID tags has been implemented. Second, to broaden the understanding of the impact on acceptance of the specific sensor used for data collection, we implemented focus groups discussing various collection methods including a combination of several tools for data collection. Third, results from the focus groups will used for a factorial survey which shall be used to draw conclusions about the acceptance of sensor-based data collections in families in general and which aspects improve or decrease willingness in participating in such a study. Preliminary findings - Parents of (young) children appear to be willing to participate in scientific research that brings wearables into their homes. - Challenges arise particularly in certain everyday situations where the devices are perceived as disruptive. The younger the children are, the greater the concern that the devices will be worn as expected. -The willingness to use these devices is influenced by the range of technical possibilities they offer. - Interest in RFID tags (compared to other devices) is particularly high - there seems to be less interest in the use of GPS; participants are divided between those who prefer to use their own device (mobile phone) or have an additional device - interest in smartphone apps is low, but data protection issues are not an issue - a combination of tools is perceived as less attractive - participants are very interested in learning how care work is divided between adults in their own household; providing results could be an important incentive - due to the great interest in the data and thus in the accuracy of measurement, participants have clear time expectations: data collection should take longer to avoid bias in the data Sponsor effect: scientific research, trust in data protection; less willingness to participate if from industry Implications for research There appears to be acceptance of the use of wearables in private households. So far, no reservations have been identified that would indicate a fundamental, high level of aversion of parents with younger children against data collection with wearable devices. Similar to other designs, the willingness to participate is primarily influenced by time availability. Positive feedback and curiosity, particularly regarding the use of RFID tags, speak in favour of examining further points regarding the use of RFID tags. To this end, the results from the focus groups must be tested to see to what extent they can be found in the general population, as it can be assumed that a positive selection bias effect among the participants in the focus groups plays a role. This will be done using an experimental survey. In addition to incentivisation through the provision of individual results, further options that influence the willingness of families to participate must be tested. Sources: Schulz, F. (2021). Mothers, Fathers and Siblings; Housework Time Within Family Households. Journal of Marriage and Family, 83(3), 803-819. Bonke (2005). Paid Work and Unpaid Work: Diary Information Versus Questionnaire Information. Social Indicators Research, 70, 349–368

What Care, Work, and Equality Concepts Are We Using in Research on Gender Divisions and Relations of Household Labour.  Andrea Doucet, Brock University; Kim de Laat, University of Waterloo; Karen Foster, Dalhousie University; Margaret Gibson, University of Waterloo; Eva Jewell, Toronto Metropolitan University; Umay Kadar, University of British Columbia; Janna Klostermann, University of Calgary; and bridget livingstone, University of Waterloo

Studies on gender divisions of domestic labour constitute a major cross-disciplinary and international field that has burgeoned since the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns of 2020. This paper begins with the argument that greater attention still needs to be given to how we conceptualize concepts of care, work, and gender equality and how we methodologically operationalize these in our research on gender divisions of household work and care. In this paper, we share one example of an innovative relational method for research on gender divisions and relations of care/work. The Care/Work Portrait is a qualitative, participatory, visual, creative, and flexible method and digital app that engages couples (and individuals) in mapping and discussing their care/work lives, including household and care tasks and responsibilities, and the contexts, constraints, supports, and structuring conditions of paid and unpaid work (see Doucet and Klostermann, 2023). Informed by feminist care ethics, care economies, and intersectionality theories, the Care/Work Portrait highlights the need to attend to a wider array of interconnections between care and work and to diversity and complexity within and between particular care tasks and responsibilities. This paper details how a diverse team of researchers developed and used the Care/Work Portrait in a study of 88 Canadian households (including First Nations, rural, new immigrant, LGBTQ+, low income, and families with disabilities). We reflect on key methodological and theoretical innovations of this method, share our plans for revision and adaption for international contexts, and we seek critical input from other WFRN researchers.

Integrating Tönnies in the Work-Family Balance Field: Four Historical Work-Family Transitions.  Marc Grau Grau, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya

This article aims to connect and integrate Tönnies and his core concepts with the work-family field. Due to crucial social changes in the economy, demography, and technology in the last decades, research on the work-family interface has exploded, providing an interesting corpus of theories, concepts and empirical studies which help us to understand better how we combine our work and family responsibilities, as well as its barriers and facilitators. However, this relatively new literature has ignored the classic concepts elaborated by Tönnies, which could be used as a solid starting point on which to build the newly emerging theories. His conceptualization of two “ideal types” of society is influenced by Plato and Aristotle’s ideal community, integrates the Spinozian metaphysics and the concept of will elaborated by Schopenhauer, and is influenced by Hobbes's contractualism in modern society. Such conceptualization became a cornerstone of social thought, which contemporary scholars, especially those interested in work and family, should not dismiss its enduring significance. This article will present a line of research in the work-family arena (boundary management), which could be relevant for experts and specialists in Tönnies who aim to keep applying their thoughts in our days. Finally, this article presents four general hypotheses, each presenting significant transitions in how people navigate and construct mental fences between work and family over the last centuries.

Paper Session

Issues Facing GenZ and Millennial Workers


Family-Related and Community-Related Psychosocial Factors Affecting the Intention of Young Job Seekers and Employees to Stay in Nonmetropolitan Areas.  Karen Kramer, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig; and Ha Young Choi, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaig

Many nonmetropolitan communities across the United States have experienced a decline in population (Sangeman, 2022) which is particularly notable among young people who have left their communities in search of job opportunities (Johnson & Lichter, 2019). As a result, there has been a significant loss of potential labor force for local employers, and individuals may have faced the costs of out-migration along with the challenging decision to move away from their families (Lyon-Hill et al., 2019; Walzer & Harger, 2016). The aim of this study is to analyze the psychosocial factors related to the community and family that influence the intention of young job seekers and employees to stay in nonmetropolitan areas. Drawing upon the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the job embeddedness theory (Mitchell et al., 2001), we test our model using a sample of 522 survey respondents aged between 18 and 35 who reside in suburban or rural areas. We utilized latent profile analysis to identify four community perception profiles based on nine aspects of the community. We find that profiles with more positive perceptions of family life-related and social activity-related aspects of community showed a higher intention to pursue or remain in a job within the community, which was mediated by higher levels of community embeddedness and a higher expected or experienced organizational embeddedness. We provide theoretical and policy implications on how to enhance the appeal of nonmetropolitan and rural areas to young populations, both in terms of communities and workplaces.

Decoding Gen Z: Strategic HR Insights for the German Labor Market.  Mark Ayoub, IU International University of Applied Sciences; Paul Martin, A Better Balance; and Lilly Maas, ILAC Consulting

In the dynamic landscape of the German labor market, attracting and retaining Generation Z (Gen Z) employees poses unique challenges. This study delves into the prevalent myths surrounding Gen Z and unveils essential insights for strategic HR management. Employing a mixed-method approach, we conducted in-depth interviews with 50 Gen Z representatives, formulated hypotheses, and rigorously tested them through a survey with 650 participants. Further validation came from expert interviews with 20 HR professionals. Our findings underscored Gen Z's fundamental need for security and recognition amidst global uncertainties. Notably, intrinsic motivation often stems from environmental concerns, making sustainability-focused organizations more appealing. Additionally, factors like competitive salaries, flexible work hours, positive corporate culture, and regular feedback mechanisms significantly influence Gen Z's choice of employer. Drawing from motivational theories, our study advocates for authentic employer branding grounded in genuine employer identity. We emphasize a people-centered approach, urging organizations to consciously shape their cultures, leadership styles, employee experiences, and overall organizational identity. In conclusion, this research dispels Gen Z myths and offers practical HR insights for the German labor market. By aligning their strategies with Gen Z's intrinsic motivations and prioritizing genuine employer identity, companies can effectively navigate the challenges, ensuring a successful integration of Gen Z talent into their workforce.

The Impact of Millennials' Experiences on Their Decisions to Stay In or Leave a Job.  Isabelle Létourneau, Université de Sherbrooke; and Etienne Fouquet, Université de Sherbrooke

Over the past fifteen years, the way we work has been turned upside down by the arrival of millennials in the workplace, whose turnover rate exceeds that of previous generations. Without understanding the characteristics of this generation, it's not easy for organizations to implement effective retention measures. Dominant models of voluntary turnover, which generally take a distant view and use statistical methods, do not provide a sufficient theoretical framework to address this issue. To fill this gap, this research adopts an inductive method to understand how millennials' professional experiences influence their retention and voluntary turnover behaviors, and proposes a theoretical model from which it is possible to highlight four major findings. The first finding is that identity safety is central to millennials' work experience and a key determinant of their behavior. Secondly, their level of identity safety seems to be assessed on the basis of information transmitted through affects. The third conclusion proposes that the decision to stay or leave a job is a function of the strategies (commitment, adaptation or withdrawal) adopted to protect one's identity. The fourth implies that the process of evaluating the level of identity safety is cyclical and that its mechanism is retroactive. Our research tells us that, for millennials, identity safety is at the heart of the decision-making process, and that the object of loyalty is the individual himself, who evaluates his level of well-being through the valence of his affects and through the conception of his identity across his life domains (work-family-friendships).

Paper Session

Labor Market Policies and Effects


Is There a “Fatherhood Bonus” in Spain? The Impact of Children on Wages According to Occupational Characteristics, Family Structure and the Use of Longer-Term Care Leaves.  Marta Dominguez-Folgueras, Sciences Po; M. José González, Universitat Pompeu Fabra; and Irene Lapuerta, Universidad Pública de Navarra (UPNA)

This paper examines the impact of fatherhood on earnings in Spain, using panel data from 2006 to 2021. While there is extensive research on the negative effects of motherhood on earnings, our understanding of the effects of fatherhood, particularly in the Spanish context, remains limited. In some countries with available data, fathers tend to experience a financial advantage, commonly referred to as the "fatherhood bonus". This phenomenon has been attributed mainly to gender role specialisation, with women taking on caring responsibilities while men are in paid employment, employers' preferences for male employees and self-selection into parenthood, as those more established in the labour market may also be more likely to become fathers. This paper seeks to assess the impact of fatherhood on men's earnings and to explore its underlying factors by focusing on three understudied dimensions: the wage advantage of fathers' occupational categories, family structures (men living in heterosexual partnerships, same-sex partnerships or single-parent households) and the use of extended care leave to care for young children after an initial period of maternity and paternity leave. The study is based on the Continuous Sample of Working Lives, a survey of individuals who have made contributions to, or received benefits from, the Spanish social security system during the reference years. To estimate the expected earnings of men with and without children, we use unconditional quantile regression on longitudinal data. In addition, we integrate quantile regression with fixed effects techniques to account for self-selection into fatherhood.

Scheduling Standards in Union Contracts and in Public Policy—Substitutes or Complements?.  Peter Fugiel, Rutgers University

Unpredictable schedules can wreak havoc in the lives of workers and their families. To address this problem, policy makers, advocates, union leaders, and other practitioners have developed novel scheduling standards, most notably in the United States and Canada. While the provisions vary across industries and jurisdictions, they include limits on employer discretion in assigning shifts, a minimum length of advance notice, premium pay for unsociable shifts, and compensation for schedule changes. To date the most ambitious and consequential scheduling standards take the form of union contracts or subnational (i.e. state or local) legislation. Research and media reports on scheduling standards mostly focus on legislation, framing it as a substitute for the protections of a union contract, particularly in fast food restaurants and other industries where union density is low. However, comparative research shows that public policy and union contracts can complement each other, resulting in broader coverage and stronger enforcement than either achieves in isolation. Drawing on case studies of scheduling standards and stakeholder interviews in Seattle, New York City, Chicago, and Philadelphia, this paper identifies institutional conditions, organizational practices, and discursive frames that promote complementarity between scheduling legislation and collective agreements, rather than substitution of one for the other. I argue that complementary standards hold considerable promise for proponents of fair scheduling, but they demand broader solidarity and strategic coordination to realize this promise.

What Ever Happened to Employment Activation?.  Madeline Robbenhaar, University of Alberta; and Rhonda Breitkreuz, University of Alberta

Between 1995-2010 prolific research was conducted on income support programs in Canada, with scholars critiquing the ‘welfare-to-work’ model of income support and challenging the liberal-welfare assertion that income support programs should focus on ‘activating’ the employment potential of recipients. Much research during this time focused on lone mothers, a vulnerable demographic of income support recipients that struggled to meet welfare-to-work requirements and complete necessary unpaid family labour. Although over the last 14 years research with lone mothers in welfare-to-work programs in Canada has slowed, the precarious economic context of lone mothers has not. Seeking to re-contextualize lone mother’s experiences balancing unpaid family labour and welfare-to-work requirements in Alberta, we employed a critical human ecological approach to review the literature related to the macro-level of the Canadian welfare state and Albertan income support policies, the micro-level of lone mother families in Canada and unpaid reproductive work, and the meso-level of lone mother’s experiences balancing welfare-to-work requirements and family labour. This paper highlights the connections between income support policies and the precarious economic context of lone mother families in Alberta, as they struggle to raise children with limited financial resources, shoulder unpaid family labour, and try to meet the welfare-to-work requirements of income support policies. Policy recommendations regarding provincial income support and lone mothers are also discussed.

Adaptation: A Boundary Management Framework.  Christina Dreger-Smylie, Carleton University; and Linda Duxbury, Carleton University

In an increasingly volatile world, the capacity to effectively meet the demands of a new environment, known as adaptation, is critical to maintain a good quality of life. As such, adaptation has remained a topic of interest among work-life scholars (Park & Park, 2019). Despite a growing body of evidence that the environment plays an important role in adaptation (Jundt et al., 2014) scholarly work has continued to focus on personal factors (cognitive, behavioural) as the most important determinants of adaptation. As a consequence, existing theory is not adequate to address emerging work-life challenges (Mithani et al., 2020). Drawing from the literature on boundary management, we advance a framework describing how adaptation unfolds that considers both the person and the environment. 17-individuals from a science-based government department provided panel data during the transition to forced remote work in response to COVID-19. Self-report scales were used to create profiles of individuals based on cognitive and behavioural factors. Data on work and life environments was collected from external sources (COVID-19 events), organizational communications (emails, policies, practices), and from participants (childcare and eldercare responsibilities). Interviews conducted at six-month intervals (March 2020-March 2022) assessed work-life boundary preferences (integrating vs. segmenting), adaptation challenges, mitigation strategies, and outcomes (performance, productivity, dominant emotions, mental health). We contribute a richer understanding of adaptation and meaningful insights for researchers and practitioners.

The Role of Occupation, Gender, and Work Hours in the Gender Wage Gap.  Minjin Chae, Harvard University

Overarching questions/concerns Recent literature has focused on the role of long work hours and inflexible work schedules in shaping the persistent gender wage gap. However, it has paid less attention on what leads to the increased pay for such hours and schedules which disproportionately benefit men. Previous studies have highlighted technical and normative characteristics of occupations but has not provided direct empirical evidence. Statement on methods Drawing on Current Population Survey (CPS) data, this study examined how returns to long work hours by occupational groups are associated with various occupational characteristics. I also employed Coarsened Exact Matching to identify the role of gender within occupations, adjusting for the selection into long work hours. Important findings Returns to long work hours vary significantly by occupation, but previously proposed occupational characteristics do not fully explain these variations. Returns to long work hours also vary by gender, with these patterns varying by occupations and worker’ positions within the occupation. Implications for research, policy and/or practice The findings suggest that between-occupation variations are important in explaining why long work hours lead to disproportionately high pay. At the same time, the substantial within-occupation heterogeneity in long work hour premiums indicates that not only the nature of occupational tasks but also the context of where and who performs the work affects the concentrated compensation for long work hours.

Paper Session

Life Course and Aging


University Family-Friendliness at the University of Manitoba: Perspectives of Those Providing Eldercare.  Stephanie Chesser, University of Manitoba

In recent years, many Canadian universities have made changes to policies and campus resources to address some family-related care needs. Such initiatives (e.g., campus daycare, breastfeeding spaces, stopping of tenure clock for new parents) have, arguably, placed a strong emphasis on supporting parents, potentially overlooking the needs of those within the university community caring for older people. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the perspectives of University of Manitoba student, staff, and faculty caregivers about university family-friendliness and how the institution could best support those providing care to others. One of its research objectives included identifying what types of caregiving (including eldercare) the university should recognize and support. This presentation will specifically spotlight eight, in-depth interviews completed between February-April 2022 with University of Manitoba-affiliated caregivers about their experiences providing eldercare. Inductive thematic analysis was used in the coding of interview data. Findings demonstrated a variety of eldercare contexts within the University community (e.g., caring for older parents, extended family members, grandparents), as well as recognition amongst participants that one’s role within the university (e.g., student versus staff versus faculty) could impact the caregiver supports available. Also of note were concerns expressed by several participants about eldercare being less recognized by University supervisors and administrators. Overall, these findings suggest that University of Manitoba should reexamine and diversify its caregiver policies and/or supports to ensure that they meet the needs of a greater range of caregivers, particularly those providing eldercare.

Navigating Life Under a Four-Day Workweek: A Multimethod, Gendered Life Stage Examination of Employees’ Temporal Strategies in Three North American Organizations.  Phyllis Moen, University of Minnesota; Youngmin Chu, University of Minnesota; Wen Fan, Boston College; Juliet Schor, Boston College; Guolin Gu, Boston College; and Ami Campbell, Boston College

The combination of both technological and organizational policy changes is upending work at a pace not seen since the industrial revolution. We examine the effects on the work-life interface of an increasingly popular innovation, the four-day workweek. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data on employees (N=109) in three small organizations in the U.S and Canada in manufacturing, information technology, and non-profit sectors, we examine four-day week workers’ shifting time-work strategies possibly producing changes in their sense of agency, work-life conflict, and satisfaction with time use, theorizing more salutary impacts for women caring for young children and older workers, regardless of gender. Looking at before and after four-day trial surveys six months apart, we find work-family conflict decreases significantly among workers under 40 and women with children at home. Additionally, women with children report finding it easier to balance paid work with their care responsibilities. In in-depth interviews, respondents describe a significant degree of focus on how they spend their time, both on and off the job, as they strategize to obtain greater congruence between their time-use preferences/needs and the actual ways they spend their time in the context of their new four-day workweek arrangement. The four-day workweek is changing the clockworks at work and at home, but also raising employees' subjective awareness of time and how they are “spending” it. While work is transforming, reduced hours are triggering changes employees' sense of agency, constraint, and opportunity around the work-life interface, including the temporal organization of life outside work.

The Longevity Economy: Employer Adoption of Age-Inclusive Management Strategies.  Brian Kaskie, University of Iowa

The workforce continues to grow older. Between now and 2030, the number of employees over 50 will grow at three times the rate of those under the age of 50, and the annual increase in employees over the age of 65 will reach nearly 5.0%. That being said, only two thirds of older adults believe they have saved enough for retirement, and more than half expected to continue working in retirement. With so many entering their retirement years with insufficient savings and the potential of living to 100, today’s older adults need to extend their working lives, especially those who have experienced setbacks during the COVID pandemic. While much of the existing research concerning aging and workplace issues focuses on the individual as the program target or unit of analysis, our project’s primary innovation is shifting focus onto the role of employers. Indeed, for older adults, there is a strong link between continued employment, physical and mental health, financial well-being, and self-directed retirement. Building on the achievements of the Colorado Above Fifty Employment Strategies (CAFES) project and using the expertly designed and pilot tested AIMS web-based platform, we discuss our efforts to (a) broadly disseminate education and information about older workers, (b) support employers’ efforts to implement age-inclusive strategies, and (c) evaluate facilitators and barriers associated with the organizational adoption of an age-inclusive strategy. This work is important for illuminating an understudied population and identifying mechanisms associated with innovators and early adopters of age inclusive management strategies. :

Exploring the Life Course Patterns and Family Justice Experience of Young Mothers Involved in Recurrent Care Proceedings in England.  Mariam Abouelenin, King`s College, Londo

Overarching questions/concerns Research has shown that teenage mothers frequently become involved in family courts and are at the highest risk of experiencing repeat involvement in care proceedings. However, little is known about their family court involvement over the course of their lives, including when they first appear in court and how often they return, if at all. To address this research gap, this study examines the life course trajectories of young mothers' involvement in family court proceedings from age 14 to age 30 and identifies potential predictors of trajectory group membership. Statement on methods Group-based multi-trajectory modeling was used to identify distinct subgroups of mothers following similar family court trajectories and multinomial logistic regression identified factors associated with group membership. Important findings - Four distinct family court trajectories were identified: o Early adolescence – multiple returns o Late adolescence – no return o Late adolescence – single return o Mid-adolescence – multiple returns - Significant predictors of group membership included women’s age at first birth, legal order outcomes at the first set of family court proceedings, and region. Implications for research, policy and/or practice The distinct trajectories identified call for the creation of tailored support services that address the specific needs of mothers in each group, and highlight the importance of equipping professionals working with young mothers with the knowledge and skills to recognize the risk factors for repeated court involvement.

Paper Session

Life Course Transitions: Aging and Retirement 1


Post-Retirement Work, Life Satisfaction and Emotional Well-Being Among Older Adults in Israel.  Alisa Lewin, University of Haifa; and Haya Stier, Tel Aviv University

Although retirement is often perceived as withdrawal from employment, retirement, in effect, takes many forms. Some workers depart completely from the work-force while others retain some form of employment, ranging from full-time work to full-time retirement. Moreover, post-retirement work has both financial and intrinsic incentives. People have financial incentives to work post-retirement, especially if they have not accumulated sufficient pension savings, and they respond to non-financial incentives as well because work provides opportunities for social engagement and other psychological benefits. This study examines motivations for post-retirement work and its effects on older adults' life satisfaction and emotional well-being. Using Social Survey data collected by Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics for the years 2017-2020, this study selected individuals post retirement age (62 + for women, 67 + for men), and investigated factors associated with post-retirement work and its effects on emotional well-being. The findings reveal gender differences, whereby economic needs motivate men to seek full-time employment, and good prospects in the labor market channel women toward full-time employment. Part-time employment is as good as full-time employment in contributing to men’s satisfaction and emotional well-being, whereas post-retirement work increases women's life satisfaction only if it is full-time, and has no effect on emotional well-being. This study has policy implications: Post-retirement part-time work may help promote healthy ageing and may facilitate the transition out of employment and into retirement. Recruiting older adults may diversify the workplace and perhaps contribute to older workers' life satisfaction and emotional well-being.

Grandparent Childcare by Gender and Generation.  Lyn Craig, University of Melbourne; DongJu Lee, University of Melbourne; Myra Hamilton, University of Sydney; Elizabeth Adamson, University of New South Wales; and Virpi Timonen, University of Helsinki

Grandparents are an important source of childcare worldwide. This paper presents results from a mixed methods study, looking firstly at how cross-generational demographic characteristics factor into grandparent care provision considering the cultural assumptions and policy settings families live within, and secondly at the lived experiences of parent-grandparent dyads in negotiating work and care. Using the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, we identify determinants of both the demand for, and supply of, grandparent childcare in Australia (4,266 grandparents, 9,822 parents). Quantitative results suggest that grandmothers and mothers, as much or more than fathers and mothers, balance their reciprocal participation in employment and childcare. Unlike in other countries, university-educated grandmothers are more likely to provide childcare and university-educated mothers are more likely to draw upon it. The qualitative interviews (n=45) reinforce that cross-generational care provision is primarily a negotiation between mothers and grandmothers, with a child’s mother and the mother’s mother tending to be most intensely involved, and that a major motivation for it was supporting mothers’ workforce participation. They provided detailed new insight into the complex organisation and inter-familial and cross-generational co-operation involved in managing and maintaining grandparent care relationships. From a policy perspective, the results suggest the caring labour of grandmothers is currently critical to the workforce participation of mothers. They point to inadequate public policy support for Australian working mothers to capitalize on their historically high educational attainment, and suggest that to compensate, grandmothers are stepping in as both ‘mother savers’ and ‘system savers’.

Care Provision Among Older Adults in Mexico: An Examination of Time Use Patterns and Subjective Wellbeing.  Lia Acosta Rueda, University of Toronto

How much time do Mexican older adults spend looking after their grandchildren and how does it matter for their quality of life? In this paper, I focus on examining the role of unpaid care provided by older adults in Mexico, where little research has been conducted on a potentially vulnerable population. Using the most recent (2019) Mexican National Time Use Survey (ENUT), this research investigates the relationship between grandparent's provision of care and their subjective wellbeing (happiness and life satisfaction). Additionally, it explores how unpaid care provision is allocated based on three social locations – by gender and socioeconomic status – and two social contexts (rural versus urban). My results point to the importance of childcare care provision that goes beyond the nuclear family and formal institutional provision. The study’s findings contribute to the literature by promoting a better understanding of childcare arrangements within contexts characterized by limited institutional childcare support and strong normative preferences for family-based care.

Intergenerational Tensions of Gender, Work and Care in the Labour Market: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Grandparent Childcare in Australian Policy Dialogue.  Elizabeth Adamson, University of New South Wales; Virpi Timonen, University of Helsinki; Myra Hamilton, University of Sydney; Alison Williams, University of Sydney - Business School; and Lyn Craig, University of Melbourne

Mothers and mature age workers are regularly identified in policy debate as important targets of boosting labour market participation. Two groups of women – mothers and older women – are being encouraged to participate in paid work. In Australia, this has been evidenced through election platforms, government strategies and new policies. Research shows that grandparents (especially grandmothers) play a central role in supporting the employment of their daughters and daughters-in-law, yet it is unclear how grandparents’ care and work responsibilities are represented in policy discourses. Drawing on submissions to four government-initiated public inquiries we analyse stakeholder discourses encouraging women to increase their labour market participation within a context of known barriers and challenges in the Australian childcare system. The texts offer an ideal corpus for examining the kinds of ‘model’ grandparents that feature in official discourses, and reactions to them by a range of actors in the Australian work and care policy environment. We interrogate the tensions and contradictions that arise when mothers and grandmothers become the targets for labour market policies, with a particular focus on the discursive portrayals of older women as both (potential) workers and childcare providers. The article contributes to knowledge about how different forms of work are construed across gender, age, and other sociodemographic characteristics. The findings point to opportunities for policy makers to more explicitly and consciously recognise and address the social and economic contributions made by grandparents.

Menopause at Work: Let's Talk.  Janet Mantler, Carleton University; Anne Bowker, Carleton University; Emma Bider, Carleton University; and Sandra Ogbuagu, Carleton University

Overarching concerns: Perimenopausal women (aged 45 to 55) are the fastest growing demographic for labour force participation (Brewis et al., 2017), yet menopause remains a taboo topic in the workplace. How does the menopausal transition affect women at work? Are they able to talk about menopause and menopausal symptoms at work? If so, who do they talk to? Method: As part of a larger study, we interviewed 60 Canadian women about their menopausal transition. For this talk, we focus on their menopause experience in the context of work, including who they talked to about menopause and whether they had asked for or received menopause-related accommodations. We used reflexive thematic analysis (Braun & Clark, 2022) to analyze the data. Important findings: - Key menopausal symptoms that affected the way women worked included disrupted sleep, loss of energy, heavy periods, intrusive vasomotor conditions, and brain fog. - Menopausal symptoms had varying and often unpredictable degrees of severity, affected women’s ability to concentrate, and resulted in taking sick days for pain or heavy periods. - Simple accommodations such as having desk fans or flexible work arrangements would have aided their ability to work successfully, yet almost none of our participants asked for accommodations. - Participants did not discuss menopause with supervisors, particularly men, because they felt it would make them uncomfortable, because menopause is still viewed as a “women’s issue.” - Perimenopause often occurs at the time that women move into senior leadership roles. Women in leadership were even more reluctant to say anything about menopause because they did not want to be perceived as weak and subsequently overlooked for opportunities. Implications for policy and practice: Menopause needs to be normalized; 50% of the workforce will experience this physical transition at some point during their working years. Women need only a few straightforward accommodations to ease symptom discomfort to be successful at work rather than thinking about whether to quit their jobs. Managers need to be trained to have direct conversations about how to accommodate women at work.

Paper Session

Life Course Transitions: Aging and Retirement 2


Does Access to Paid Sick Leave Facilitate the Employment of Older Workers?.  Meredith Slopen, CUNY - Graduate Center

As life expectancy has increased, there has been political pressure to raise the age for retirement benefit claims, even though many American workers detach from the labor market in their 50s and are no longer in paid full-time employment by their early 60s. By offering workers the flexibility to address health and caregiving needs, paid sick leave (PSL) may support older workers in maintaining employment intensity. However, despite anticipated higher need for PSL among older workers, little is known about the role of PSL access on older workers' employment and income. The study uses data from the 2010-2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), accessed via IPUMS. Stratified multivariate regression models controlling for demographic and employment characteristics are used to explore the association between access PSL and employment intensity among older workers. On average, access to PSL is associated with a 22% higher likelihood of working full-time (p<0.001) and an average of 4.25 hours more in the prior week (p<0.001). Stratified analyses indicate that as workers age, access to PSL is associated with higher intensity of work: PSL is associated with a higher and rising number of hours worked after age 62, when workers become eligible to collect Social Security, reaching over 7 hours among workers older than 67 years (p<0.001). PSL access is associated with greater employment intensity as workers age, with implications for economic security given the significant increase in hours worked per week. Public policy to require employers to provide PSL may support the employment of older workers.

Older Adults’ Digital Intergenerational Contact: Patterns, Predictors, and Associations with Subjective Well-Being Across Europe.  Yang Hu, Lancaster University

Contact with family is key to sustaining individuals’ subjective well-being, and such contact has become increasingly digitalized. In today’s “polymedia” environment, individuals are afforded diverse modes of digital contact, ranging from phone calls and text messaging (including via email and chat applications) to video calls. Distinct modes of digital contact create differential levels of sociality, which may have varying implications for subjective well-being. As the COVID-19 pandemic severely curtailed older adults’ in-person contact with family, digital contact, or its lack, has become particularly important for their subjective well-being. Analyzing data from the 2020 European Social Survey, this study provides new evidence of older adults’ digital intergenerational contact with non-residential children across Europe. First, it identifies four profiles of older Europeans’ digital contact across the modes of phone calls, text messaging, and video calls: low contact (across all modes), phone-only contact, non-visual contact (phone calls and text messaging), and high contact (across all modes). Then, it examines how older adults’ in-person contact, internet access, digital literacy, the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, and country-level internet coverage relate to the distinct profiles of digital contact and shape their associations with older adults’ subjective well-being. The findings provide new insights into the digitalization of older Europeans’ intergenerational contact with children, as well as the micro and macro social conditions shaping the link between their digital contact and subjective well-being.

Are Rural Areas Holdouts in the Second Demographic Transition? Evidence from Canada and the United States.  Shelley Clark, McGill University; Matthew Brooks, Florida State University; Ann-Marie Helou, McGill University; and Rachel Margolis, Western University

A central supposition of the first Demographic Transition is that demographic change would be slower in rural areas than in urban areas. Few studies, however, have investigated whether rural areas continue to be holdouts during the so-called Second Demographic Transition. To address this void, this study 1) examines trends in rural and urban families in Canada and the United States over the last 30 years, and 2) determines whether compositional differences in demographic, socioeconomic and religious factors explain current significant differences between rural and urban family behaviors. We find that rural Canadian women continue to have, on average, 0.6 more children than urban women. However, rural families do not trail behind urban families with respect to any other indicator of family change. In fact, rural women in both countries are more likely than urban women to cohabit and to have children outside of marriage. These differences are largely explained by lower levels of education and income among rural American women and fewer immigrants in rural Canada. Examining family change through a rural-urban lens fills important empirical gaps and yields novel insights into current debates on the fundamental causes of ongoing family change in high-income countries.

Older Women's Work from Home Experiences in Singapore Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic Through a Feminist and Life Course Lens.  Sam Yuan, Georgia Institute of Technology; Shun Yuan Yeo, Singapore University of Technology and Design; and Kristen Lee, SUNY - University at Buffalo

This research delves into the multifaceted experiences of older women in Singapore navigating the realm of remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic. Employing a feminist framework and the life course perspective, the study seeks to unravel the intersectional challenges faced by this demographic group in adapting to the abrupt shift towards working from home, specifically the authors examine the “gendered space division” at home among older women in Singapore. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 40 older women in Singapore, this research captures the rationales for division of space at home among older women who are the main caregivers for their spouses and adult chidlren with full-time jobs. The feminist lens provides a critical framework to examine power dynamics, gender roles, and the impact of societal expectations on the experiences of these older women. Furthermore, the life course perspective allows for an exploration of how the socio-historical context and individual factors contributed to the division of space at home during the pandemic. Preliminary findings underscore the importance of recognizing the diverse realities within this specific demographic. The study contributes to a broader understanding of the gendered dimensions of remote work during a global crisis, emphasizing the need for targeted policies and support systems to address the unique challenges faced by older women.

The Economic-Adjusted Age Dependency Ratio in India: A New Measure for Understanding Economic Burden of Aging..  Varsha Rani, International Institute for Population Sciences; and Srinivas Goli, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS)

The rising share of the elderly working till late in their life span has several economic implications, including alterations in work force participation and economic growth. And this, in turn, has an implication for dependency ratios computed only based on age structure of population. Therefore, this study proposes to estimate the economic burden of ageing based on work-force participation of all adult and elderly population aged 15-64 years & >=65 years respectively. The newly proposed measures: Economic Adjusted Age Dependency Ratio (EADR) and Economic Adjusted Old Age Dependency Ratio (EAODR) estimates the financial burden of the older adults more correctly by adjusting to out of workforce population for all adult and elderly population. Our findings suggest that across the states, the discordance in the ranks of OADR and EADR in NCT of Delhi (OADR 0.13; EADR 1.06) with having the highest EADR but exhibit lowest OADR whereas, Himachal Pradesh (OADR 0.19; EADR 0.28) having the lowest EADR but accounts for the highest OADR. Similarly, the estimates of EAODR shows that majority of the states have a high OADR but relatively low EAODR. These instances imply that not all working age population are working, while all older population are not economically dependent. Therefore, EADR and EAODR are potential measures to estimate the actual economic burden of age dependency and helps in social safety net programmes, employment policies and to promote UN Decade of Healthy Ageing 2021–2030.

Paper Session

Life Course Transitions: School to Work


Occupational Concentration of a Major and Gendered Wage Trajectories Among College Graduates.  Eunjeong Paek, University of Hawaii

In this study, I explore the gender wage disparities among college graduates by focusing on the occupational concentration of a major— specifically, the proportion of graduates in the ten most common occupations. I investigate 1) whether the wage premium associated with the occupational concentration of a major varies across gender, and 2) how such variation can be explained by three gendered working conditions: working long hours, STEM occupations, and occupational sex composition. By combining multiple datasets, I used multilevel growth models. Preliminary findings indicate that men tend to receive a greater wage premium from a college degree with high occupational concentration than women, and this gender gap has widened over time. Adjusting for gendered working conditions significantly reduces the gender disparities in the wage premium of occupation-specific college degrees. These findings illuminate the mechanisms behind the gender wage disparities among college graduates.

Teen Time Use, Gender, and the COVID Pandemic.  Anne Winkler, University of Missouri, St. Louis; and Shirley Porterfield, University of Missouri, St. Louis

This study uses ATUS data to examine trends in teens’ time use over a nearly 20 year period, from 2003-2022, providing information on secular patterns (persistence and change) and also on those associated with the COVID shock (2020 – 2021). There has been considerable study of parents’ time use over COVID (Pabilonia & Vernon, 2023) but very little study on teens (Morrissey & Engle, 2022). Teen time use patterns matter because they have implications for future labor market, educational, and family outcomes. Prior to COVID, teen girls spent twice as much time on household caring activities than boys. Has this strongly gendered pattern persisted? Prior to COVID, boys spent a disproportionate time on video games. How did COVID (stay-at home orders, social distancing, online schooling) exacerbate this difference? Also, what types of reallocations in (reported) teen time use (from schooling to homework to non-schooling) do we see? Among the findings, both genders are equally likely to be employed, with similar hours per week. Teen girls still spend twice as much time in caring work than teen boys, though hours declined for both. During COVID, girls’ time in housework fell, while boys’ time increased, suggesting greater gender equality. Screen time, already higher for boys, increased disproportionately. As expected, over the COVID period, reported “school” hours fell while “homework” hours increased for teen boys and girls, but girls still spend more time on homework. The findings for girls are suggestive of improved future outcomes but findings for boys reinforce ongoing concerns.

Student Parents in Colleges: What Can Be Helpful?.  Jing Guo, University of Hawaii; and Meirong Liu, Howard University

This study focuses on a particular intersection of student parents and part-time workers. According to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research reports, student parents make up a substantial percentage of postsecondary students but often face enormous barriers to academic success. Student parents, especially for low-income, minority, and first-generation college students, often found it hard to navigate the academic setting and balance the school and family responsibilities, sometimes outside work responsibility. Over the past decades, women became more educated and women with children have increased their participation in the labor force considerably. Meanwhile, 23 percent of employed women worked part-time. The most common reasons people choose part time work are for school attendance, and family or personal obligations. The combination of attending college, maintaining a part-time work, and raising a family creates a transition period in a person’s life. The issues of student parents, including those who work part-time, have often been left to institutions of higher education to meet the needs of student parents. We want to examine the status of student parents, in terms of the interaction of school, family and work. We review the literatures on policies and practices at the local level that recognize the importance of supporting student parents. We hope to look at micro-level interventions as well, for example, how the University policies and practices can enhance the educational experiences for student parents, which affects their educational success and their family’s wellbeing. We will report findings from student parents’ interviews.

Paper Session

Motherhood Around the Globe


Women Returning to Workforce After Maternity Leave: Refamilisation Instead of Defamilisation?.  Moldir Kabylova, University of Nottingham

Women in Kazakhstan are more incentivised to enter and return to the labour market after maternity leave due to increasing inflation rate and gender egalitarian values. Family policy such as 12 months paid childcare leave, three years maternity leave with a right to keep workplace and state-subsidised childcare for children aged over three improve chances of women to have smooth transition from maternity leave to paid work and successfully reintegrate into the labour market. With more active support from welfare state to families to become two-income households, the role of informal support is anticipated to diminish. The aim of the research is to evaluate defamilisation level resulting from women becoming second or the main wage-earners in a household with decreased reliance on family support. The study applied focus group discussions method where 30 women from both urban and rural areas of Kazakhstan took part. The findings suggest that women in Kazakhstan, especially from lower-income households, experience refamilisation instead of defamilisation as there is an increased reliance on intergenerational help to provide free childcare due to accessibility issues to state-subsidised childcare and unaffordability of the private ones. The research makes an original contribution to work-family related studies in Post-communist Central Asian region applying theories of defamilisation, which is commonly used in Western world.

Working Mothers in Taiwan.  Grace Huang, St. Lawrence University

Overarching questions/concerns This paper examines the resources and constraints that Taiwanese working mothers face in balancing work and family responsibilities, with a focus on cultural influences. It investigates how factors, such as workplace and government policies, extended family, and hired help, can facilitate or hinder a mother’s ability to manage her professional and personal duties. By examining these resources and constraints through a cultural lens, the paper seeks to understand the choices working mothers make and the narratives and values they hold regarding their dual roles as professionals and caregivers. Furthermore, the paper highlights mothers as agents of change, recognizing their capacity to navigate and shape their own experiences to realize their ideal work-family balance within the Taiwanese cultural context. Statement on Methods From August 2023 to January 2024, I conducted a qualitative study on the experiences of Taiwanese working mothers. The research involved in-depth interviews with 27 working mothers, most of whom had at least one child under the age of 10. Each interview lasted between two to three hours, allowing for a wide-ranging exploration of the working mother’s experiences. I also interviewed several experts and scholars specializing in issues about employment, childcare, and fertility in order to gain additional insights into the broader context. I was supported by a US Senior Scholar grant, which allowed me to reside in Taiwan with my two children for the duration of the research project. This study is part of a larger comparative study of three democratic welfare regimes, which include the US (liberal democracy), Spain (social democracy), and Taiwan (hybrid democracy). Important Findings • Taiwan’s welfare regime type: Taiwan has a hybrid democratic regime that combines elements of liberal democracies, like the US, and social democracies, like Spain. While Taiwan’s work culture is more demanding than that of the US, it provides universal healthcare to its citizens similar to Spain. Regarding childcare, Taiwan falls between the fully privatized system of the US system and the comprehensive, affordable public childcare programs found in Spain. • The impact of Taiwan’s workplace culture on working mothers’ work-family balance: Taiwan’s workplace culture poses significant obstacles for working mothers trying to achieve work-family balance. They face some of the world’s longest working hours, which are further exacerbated by low wages and inflexible work schedules. This culture partially stems from Taiwan’s recent history of emphasizing manufacturing and societal demands for high-quality service and convenience. It also reflects a patriarchal system where the main burden of balancing work and family are put on the women. • The impact of Taiwan’s care culture on working mothers’ work-family balance: On balance, Taiwan’s care culture provides significant support for working mothers in several key areas: o Postpartum care for mothers: The cultural practice of “sitting the month” is notable in that care is focused on the mother rather than the child. New mothers are expected to rest between 30 to 40 days after delivering their baby. Family members or postpartum recovery centers prepare special, nutritious meals for the mother and care for the baby, allowing the mother to rest and recover. o Care of children: Working mothers can rely on extended family support, who operates with an implicit family social contract of mutual obligation and reciprocity, often involving financial compensation through the gift of red envelopes. Monthly government subsidies also help mothers hire nanny or enroll their children in daycare. o Care of household and family: Low wages and convenient services allow working mothers to hire help for cleaning and obtain nutritious food prepared outside the home without stigma. Taiwan also has a competent, affordable healthcare system, which subtracts one major worry for working mothers. However, Taiwan’s care culture falls short in two areas: o Partner support: Long working hours and short paternal leaves (seven days), often result in the husband being absent during the crucial period of learning to care for the child, making the working mother the default caregiver. Although Taiwan now grants six months of parental leave at 80% pay, few fathers take advantage of this. Changing gender expectations, however, are slowly encouraging fathers to contribute more to care and household tasks. o Declining community support: Taiwan’s low fertility rate has led to fewer children in communities, leading to a decrease in child-centered activities and support networks. While online networks provide some support, they are not the same as traditional community support.

Unravelling the Motherload: Amplifying the Voices of Low-Income Women in South Africa for Pathways Forward.  Ameeta Jaga, University of Cape Town; Jane Battersby, University of Cape Town; Fiona Ross, University of Cape Town; Wanga Zembe-Mkabile, South African Medical Research Council; Yanga Zembe, University of KwaZulu Nata; Sarah Chapman, University of Cape Town; Feranaaz Farista, University of Cape Town; Ruth Mathys, Grow Great; and Tristan Görgens, Western Cape Government

Overarching questions/concerns: The majority of mothers in South Africa are low-income and black. They perform care work in challenging conditions exacerbated by the country’s extreme income inequality, apartheid spatial planning, and neoliberal economic policies, hindering their economic security, safety and wellbeing. We sought to answer the following research questions: (a) What factors shape low-income mothers’ experiences regarding care work and economic participation? (b) What strategies can mitigate the negative consequences of caregiving burdens on maternal employment and wellbeing in this context? Statement on methods Using participatory action research with photovoice as a feminist decolonial methodology, we partnered with low-income mothers, the Western Cape Government (WCG), and Flourish (a women’s rights group). The mothers engaged in individual photograph analysis and collective cross-comparison analyses based on their interpretations for knowledge generation and action identification. We centred the mothers' voices in developing a call to action to recognize and reduce the motherload, communicating this call through a series of photovoice exhibitions with diverse stakeholders. Important findings (bulleted list) - The concept Motherload emerged from the mothers' analyses of caring in their social and material conditions, to describes the highly gendered, often-invisible, under-valued work individuals performing mothering undertake. - Its full complexity and multifaceted nature are inadequately recognised in policy. - Existing policies in healthcare, labour, safety, and sanitation exacerbate their caregiving roles, resulting in hidden costs, trauma, and debt. - Neglecting to address this perpetuates gender inequality and poses significant social, economic, and health risks. Implications for research, policy and/or practice - More research is needed to understand the plurality of the motherload in diverse contexts, especially using methods that center low-income mothers' voices. - Care policies treat mothers as a homogenous group, but race and socio-economic status shapes distinct lived experiences. Policy development can benefit from better reflecting care realities using an intersectional lens. - Approaches to policy making should involve a diverse range of stakeholders to recognize actual burdens and maximise impact of policy changes.

Breastfeeding Among Women Employed in Mexico’s Informal Sector: Strategies to Overcome Key Barriers.  Julia Goodman, OHSU-PSU School of Public Health; Vania Lara Mejía, Universidad Iberoamericana; Sonia Hernández Cordero, Universidad Iberoamericana; and Mireya Vilar Compte, Montclair State University

Background: In Mexico, more than half of women are in informal employment, meaning they lack many important protections, including those that may support breastfeeding. Methods: In-depth interviews with 15 key informants representing government agencies, NGOs, international organizations, and academia in Mexico. Interviews were conducted March-June 2023. To understand and describe barriers to breastfeeding among informally employed women in Mexico and current and potential policies to address these barriers, we conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Respondents described a range of barriers to breastfeeding that spanned the Socio-Ecological Model, from individual to policy levels. While many of these barriers apply to all women, particularly those in paid employment, the impact on women in informal employment was perceived to be more pronounced. Similarly, most current breastfeeding-related policies apply to all employed women, but respondents expressed concern that women in informal employment lack adequate protection. Conclusions: Women in Mexico’s informal sector face limited maternity protections. Few policies exist to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding among employed women, in general, but the economic vulnerability and challenging working conditions of women in informal employment exacerbates their situation. The lack of access to formal labor protections creates a significant barrier to breastfeeding for women in the informal sector. Recommendations include short-term policies to fill gaps in social protection for informally employed women, as well as longer-term solutions such as the development of universal social protection programs and supporting formalization.

Paper Session

Organizational Approaches to Work-Life Integration


Flexible Jobs Make Parents Happier: Evidence from Australia.  Agnieszka Postepska, University of Groningen; and Shuye Yu, University of Oxford

Recent studies have found that self-reported life satisfaction drops during the transition into parenthood. This decline is often attributed to a work-family conflict. This study investigates whether different forms of flexible employment can alleviate this drop in parental life satisfaction during this period. A fixed-effects analysis in an event study framework using Australian household survey data (HILDA) delivers convincing evidence that working flexibly indeed alleviates the drop in subjective well-being, suggesting that it relieves the stress related to work-family conflict. Moreover, we find substantial gender heterogeneity in the effects of different types of flexible employment on mothers' and fathers' life satisfaction. Mothers with short part-time jobs (0-20 hours per week) exhibit greater life satisfaction than mothers who work full-time, especially when their children are younger than four. Among fathers, self-scheduling and home-based work significantly increase perceived happiness compared to fixed employment terms. This is especially true for fathers of one- and two-year-olds. These results are consistent with parents' classical intra-household time allocation in Australia and typical labor market trajectories of each gender around childbirth.

HR Professionals Supporting Work-Life Balance: An Enablers-Barriers Approach.  Isabelle Létourneau, Université de Sherbrooke; Danaël Lambert, Université de Sherbrooke; Jessica Levasseur, Université de Sherbrooke; and Etienne Fouquet, Université de Sherbrooke

HR professionals play an important part in supporting work-life balance (WLB), even though in the scientific literature the spotlight is rarely put on their specific practices. HR professionals are essential to conducting WLB diagnosis, assessing the feasibility of new WLB initiatives, implementing WLB policies, promoting the use of WLB resources, raising stakeholders’ awareness of WLB issues, coaching managers to support WLB, and so on (Bond and Wise, 2003; Clutterbuck, 2003; Bailyn, 2011; Goudswaard et al., 2013; Létourneau, 2022). Yet very little is known about factors influencing the efficiency of those supportive practices. A qualitative study was designed to identify enablers and barriers influencing supportive WLB practices performed by HR professionals. Forty-five HR professionals (15 from SMEs, 15 from large organizations and 15 consultants), members of the Ordre des conseillers en gestion des ressources humaines agréés du Québec (CRHA), participated in semi-structured interviews. Results reveal a taxonomy of 110 enablers and 99 barriers regrouped in 38 categories and 8 broad themes. The discussion shows that enablers and barriers go far beyond the organizational realm, to which the scientific literature is mainly confined (e.g., organizational culture, business operations, etc.), to encompass extra-organizational, interorganizational, functional, personal, professional, individual, and interventional domains. Specific enablers and barriers are not necessarily opposed. This paper provides a first reference framework to further our understanding of the varied and complex conditions in which HR professionals support WLB in organizational setting.

Can A Workplace Assessment Drive Improvements in Employee and Employer Outcomes?.  Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute; and Philip David Zelazo, University of Minnesota

The Thriving Workplace Index has its origins in ongoing nationally representative studies of employees (1992-2016) where we discovered that employee outcomes (health, wellbeing, job engagement, work-family conflict) were worsening and in ongoing nationally representative studies of employers (2005-2016) where we also discovered that employer outcomes (recruitment, retention) were worsening. In response, we created When Work Works with the Society for HR Management (SHRM), using a participatory project-design process (civic science). Between 2012-2016, we worked with several thousand small, midsized and large employers in all 50 states (US), implementing the “Effective Workplace Index” as an assessment and improvement tool. In 2020, we pivoted and created an “Inclusion Index” to assess outcomes for employees experiencing adverse pandemic-like life events (layoffs, job loss, serious illness). In both Indexes, we found relational factors like feeling a part of their workgroup and supported by others (caring connections) or being given autonomy and treated with respect (agency) were the most significant predictors of outcomes. We thus built on Self Determination Theory to assess relational factors (caring connections, agency, mastery, identity and purpose) in our new “Thriving Workplace Index,” again using a participatory design process and are piloting it with educational workplaces. Time 1 results indicate that relational factors are significantly linked with outcomes that benefit employees (employee health and wellbeing, work-family conflict) and employers (job engagement, retention). In this session, we’ll report on Time 2 findings, addressing whether a workplace assessment (that includes both organizational and individual change-experiments) can drive improvements in employee and employer outcomes.

Enabling – Enclosing Work-Life Policies: An Analysis of Telework, Flexible Work Schedule and Onsite Childcare’s Perceived Helpfulness and Likeliness of Use.  Sarah Bourdeau, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) - École des Sciences de la Gestion (ESG); Nathalie Houlfort, Université of du Québec à Montréal; and Léandre Chénard Poirier, HEC Montréal

Many organizations offer work-life policies to help their employees alleviate the conflicting demands stemming from multiple life roles (Kossek, et al., 2010). According to the enabling – enclosing theoretical conceptualisation of work-life policies, they can be perceived as control mechanisms that can fall on a continuum ranging from more enclosing to more enabling in nature (Bourdeau et al., 2019). This paper presentation focuses on three work-life policies, namely onsite child-care, telework and flexible work schedule, and presents two cross-sectional studies which aim to 1) empirically validate that the selected work-life policies can be positioned on the enabling – enclosing proposition, and 2) investigate how perceiving a policy as more or less enabling can influence the likeliness of using it if needed through the mediating role of the policy’s perceived helpfulness. Results in both studies (Study 1, N = 284; Study 2, N = 251) from repeated measure ANOVA confirm that onsite childcare is systematically perceived as the most enclosing policy, followed by telework and finally, flexible schedule is perceived as the most enabling policy. Furthermore, results from linear regressions confirm that the more a policy is seen as enabling, the more it is perceived as helpful, and the more likely it is to be used if needed. Implications for practice will be discussed.

Employee Assistance Programs: Factors Affecting Their Acceptance and Utilization.  Daniel Erler, pme Familienservice

In this case study from Germany, we explore the question how the design and implementation of Employee Assistance Programs (EAP) impacts their acceptance and utilization. For this purpose a quantitative survey among 1000 employees (n=618) and managers (n=382) was conducted, asking participants among other things: what they expect from EAP; how important such measures are compared to other benefits; whether they have already used EAP and whether such programs are important for their perception of and satisfaction with their employer. The quantitative survey was based on a representative sample of employees in Germany, from companies with more than 200 workers. In addition, 41 qualitative interviews with HR-managers were conducted. Placing the study results within the wider socio-economic context of Germany, this paper will explicate some of the key findings. We find, that more than 70% of respondents regard the provision of EAP by their employer as important because they consider such measures as a sign of appreciation and support by their employer. However, when asked to rank EAPs' relevance compared to other benefits, respondents placed wages and satisfaction with their job before work-life-balance and EAP measures. Asked about the reasons for not using EAP, 53% cited lack of time while 37% of respondents said that the measures provided where not relevant or attractive for them. Questioned about possible ways of rendering EAP offerings more attractive to them, 50% of all respondents cited a complete coverage of costs, while 41% said that time flexibility could significantly enhance EAPs' attractiveness. One of the more surprising findings in this research was the very substantial difference in perception and usage among employees and managers. When asked how satisfied they are overall with their employers' well-being and work-life policies, 70% of managers said they were satisfied, against 35% percent of employees. This may be one explanation for the large difference in EAP utilization. Whereas 87% of managers declared that they had already made use of such measures, only 50% of employees had already utilized EAP. Reducing the mismatch between employee and manager perceptions of EAPs' fit and utility may be one leverage factor to increase the overall utilization and acceptance of such programs in companies. Reducing possible financial disincentives, such as co-payment of measures, and increasing the flexibility to use such services could also help to remove utilization hurdles. Overall, the study indicates, that employee satisfaction is significantly higher in companies offering EAP (87%) than in companies with no EAP (61%). While EAP only constitutes one variable influencing employee satisfaction, EAP certainly seems to have the potential to improve the overall commitment and motivation of employees.

Paper Session

Paid Leave Policies and Perceptions


Parental Leave Policies Presentation in Media: A Comparative Analysis of Croatia and Montenegro.  Branko Bošković, University of Donja Gorica

Parental leave policies play an important role in child’s and parents’ well-being and there is an interest in their effects on fertility behavior. Different policy approaches may result in differing outcomes, but there is a lack of analysis of the perception of parental leave in the media. Media discourse may move from justifying and pro-natalist to more restrictive and protective. Research of the prospective impact it may have on welfare and inequality, especially related to women, is missing. The analysis will look at the leading portals in Croatia and Montenegro and it will focus on the major framing and understanding of parental leave. The two countries have different parental leave policies. Croatia is a European Union member state and Montenegro is a candidate country and it is important to see how leading media in these countries report on parental leave policies. Period from 2017 to 2023 will be covered so the major policy changes are included as well as a period of the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis will inspect a discourse, frequency and framing and it will look at how a discourse is shaped: whether it is political, economic, social or influenced by other factors. It will be compared with the major trends in welfare and inequality, to see if there is a correlation between them. This approach can be an example of the theoretical and empirical analysis that can be applied in different contexts, to see whether media influence perception and use of the parental leave.

Debt Crises in a Gendered Economy: Paid Leave as a Social Safety Net for Vulnerable American Households.  Tracey Freiberg, St. John&#x27;s University

As the formalized global workforce has become more inclusive, it is more common to see households outside of the traditional male breadwinner model, leaving a benefits hole for many Americans. As such, mainstream conceptions of household debt have inadequately captured the sources and, subsequently, sufficient solutions for questions of economic security in the United States. Specifically, states with paid family and medical leave programs (PFML) attempt to shift the responsibility of reproductive work to a shared responsibility with employers, instead of fully on individuals. While PFML in the US is gender neutral in language, usage is overwhelmingly female, seemingly providing a safety net for dual income and female-led households in the form of partial wage replacement. Using the Survey of Income Program Participation, I examine household debt levels in PFML states, versus their non-PFML counterparts. While PFML programs notoriously only provide financial benefits for Americans in formalized employment, and therefore ignore the reproductive work done by full-time (unpaid) caretakers, I aim to show that while PFML may lessen burdens of short-term household debt, PFML ultimately is an insufficient tool for US household debt alleviation, in its current form, as its claimants often come from vulnerable households and work in industries that routinely punish caretakers. Yet, when promoted and used as a part of a larger set of policies for economic stability, paid leave programs may help strike a better balance between work and life constraints.

The 2021 Baby Boom in Iceland: Exploring the Role of a Parental Leave Reform and the COVID-19 Pandemic.  Ásdís Arnalds, University of Iceland; Ari Klængur Jónsson, University of Iceland; and Sunna Símonardóttir, University of Iceland

In 2021, during the hight of the COVID-19 pandemic, the total fertility rate in Iceland rose unexpectedly from 1.72 to 1.82. The increased number of births followed an important reform in the Icelandic paid parental leave scheme, which included an expansion of the leave from 10 to 12 months. Analysis of data from Statistics Iceland and focus group interviews with parents who had a child in 2021 were used to explore if and how the parental leave reform and the societal changes related to the pandemic shaped parents’ decision to have a child in 2021. As the rise in fertility was short-lived, the results indicate that the baby boom of 2021 can hardly be explained by the parental leave reform. Rather, at least for educated women, who already had children and were in a good financial state, it seems that the pandemic created a favourable atmosphere for having a child. Parents’ narratives from the focus group interviews suggest that the pandemic might have been a good time to start or add to the family because of the increased time spent at home and the limited involvement in social activities outside the home.

Perceptions of Workplace Support for Paid Parental Leave Use in Iceland.  Ásdís Arnalds, University of Iceland

The presentation places focus on perceived support for the use of paid parental leave in Iceland, a country that has offered non-transferable leave for fathers for over 20 years. Iceland provides a unique setting for such research, given the country’s long tradition of emphasizing both parents’ participation in work and care. Although most fathers use their right to take paid parental, about 20% of fathers in Iceland use no leave at all. The presented study aims to explore whether workplace practices and attitudes create hindrances for fathers’ leave use. The findings are based on analysis of comprehensive survey data among employees in Iceland. A special emphasis is placed on examining how leave is perceived to be supported by supervisors and co-workers and to understand respondents’ own attitudes towards the leave use of male and female employees. The findings show that although the vast majority of respondents predict that supervisors and co-workers would support both mothers and fathers in their use of paid parental leave, mothers were perceived to receive greater support than fathers. The gender difference in perceived support was especially evident in workplaces where the majority of employees were male. Thus, the findings indicate that workplace attitudes might create hindrances for fathers’ leave use.

Paper Session

Parenting and Family Dynamics


Testing the indirect effects of work-family strain on parenting stress and child wellbeing.  Ines de Pierola, Oregon State University; Beth Phelps, Oregon State University; and David Rothwell, Oregon State University

Contextual factors influence family relationships and children's well-being. For instance, excessive workplace demands can make caregiving challenging, which in turn increases parenting stress (Hwang & Jung, 2020). According to the Family Stress Model, personal distress places strain on family relationships and disrupts parenting, eventually threatening child wellbeing (Masarik & Conger, 2017). We extend the FSM by asking: to what extent does parenting stress mediate the relationship between work-family strain and child wellbeing? Method We used data from waves 3, 4, and 5 of the Future of Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which correspond to when children are approximately ages 3, 5, and 9. Parenting stress (PS) was measured on a scale from 0 to 4, based on role strain. Work-family strain was assessed through three items: stress related to work schedules and family, difficulty managing childcare at work, and inflexible work schedules for family needs. Child well-being was evaluated using the Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory (ASBI). Formal mediation analyses tested how much of the relationship between work-family strain and child well-being was accounted for by parenting stress. Results and Discussion We found that work-family strain has a direct effect on decreasing child well-being (b=-.06, p < .001). Additionally, work-family strain indirectly reduces children’s wellbeing with 18% (p < .001) of the total effect mediated through parenting stress. We found a stronger mediation effect around child age 5 in transition from care to education settings. Findings highlight the need for institutional support by employers and schools during this period, such as flexible time, predictable schedules, and paid family and sick leave. Policies and interventions to counter work-family strain are needed, particularly for low-income families.

Couples’ Experiences of Grandparenthood: Grandchild-Related Bliss and Psychological Well-Being.  Jasmin Dorry, RWTH Aachen University; and Bettina S. Wiese, RWTH Aachen University

Overarching questions/concerns: Becoming a grandparent and feeling a sense of generativity are beneficial for an individual’s psychological well-being (e.g., Lodi-Smith et al., 2021; Tanskanen et al., 2019). Yet, a dyadic perspective on grandparenthood and its effects on both grandparents’ psychological well-being is largely missing. Reciprocal effects within grandparental couples regarding the joys of grandparenthood are plausible from a family systemic perspective (e.g., Cox & Paley, 1997; Minuchin, 1985). The present study puts grandparental couples’ experiences to the fore and distinguishes within-person spillover effects (actor effects) and between-person crossover effects (partner effects) using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Cook & Kenny, 2005). Thereby, we examine transfer effects from the grandmother/grandfather-grandchild subsystem to the couple subsystem. In terms of grandparental experiences that could affect the partnership-related and general well-being of both partners, we introduce the concept of “grandchild-related bliss,” which summarizes the fulfillment and joy of having a grandchild. Statement on methods: We employed the APIM to test whether grandchild-related bliss at T1 predicted partnership-related well-being (i.e., relationship satisfaction, positive and negative relationship quality) and general well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, meaning in life) at T2 in N = 139 first-time grandparental couples (inclusion criteria: heterosexual first-time grandparental couples who cohabit and have a grandchild up to eight years old). We decided to include several indicators of psychological well-being as criteria to strengthen our results through their generalizability across different facets of well-being, but also to have the possibility to identify differential effects, if any. Important findings (bulleted list): - Actor effects grandmothers: There was no empirical support for actor effects of grandchild-related bliss on psychological well-being in grandmothers. - Actor effects grandfathers: Grandfathers’ grandchild-related bliss positively predicted their psychological well-being, both in terms of partnership-related well-being and meaning in life. - Partner effects from grandmothers on grandfathers: There were no positive partner effects on grandfathers’ well-being stemming from grandmothers’ grandchild-related bliss. But, for grandfathers, witnessing their partner being fulfilled by the grandchild increased the negative qualities they attribute to their romantic relationship. - Partner effects from grandfathers on grandmothers: For grandmothers, witnessing their partner being happy with the grandchild positively predicted their partnership-related well-being and meaning in life. - In contrast to meaning in life, neither actor nor partner effects were found for life satisfaction as our second facet of general well-being. Implications for research, policy, and/or practice: The results show that grandfathers’ grandchild-related bliss is a source of psychological well-being in grandparental couples. Parallel to the compartmentalization hypothesis in mothers (Krishnakumar & Buehler, 2000), the results suggest that grandmothers keep their grandchild-related feelings within the boundaries of the grandmother-grandchild subsystem and that feelings and experiences in this subsystem are less permeable to other life domains and family members. The observed actor and partner effects underline that it is worthwhile considering data from both grandparents to obtain more differentiated results on the gendered effects of grandparenthood on psychological well-being (e.g., Hoppmann & Gerstorf, 2009). References Cook, W. L., & Kenny, D. A. (2005). The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model: A model of bidirectional effects in developmental studies. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(2), 101–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250444000405 Cox, M. J., & Paley, B. (1997). Families as systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 243–267. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.243 Hoppmann, C. A., & Gerstorf, D. (2009). Spousal interrelations in old age: A mini-review. Gerontology, 55(4), 449–459. https://doi.org/10.1159/000211948 Krishnakumar, A., & Buehler, C. (2000). Interparental conflict and parenting behaviors: A meta‐analytic review. Family Relations, 49(1), 25–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00025.x Lodi-Smith, J., Ponterio, E. J., Newton, N. J., Poulin, M. J., Baranski, E., & Whitbourne, S. K. (2021). The co-development of generativity and well-being into early late life. Psychology and Aging, 36(3), 299–308. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000446 Minuchin, P. (1985). Families and individual development: Provocations from the field of family therapy. Child Development, 56(2), 289–302. https://doi.org/10.2307/1129720 Tanskanen, A. O., Danielsbacka, M., Coall, D. A., & Jokela, M. (2019). Transition to grandparenthood and subjective well-being in older Europeans: A within-person investigation using longitudinal data. Evolutionary Psychology, 17(3), 1474704919875948. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704919875948

The Influence of Domestic Service Intervention on Parenting in Chinese Urban Families.  Jiahui Hou, Kobe University

In recent years, there has been a noticeable surge in utilization of domestic services in China’s urban areas, challenging the traditional role of grandparents as primary caregivers. This study aims to investigate the implications of market-oriented domestic service interventions on parenting within Chinese urban households. The research employs a semi-structured interview as the research method. Participants included four mothers who employ domestic helpers. The interview is about if they used to ask grandparents caring for grandchildren, why they use domestic service, and how it changes the sharing of housework and childcare within the family before and after employment. Results revealed that (1) although the influence of gender role consciousness continues, women now prioritize motherhood over the role of a wife. The introduction of domestic services has notably shifted the caregiving focus from general housework to a more concentrated emphasis on childcare. (2) The use of domestic services has, to some extent, replaced grandparents’ support for nuclear families and avoided grandparents’ intervention in parenting.

Examining the Role of Modernization and Urbanization in Family Changes in India: Evidence from Panel Data Analyses.  Tapas Dey, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai

Despite a dramatic change in family structures, the existing literature in the Indian context does not provide sufficient knowledge on mechanisms of family changes in the context of demographic transition coupled with modernization and urbanization. In the present study, we shed light on the question of whether the process of modernization and urbanization influences the breaking of Indian traditional family systems. The study uses the panel data (30 cross-sections*5 time points) generated using multiple data sources, mainly from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), India Human Development Survey (IHDS), Economic Survey and Census of India for 1991-2021. Using the Panel data fixed-effects estimates, we find a positive and significant association between ‘nucleation of family structure’ and ‘modernization and urbanization’ in India. Societal modernization, such as a rise in literacy rate and structural changes in the economy, are positively associated with the nucleation of families. Along with the societal changes, urbanization insists the family nucleation as well. A unit increase in urbanization and modernization increases the proportion of nuclear families by 1.5 units and 0.15 units, respectively. India has been experiencing a slow but steady rise in rural-to-urban transition for decades. The country will continue to urbanize and modernize, thus eventually hinting at more nucleation of families in the forthcoming years.

Paper Session

Parenting, Caregiving, and Peer Support


Changes in “Tag-Team Parenting” in the United States, 1997-2019.  Alejandra Ros Pilarz, University of Wisconsin, Madison; and Anna Walther, University of Wisconsin, Madiso

Overarching Questions Parental work schedules are central to how families spend their time, and in turn, shape family wellbeing. In dual-earner households, working overlapping schedules allows parents to maximize time with each other and engage in shared parenting activities. Some parents with young children, however, arrange to work non-overlapping schedules (sometimes referred to as “tag-team” parenting) in order to minimize the use of nonparental care—either because of their preferences or due to the high costs of child care. For other parents, working non-overlapping schedules might be driven by their inability to find jobs with overlapping schedules. A central unanswered question is whether parents in dual-earner households engage in tag-team parenting because of their preferences for parental care, especially when children are young, or whether they engage in tag-team parenting out of necessity, due to their job’s work schedule requirements or lack of affordable child care. The former might be supportive of parental and family wellbeing while the latter might be experienced as stressful. In this paper, we shed light on this question by examining changes in the prevalence of tag-team parenting from 1997 to 2019 in the United States and the extent to which changes in parental employment characteristics, socioeconomic resources, and child care availability during this period contributed to these changes. Statement on Methods This study uses 1997 to 2019 data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, a longitudinal and nationally-representative survey from the U.S. Census Bureau. Our sample includes dual-earner households with at least one child aged 5 or younger and in which both parents worked (N=19,274). Information on work schedules comes from self-reported start and end times of work on a typical day as well as days of the week worked in a typical week. Our primary measure of tag-team parenting is the dissimilarity index (DI), which considers both the amount of (dis)similarity in the timing of work schedules (i.e., extent to which couples work during the same times of the day) and similarity in the number of work hours (i.e., extent to which couples work the same number of work hours during the day); a value of 0 on the index indicates that couples have identical schedules while higher values on the index (maximum equals 200) indicate more dissimilar schedules. We first describe trends in tag-team parenting from 1997 to 2019. We then use Kitagawa-Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition models to assess the extent to which changes in parental employment characteristics (occupation, nonstandard work schedules, involuntary work schedule), socioeconomic resources (education and income), and child care availability (state-level child-care businesses and the generosity of public spending on child care and early education) explain changing trends in tag-team parenting. Our models also include demographic and family characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, marital status, the number and age of children in the households, and the presence of non-parental adults in the household. Important Findings • Tag-team parenting decreased by 16% between 1997 to 2019 among dual-earner households with young children from a DI of 59 to 49. • During this period, there were large increases in parents’ education and income as well as occupational upgrading (i.e., shifts into occupations with higher-paying and higher-quality jobs), particularly among mothers. There was also a decline in mothers working nonstandard schedules and a large increase in mothers reporting an involuntary reason for working their schedule (e.g., a requirement of the job or could not get another job). The availability of center-based child care also increased during this period while the generosity of public spending on child care and early education remained flat. • Results from decomposition models suggest that 75% of the decline in tag-team parenting was explained by changes in the covariates in the model. • This explained portion of the decline in tag-team parenting was largely driven by changes in parents’ employment: 18% by occupational upgrading among mothers and fathers; 33% by declines in mothers working nonstandard schedules; and 18% by increases in mothers reporting an involuntary reason for working their schedule. • Increases in mothers’ education and household income explained nearly 8% of the decline in tag-team parenting, but this was not statistically significant. • Changes in child care availability and public spending on early care and education did not explain the decline in tag-team parenting. Implications Our findings suggest that tag-team parenting among dual-earner households with young children declined between 1997 to 2019 due to parents’ occupational upgrading and changes in mothers’ work schedules. What might this reveal about parents’ motivations for tag-team parenting? On the one hand, shifts into higher-paying occupations increase parents’ economic resources for paying for child care and decrease the need for tag-team parenting. On the other hand, the increase in daytime and involuntary schedules among mothers suggest that some parents who desire to engage in tag-team parenting might not be able to due to having less control over their work schedules. Labor market policies that increase workers’ control over and flexibility in their schedules are likely to help parents better balance their work demands and child care preferences.

Balancing Domestic Equity: Exploring the Link Between Housework Division and Fertility Intentions in Canada.  Kamila Kolpashnikova, Western Michigan University

This paper investigates the intricate relationship between spousal equity in housework division and fertility intentions. While fertility rates have been declining in many regions worldwide, including Canada, understanding the nuanced factors influencing individuals’ decisions to expand their families is of paramount importance. At the heart of this inquiry lies the central question: Does equitable distribution of housework influence fertility intentions? Based on data from the 2017 Canadian General Social Survey, this paper analyzes fertility intentions and the division of housework among Canadian married women and men aged 45 and under, who currently have fewer than three children. The results demonstrate that an equitable division of housework, measured in terms of the number of shared tasks, is positively associated with the intention to have more children in the future. This pattern is evident among both women and men. The findings suggest that gender equality within the household significantly influences the fertility intentions of married couples. In the development of fertility policies, it is crucial to consider and align them with gender equality policies.

The Value of Community Dads' Groups.  Ian Blackwell, Marjon University UK

Community initiatives for fathers and children (dads' groups) offer a range of innovative, accessible opportunities to support the development of caring, skilled paternal identities yet they remain under-valued. This session presents a qualitative study of four dads' groups in southern England (UK). Based on 42 semi-structured interviews (with fathers, mothers, children & professionals) and a focus group of 9 fathers, I argue that community dads' groups can bolster progressive aspects of the fathering identity; help develop strong bonds between fathers and children; improve intra-parental relationships; alert fathers to the joys and challenges of intensive care-work; and improve fathers' self-confidence in the parenting role. Additionally, dads' groups offer a unique, 'safe' homosocial space for fathers from diverse backgrounds to meet and socialise, and to 'observe and absorb' different fathering values and practices. The importance of the support network around the father is also highlighted. Under the theme of 'Solutions & Promising Practice,' I argue that effective interventions for fathers lie in the community (as well as in curriculum-focused Responsible Fatherhood programs), with fathers convened in local groups where they do not feel judged, and where the content is focused on informal and playful activities, promoting positive parenting, peer support, and father/child relationships.

Men and Caregiving: The Effect of Spousal Caregiving Time Use on Men’s and Women’s Employment in Dual-Earner Households.  Jae-yeon Lee, Yonsei University

South Korean men have notably low involvement in caregiving, ranking lowest among OECD countries. This study examines how husbands' caregiving time affects women's economic outcomes and vice versa, shedding light on a critical yet understudied. It also explores the interplay between gender and differing educational levels among couples. Data are drawn from the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families, a nationally representative dataset spanning the years 2012 to 2020, including 3,594 dual-earner couples. To explore the long-term effects of spousal caregiving, the study employs panel logistic regression models with lagged dependent variables. The results show a distinct gendered effect. Increased caregiving time and ratio by husbands positively shape women's labor market retention. In contrast, wives' caregiving time does not significantly affect their husbands' job retention. Notably, for women, both spousal and self-caregiving time play a pivotal role, while husbands exhibit no statistical significance for either. This can be attributed to the gendered normative pressures that position men as the "ideal worker" exempt from caregiving. Each additional hour of husbands' caregiving per week raises women's employment retention by 3.97%, while an extra hour of women's caregiving reduces their employment retention likelihood by 2.17%. This gendered effect intensifies in couples with lower educational levels, particularly on weekdays. This study underscores the need to navigate a shift in reshaping caregiving dynamics, positioning men as integral contributors in the caregiving sphere, providing implications for work-life balance policies, structural alternatives, and offering an understanding of why women leave the workforce.

Paper Session

Perceptions and Measures of Work-Life Balance


Methods, Measures, and Money: Re-Examining Parental Leave Policy Effects on Earnings.  Brigid Cotter, University of Southern California

Parental leave schemes, along with other family policies, are intended to aid new parents in navigating care responsibilities and the increasingly difficult balance between work and family. However, the extent to which these policies help women and new parents is highly contentious. Work-family policy scholars have engaged in years-long, theoretically and empirically rich discourse that seeks to answer paradoxes in relationships between publicly funded family-friendly policies and indicators of women’s labor market outcomes, such as earnings. Scholars tend to disagree on the magnitude and extent to which parental leave policies affect labor market outcomes and career trajectories for parents. Often, this contention is oriented on what "good leave" is for parents, though scholars measure indicators in a variety of ways, creating an unstable benchmark for appropriate comparison across policy frameworks. This paper seeks to address these inconsistencies by examining and optimizing measurement techniques to standardize policy analysis among maternal, parental, and paternal leave schemes in 32 countries. This paper makes use of individual-level data from the LIS (Luxembourg Income Study) cross-national database and an original collection of leave policy indicators to assess measurement techniques' relationships to earnings differentials between mothers and non-mothers, furthering methodological approaches to assessing the connection between policy and labor market advancement.

Essential Features of Work-Life Balance: The Views of Australian Midwives.  Sara Bayes, Edith Cowan University; Dianne Bloxsome, Edith Cowan University; Sadie Geraghty, University of Notre Dame Australia; and Kate Dawson, Australian Catholic University

Work-life balance, also known as work-life integration, fit, quality, effectiveness or work-family balance, has become an important contemporary issue, and awareness of the phenomenon has increased over the last decade. This has led to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation (OECD) reporting on the work-life balance of its member countries’ citizens every two to three years since 2011, to individuals wanting and expecting that their job will respect their spare time, and to employers implementing work–life balance policies as a potential retention strategy. Although it has been identified that work-life balance is a notable factor in why midwives stay in their role, what specifically is important to midwives for work-life balance has yet to be reported. The question we asked was 'What is work-life balance according to midwives, and what impacts it?'. Our aims were to explore what work-life balance means to midwives, and to determine this phenomenon's crucial features, and to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect it. A qualitative approach was employed for this study. Australian midwives in clinical practice formed the sample. Participants were asked to share their views about what work-life balance in midwifery meant to them